Kazakh or Kazak (Cyrillic: қазақша or қазақ тілі; Arabic: قازاقشا or قازاق تئلئ; pronounced [qɑzɑqˈɕɑ], [qɑˈzɑq tɪˈlɪ]), belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages. It is closely related to Nogai, Kyrgyz and Karakalpak. Kazakh is the official language of the Republic of Kazakhstan and a significant minority language in the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in Xinjiang, China and in the Bayan-Ölgii Province of Mongolia. Kazakh is also spoken by many ethnic Kazakhs through the former Soviet Union (approximately 472,000 in Russia according to the 2010 Russian Census), Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey and Germany.
In October 2017, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev decreed that the government would transition from using Cyrillic to the Latin alphabet by 2025. President Nazarbayev signed on February 19, 2018 an amendment to the decree of October 26, 2017 No. 569 "On translating the Kazakh alphabet from Cyrillic alphabet to the Latin script." The amended alphabet uses Sh and Ch for the Kazakh sounds "Ш" and "Ч" and eliminates the use of apostrophes.
|қазақша or қазақ тілі|
قازاقشا or قازاق تئلئ
qazaqsha or qazaq tili
|Native to||Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, Russia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkey, Germany|
|Region||Turkestan, Dzungaria, Anatolia, Khorasan, Fergana Valley|
|11.7 million (2009)|
|Kazakh alphabets (Latin, Cyrillic script, Arabic script, Kazakh Braille)|
Official language in
|Regulated by||Kazakh language agency|
The Kazakh language (often called Qazaqsha) has its speakers (mainly Kazakhs) spread over a vast territory from the Tian Shan to the western shore of the Caspian Sea. Kazakh is the official state language of Kazakhstan, with nearly 10 million speakers (based on information from the CIA World Factbook on population and proportion of Kazakh speakers).
The oldest known written records of languages closely related to Kazakh were written in the Old Turkic alphabet, though it is not believed that any of these varieties were direct predecessors of Kazakh. Modern Kazakh, going back approximately one thousand years, was written in the Arabic script until 1929, when Soviet authorities introduced a Latin-based alphabet, and then a Cyrillic in 1940. In presenting a strategic plan in April 2017, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev described the twentieth century as a period in which the "Kazakh language and culture have been devastated".
Nazarbayev ordered Kazakh authorities to create a Latin Kazakh alphabet by the end of 2017, so written Kazakh could return to a Latin script starting in 2018. As of 2018, Kazakh is written in Cyrillic in Kazakhstan and Mongolia, Kazakh is written in Latin in Kazakhstan, while more than one million Kazakh speakers in China use an Arabic-derived alphabet similar to the one that is used to write Uyghur.
On October 26, 2017, Nazarbayev issued Presidential Decree 569 for the change to a finalized Latin variant of the Kazakh alphabet and ordered that the government's transition to this alphabet be completed by 2025, a decision taken to emphasise Kazakh culture after the era of Soviet rule and to facilitate the use of digital devices. But the initial decision to use a novel orthography employing apostrophes, which make the use of many popular tools for searching and writing text difficult, has generated controversy.
Nazarbayev first brought up the topic of using the Latin alphabet instead of the Cyrillic alphabet as the official script for Kazakh in Kazakhstan in October 2006. A Kazakh government study released in September 2007 said that a switch to a Latin script over a 10- to 12-year period was feasible, at a cost of $300 million. The transition was halted temporarily on December 13, 2007, with President Nazarbayev declaring: "For 70 years the Kazakhstanis read and wrote in Cyrillic. More than 100 nationalities live in our state. Thus we need stability and peace. We should be in no hurry in the issue of alphabet transformation." However, on January 30, 2015, the Minister of Culture and Sports Arystanbek Mukhamediuly announced that a transition plan was underway, with specialists working on the orthography in order to accommodate the phonological aspects of the language.
However, many citizens state that the officially introduced alphabet needs lots of improvements and changes. Moreover, Kazakh becomes the only Turkic language which will be using Sh, Ch, after the intentions of the Uzbek government to abandon the Sh, Ch digraphs due to its impracticality.
|Cyrillic script||Arabic script||"Resmı nusqa 3.0" Latin script||Kazinform Latin script||Kazak Grammar Latin script||English translation|
|Барлық адамдар тумысынан азат және қадір-қасиеті мен құқықтары тең болып дүниеге келеді. Адамдарға ақыл-парасат, ар-ождан берілген, сондықтан олар бір-бірімен туыстық, бауырмалдық қарым-қатынас жасаулары тиіс.||بارلىق ادامدار تۋمىسىنان ازات جانە قادىر-قاسيەتى مەن كۇقىقتارى تەڭ بولىپ دۇنيەگە كەلەدى. ادامدارعا اقىل-پاراسات، ار-وجدان بەرىلگەن، سوندىقتان ولار ٴبىر-بىرىمەن تۋىستىق، باۋىرمالدىق قارىم-قاتىناس جاساۋلارى ٴتيىس.||Barlyq adamdar týmysynan azat jáne qadir-qasıeti men quqyqtary teń bolyp dúnıege keledi. Adamdarǵa aqyl-parasat, ar-ojdan berilgen, sondyqtan olar bir-birimen týystyq, baýyrmaldyq qarym-qatynas jasaýlary tıis.||Barlıq adamdar twmısınan azat jäne qadir-qasïyeti men quqıqtarı teñ bolıp dünïyege keledi. Adamdarğa aqıl-parasat, ar-ojdan berilgen, sondıqtan olar bir-birimen twıstıq, bawırmaldıq qarım-qatınas jasawları tïis.||Barlık adamdar tuwmısınan azat jäne kadir-kasiyeti men kukıktarı teń bolıp düniyege keledi. Adamdarga akıl-parasat, ar-ojdan berilgen, sondıktan olar bir-birimen tuwıstık, bawırmaldık karım-katınas jasawları tiyis.||All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.|
Kazakh exhibits tongue-root vowel harmony, with some words of recent foreign origin (usually of Russian or Arabic origin) as exceptions. There is also a system of rounding harmony which resembles that of Kyrgyz, but which does not apply as strongly and is not reflected in the orthography.
The following chart depicts the consonant inventory of standard Kazakh; many of the sounds, however, are allophones of other sounds or appear only in recent loan-words. The 18 consonant phonemes listed by Vajda are without parentheses—since these are phonemes, their listed place and manner of articulation are very general, and will vary from what is shown. The phonemes /f/, /v/, /t͡ɕ/ and /x/ only occur in recent borrowings, mostly from Russian.
In the table, the elements left of a divide are voiceless, while those to the right are voiced.
|Nasal||m ⟨м/m⟩||n ⟨н/n⟩||ŋ ⟨ң/ń⟩|
|Stop||p ⟨п/p⟩||b ⟨б/b⟩||t ⟨т/t⟩||d ⟨д/d⟩||tɕ ⟨ч/ch⟩||k ⟨к/k⟩||ɡ ⟨г/g⟩||q ⟨қ/q⟩|
|Fricative||f ⟨ф/f⟩||v ⟨в/v⟩||s ⟨с/s⟩||z ⟨з/z⟩||ɕ ⟨ш/sh⟩||ʑ ⟨җ/j⟩||χ ⟨х/h⟩||ʁ ⟨ғ/ǵ⟩|
|Approximant||l ⟨л/l⟩||j ⟨й/ı⟩||w ⟨у/ý⟩|
Kazakh has a system of 12 phonemic vowels, 3 of which are diphthongs. The rounding contrast and /æ/ generally only occur as phonemes in the first syllable of a word, but do occur later allophonically; see the section on harmony below for more information. Moreover, the /æ/ sound has been included artificially due to the influence of Arabic, Persian and, later, Tatar languages during the Islamic period.
According to Vajda, the front/back quality of vowels is actually one of neutral versus retracted tongue root.
Phonetic values are paired with the corresponding character in Kazakh's Cyrillic and current Latin alphabets.
|Close||ɪ ⟨і/i⟩||ʉ ⟨ү/ú⟩||ʊ ⟨ұ/u⟩|
|Diphthong||jɪ ⟨е/e⟩||əj ⟨и/í⟩||ʊw ⟨у/ý⟩|
|Mid||e ⟨э/e⟩||ə ⟨ы/y⟩||o ⟨о/o⟩|
|Open||æ ⟨ә/á⟩||œ ⟨ө/ó⟩||ɑ ⟨а/a⟩|
|Close||ɪ ⟨і/i⟩||ʉ ⟨ү/ü⟩||ə ⟨ы/ı⟩||ʊ ⟨ұ/u⟩|
|Open||e ⟨э/e⟩ / æ ⟨ә/ä⟩||œ̝ ⟨ө/ö⟩||ɑ ⟨а/a⟩||o ⟨о/o⟩|
Kazakh is generally verb-final, though various permutations on SOV (subject–object–verb) word order can be used, for example, due to topicalization. Inflectional and derivational morphology, both verbal and nominal, in Kazakh, exists almost exclusively in the form of agglutinative suffixes. Kazakh is a nominative-accusative, head-final, left-branching, dependent-marking language.
|Case||Morpheme||Possible forms||кеме "ship"||ауа "air"||шелек "bucket"||сәбіз "carrot"||бас "head"||тұз "salt"|
|Acc||-nı||-ні, -ны, -ді, -ды, -ті, -ты, -н||кемені||ауаны||шелекті||сәбізді||басты||тұзды|
|Gen||-nıń||-нің, -ның, -дің, -дың, -тің, -тың||кеменің||ауаның||шелектің||сәбіздің||бастың||тұздың|
|Dat||-ga||-ге, -ға, -ке, -қа, -не, -на||кемеге||ауаға||шелекке||сәбізге||басқа||тұзға|
|Loc||-da||-де, -да, -те, -та||кемеде||ауада||шелекте||сәбізде||баста||тұзда|
|Abl||-dan||-ден, -дан, -тен, -тан, -нен, -нан||кемеден||ауадан||шелектен||сәбізден||бастан||тұздан|
|Inst||-men||-мен(ен) -бен(ен) -пен(ен)||кемемен||ауамен||шелекпен||сәбізбен||баспен||тұзбен|
Kazakh has eight personal pronouns:
|Kazakh (transliteration)||English||Kazakh (transliteration)||English|
|Мен (Men)||I||Біз (Biz)||We|
|Сен (Sen)||You (informal)||Сіз (Siz)||You (plural and singular formal)|
|Ол (Ol)||He/She/It||Олар (Olar)||They|
The declension of the pronouns is outlined in the following chart. Singular pronouns (with the exception of сіз, which used to be plural) exhibit irregularities, while plural pronouns don't. Irregular forms are highlighted in bold.
In addition to the pronouns, there are several more sets of morphemes dealing with person.
|2nd sng formal & pl||сіз||-sız||-(ı)ńız||-(ı)nız|
Kazakh may express different combinations of tense, aspect and mood through the use of various verbal morphology or through a system of auxiliary verbs, many of which might better be considered light verbs. The present tense is a prime example of this; progressive tense in Kazakh is formed with one of four possible auxiliaries. These auxiliaries "отыр" (sit), "тұр" (stand), "жүр" (go) and "жат" (lie), encode various shades of meaning of how the action is carried out and also interact with the lexical semantics of the root verb: telic and non-telic actions, semelfactives, durative and non-durative, punctual, etc. There are selectional restrictions on auxiliaries: motion verbs, such as бару (go) and келу (come) may not combine with "отыр". Any verb, however, can combine with "жат" (lie) to get a progressive tense meaning.
|Men jeymin||non-progressive||"I (will) eat [every day]."|
|Men jeudemin||progressive||"I am eating [right now]."|
|Men jep otırmın||progressive/durative||"I am [sitting and] eating." / "I have been eating."|
|Men jep turmın||progressive/punctual||"I am [in the middle of] eating [this very minute]."|
|Men jep jürmin||habitual||"I eat [lunch, everyday]"|
While it is possible to think that different categories of aspect govern the choice of auxiliary, it is not so straightforward in Kazakh. Auxiliaries are internally sensitive to the lexical semantics of predicates, for example, verbs describing motion:
|Kazakh||Gloss||Auxiliary Used||English translation|
|Суда балық жүзеді
Suw-da balıq jüz-e-di
|water-LOC fish swim-PRES-3||∅
(present/future tense used)
|"Fish swim in water"
|Суда балық жүзуде
Suw-da balık jüz-ude
|water-LOC fish swim-CNVB AUX.3||жат－ to lie, general marker for
|"The/A fish is swimming in the water"|
|Суда балық жүзіп жүр
Suw-da balık jüz-ip jür
|water-LOC fish swim-CNVB AUX.3||жүр – "go", dynamic/habitual/iterative||"The fish is swimming [as it always does] in the water"|
|Суда балық жүзіп тұр
Suw-da balık jüz-ip tur
|water-LOC fish swim-CNVB AUX.3||тұр – "stand", progressive marker to show
the swimming is punctual
|"The fish is swimming in the water"|
|* Суда балық жүзіп отыр
Suw-da balık jüz-ip otır
|water-LOC fish swim-CNVB AUX.3||отыр – "sit", ungrammatical in
this sentence, отыр can only be used
for verbs that are stative in nature
|*The fish has been swimming
Not a possible sentence of Kazakh
In addition to the complexities of the progressive tense, there are many auxiliary-converb pairs that encode a range of aspectual, modal, volitional, evidential and action- modificational meanings. For example, the pattern -ып көру, with the auxiliary verb көру (see), indicates that the subject of the verb attempted or tried to do something (compare the Japanese てみる temiru construction).
From "Meniń Qazaqstanym" ("My Kazakhstan"), the national anthem of Kazakhstan:
|Менің Қазақстаным||Men-iń Qazaqstan-ym||My Kazakhstan|
|Алтын күн аспаны||Altyn kún aspan-y||The golden sun in the sky|
|[ɑltən kʉn ɑspɑˈnə]||gold sun sky-3.POSS|
|Алтын дән даласы||Altyn dán dala-sy||The golden corn of the steppe|
|[altən dæn dɑlɑˈsə]||gold corn steppe-3.POSS|
|Ерліктің дастаны||Erlik-tiń dastan-y||The legend of courage|
|[erlɘkˈtɘŋ dɑstɑˈnə]||courage legend-GEN epic-3.POSS-NOM|
|Еліме қарашы!||El-im-e qara-shy||Just look at my country!|
|[ɘlɘˈmʲe qɑrɑˈʃə]||country-1SG.ACC look-IMP|
|Ежелден ер деген||Ejel-den er de-gen||Called heroes since time immemorial|
|[ɘʑʲɘlˈdʲen ɘr dʲɪˈɡʲen]||antiquity-ABL hero say-PTCP.PST|
|Даңқымыз шықты ғой||Dańq-ymyz shyq-ty ǵoı||Our glory, emerged!|
|[dɑɴqəˈməz ʃəqˈtə ʁoj]||glory-1PL.POSS.NOM emerge-PST.3 EMPH|
|Намысын бермеген||Namys-yn ber-me-gen||Without losing their honor|
|[nɑməˈsən bʲermʲeˈɡʲen]||honor-3.POSS-ACC give-NEG-PTCP.PST|
|Қазағым мықты ғой||Qazaǵ-ym myqty ǵoı||Mighty are my Kazakh people!|
|[qɑzɑˈʁəm məqˈtə ʁoj]||Kazakh-1SG.POSS strong EMPH|
|Менің елім, менің елім||Men-iń el-im, meniń el-im||My country, my country|
|[mʲɘˈnɘŋ ɘˈlɪm, mʲɘˈnɘŋ ɘˈlɪm]||1SG.GEN my country (2x)-1SG.NOM|
|Гүлің болып, егілемін||Gúl-iń bol-yp, eg-il-e-min||As your flower, I am rooted in you|
|[ɡʉˈlɘŋ boˈləp, ɘɡɘlʲɘˈmɪn]||flower-2SG.NOM be-CNVB, root-PASS-PRES-1SG|
|Жырың болып төгілемін, елім||Jyr-yń bol-yp, tóg-il-e-min, el-im||As your song, I will be sung abound|
|[ʒəˈrəŋ boˈləp tœɡɪlˈʲɘmɪn, ɘˈlɪm]||song-2SG.NOM be-CNVB, sing-PASS-PRES-1SG, country-1SG.POSS.NOM|
|Туған жерім менің – Қазақстаным||Tý-ǵan jer-im meniń – Qazaqstan-ym||My native land – My Kazakhstan|
|[tuwˈʁan ʒeˈrɪm mʲɘnɘŋ qɑzɑqˈstɑnəm]||birth-PTCP-PST place-1SG.POSS.NOM 1SG.GEN – Kazakhstan-1SG.POSS.NOM|
The Central Stadium (Kazakh: "Алматы орталық стадионы", Almaty ortalyq stadıony or "Орталық стадион", Ortalyq stadıony; Ortalik Stadion) is a multi-purpose stadium in Almaty, Kazakhstan. It is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium is shared by FC Kairat Almaty. It also serves as the home stadium for the Kazakhstan national football team.Birlik, Kazakhstan
Birlik (Kazakh: Бiрлiк, Birlik) is a village (selo) in Talgar District of Almaty Region of south-eastern Kazakhstan.FC Aktobe
Football Club Aktobe (Kazakh: Aqtóbe Fýtbol Klýby), commonly referred to as FC Aktobe or simply Aktobe, is a professional football club based in Aktobe. They play in the Kazakhstan Premier League, the highest level of Kazakh football. Formed as Aktyubinets in 1967, they became Aktobemunai in 1996, Aktobe in 1997, Aktobe-Lento in 2000 and finally Aktobe again in 2005. Their home ground is the 13,500 seat Central Stadium.
Aktobe have won five league titles, one Kazakhstan Cup and three Kazakhstan Super Cup. The club has also won two Soviet Second League titles in 1981 and 1991.FC Atyrau
Football Club Atyrau (Kazakh: "Атырау" футбол клубы, "Atyraý" fýtbol klýby) are a professional football club based in Atyrau, who play in the Kazakhstan Premier League, the highest level of Kazakh football. The club's home ground is the 8,690-seat Munaishy Stadium, where they have played since their inception.FC Kairat
Football Club Kairat (Kazakh: Qaırat Fýtbol Klýby) is a professional football club based in Almaty, which plays in the Kazakhstan Premier League, the highest level of Kazakh football. Founded in 1954 as Lokomotiv Alma-Ata, they became Urozhay in 1955 and Kairat in 1956. The club's home ground is the Central Stadium which has a capacity of 23,804. The club's home kit colours are yellow and black striped shirts, black shorts and black socks.
Kairat was the leading Kazakh club during the Soviet period and the only representative of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic in the Soviet Top League. For this, Kairat nicknamed The Nation's Team, widely supporting all over the country. All in all, the club spent 24 seasons in the Soviet highest level. They also won Soviet First League titles twice in 1976 and 1983. During this period, Kairat was a part of the Voluntary Sports Societies of the Soviet Union.
In modern history, Kairat won two league titles, eight Kazakhstan Cups and two Kazakhstan Super Cups. The club's strongest rivalry is FC Astana, among fans their matches are considered as the Two Capitals Derby.Football Federation of Kazakhstan
The Football Federation of Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстанның Футбол Федерациясы, romanized: Qazaqstannyń Fýtbol Federatsııasy; Russian: Федерация Футбола Казахстана, tr. Federatsiya Futbola Kazakhstana) is the governing body of football in Kazakhstan. It organizes the football league, the Kazakhstan Premier League, and the Kazakhstan national football team. It is based in Almaty.Kaskelen
Kaskelen (Kazakh: Қаскелең, Qaskeleń) is a town and seat of Karasay District in Almaty Region of south-eastern Kazakhstan. Population: 58,418 (2009 Census results); 37,221 (1999 Census results).Kazakh Braille
The braille alphabet used for the Kazakh language is based on Russian Braille, with several additional letters found in the print Kazakh alphabet.Kazakh Wikipedia
The Kazakh Wikipedia (Kazakh: Qazaqsha Ýıkıpedııa; Қазақша Уикипедия) is the Kazakh language edition of the free online encyclopedia Wikipedia, founded on 2 June 2002.Kazakh alphabets
Three alphabets are used to write the Kazakh language: the Cyrillic, Latin and Arabic script. The Cyrillic script is used in Kazakhstan and Mongolia. An October 2017 Presidential Decree in Kazakhstan ordered that the transition from Cyrillic to a Latin script be completed by 2025. The Arabic script is used in parts of China, Iran and Afghanistan.Kazakhstan Super Cup
The Kazakhstan Super Cup (Kazakh: Қазақстан Суперкубогы, Qazaqstan Sýperkýbogy) is a one-match football annual competition. The two participating clubs are the Kazakhstan Premier League champion and the Kazakhstan Cup winner. If these two competitions are won by the same team, then the other participant will be the runner-up of Kazakhstan Premier League.
The inaugural edition of the trophy was in 2008.Kazakhtelecom
Kazakhtelecom JSC (Kazakh: Қазақтелеком, Qazaqtelekom; Russian: Казахтелеком) is the largest telecommunication company in Kazakhstan.List of Kazakhstani films
A list of films produced in Kazakhstan many of which are produced in the Kazakh language.Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Kazakhstan)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Kazakh: Сыртқы істер министрлігі, Syrtqy ister mınıstrligi; Russian: Министерство иностранных дел) is the Kazakh government ministry which oversees the foreign relations of Kazakhstan.Oskemen
Oskemen (Kazakh: Өскемен, romanized: Óskemen) or Ust-Kamenogorsk (Russian: Усть-Каменого́рск) is the administrative center of East Kazakhstan Region of Kazakhstan. It is served by Oskemen Airport. Population: 303,720 (2009 Census results); 310,950 (1999 Census results).President of Kazakhstan
The President of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Kazakh: Қазақстан Республикасының Президенті, Qazaqstan Respýblıkasynyń Prezıdenti; Russian: Президент Республики Казахстан) is the head of state, commander-in-chief and holder of the highest office within the Republic of Kazakhstan. The powers of this position are described in a special section of the Constitution of Kazakhstan.
The position was established on 24 April 1990, a year before the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The current President is Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, who assumed office on 20 March 2019 following the resignation of the first President, Nursultan Nazarbayev.None of the presidential elections held in Kazakhstan have been considered free or fair by Western countries or international observers with issues noted including ballot tampering, multiple voting, harassment of opposition candidates and press censorship.Qoqmončaq language
Qoqmončaq is a mixed language based on Kazakh, Mongolian, and Solon, spoken by about 200 people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.Tarawih
Tarawih (Arabic: تراويح) refers to additional prayers performed by Muslims at night after the Isha prayer during the holy month of Ramadhan.