Kaza

A kaza (Arabic: قضاء‎, qaḍāʾ, pronounced [qɑˈd̪ˤɑːʔ], plural: أقضية, aqḍiyah, pronounced [ˈɑqd̪ˤijɑ]; Ottoman Turkish: kazâ[1]) is an administrative division historically used in the Ottoman Empire and currently used in several of its successor states. The term is from Ottoman Turkish and means "jurisdiction"; it is often translated "district",[2] "sub-district"[3] (though this also applies to a nahiye), or "juridical district".[4]

Ottoman Empire

In the Ottoman Empire, a kaza was originally a "geographical area subject to the legal and administrative jurisdiction of a kadı.[1] With the first Tanzimat reforms of 1839, the administrative duties of the kadı were transferred to a governor (kaymakam), with the kadıs acting as judges of Islamic law.[5] In the Tanzimat era, the kaza became an administrative district with the 1864 Provincial Reform Law, which was implemented over the following decade.[4] A kaza unified the jurisdiction of a governor (kaymakam) appointed by the Ministry of the Interior,[6] a treasurer (chief finance officer), and a judge (kadı) in a single administrative unit.[4] It was part of efforts of the Porte to establish uniform, rational administration across the empire.[4]

The kaza was a subdivision of a sanjak[1] and corresponded roughly to a city with its surrounding villages. Kazas, in turn, were divided into nahiyes (governed by müdürs and mütesellims) and villages (karye, governed by muhtars).[6] The 1871 revisions to the administrative law established the nahiye (still governing a müdür), as an intermediate level between the kaza and the village.[6]

Turkey

The early Republic of Turkey continued to use the term kaza until it renamed them ilçe in the 1920s.

Arab countries

The kaza was also formerly a second-level administrative division in Syria, but it is now called a mintaqah.

The kaza or qadaa is used to refer to the following:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Selçuk Akşin Somel. "Kazâ". The A to Z of the Ottoman Empire. Volume 152 of A to Z Guides. Rowman & Littlefield, 2010. p. 151. ISBN 9780810875791
  2. ^ Suraiya Faroqhi. Approaching Ottoman History: An Introduction to the Sources. Cambridge University Press, 1999. p. 88. ISBN 9780521666480
  3. ^ Donald Quataert. The Ottoman Empire, 1700-1922. 2nd Ed. Volume 34 of New Approaches to European History. Cambridge University Press, 2005. p. 108. ISBN 9781139445917
  4. ^ a b c d Eugene L. Rogan. Frontiers of the State in the Late Ottoman Empire: Transjordan, 1850-1921. Volume 12 of Cambridge Middle East Studies. Cambridge University Press, 2002. p. 12. ISBN 9780521892230
  5. ^ Selçuk Akşin Somel. "Kadı". The A to Z of the Ottoman Empire. Volume 152 of A to Z Guides. Rowman & Littlefield, 2010. p. 144-145. ISBN 9780810875791
  6. ^ a b c Gökhan Çetinsaya. The Ottoman Administration of Iraq, 1890-1908. SOAS/Routledge Studies on the Middle East. Routledge, 2006. p. 8-9. ISBN 9780203481325
Ardino

Ardino (Bulgarian: Ардино, formerly Turkish: Eğridere) is a town in southern Bulgaria, in the Rhodope Mountains. It is located in Kardzhali Province and it is also close to Smolyan.

It is famous for its textile industry. It has a machine-building factory and a tobacco manufacturing industry. Tourist attractions include the Belite Brezi, the Eagle rocks and the Dyavolski most (V evil's bridge). Under Ottoman rule, Hardin, then known in Turkish as Derriere, was a kaza centre in the Sanjak of Gümülcine in the Adrianople Vilayet before the Balkan Wars. Hardin received its name in 1934 and was declared as a town in 1960. Hardin is the birthplace of Sabahattin Ali, Turkish novelist, poet and journalist.

Erdek

Erdek (formerly Artàke, Greek: Αρτάκη) is a town and district of Balıkesir Province in the Marmara region of Turkey. The population was 34000 in 2010. Located on the north coast of Gulf of Erdek at the south of the Sea of Marmara, Erdek is known as a holiday destination that is popular among domestic tourists. The area has a rugged geology and topography and evergreen wooded areas. There are also large olive groves. The mayor is Hüseyin Sarı (CHP).

Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Lahaul and Spiti

Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya, Lahaul and Spiti or locally known as JNV Lari is a boarding, co-educational school in Lahaul and Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh state in India. Navodaya Vidyalayas are funded by the Indian Ministry of Human Resources Development and administered by Navodaya Vidyalaya Smiti, an autonomous body under the ministry.

KAZA-TV

KAZA-TV is a MeTV owned-and-operated television station serving Los Angeles, California, United States that is licensed to Avalon. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on UHF channel 22 (or virtual channel 54 via PSIP) from a transmitter located atop Mount Harvard. Owned by Weigel Broadcasting, KAZA has studios on Grand Central Avenue in Glendale.

The station was previously an Azteca América owned-and-operated station from 2001 until 2018.

KAZA (AM)

KAZA (1290 AM), branded Viên Thao Radio, is a radio station licensed to Gilroy, California, United States. The station serves the San Jose area. The station is owned by Tron Dinh Do, through licensee Intelli, LLC.KAZA lost its directional antenna transmitter site in Gilroy in late 2014. It is operating under U.S. Federal Communications Commission special temporary authority with 1,250 watts day and 20 watts night nondirectional using KZSJ's tower.

Kadi (Ottoman Empire)

A kadi was an official in the Ottoman Empire (Arabic: قاضي‎ qāḍī). The term kadi refers to judges who preside over matters in accordance with Islamic law, but in the Ottoman Empire, the kadi also became a crucial part of the central authority's administrative hierarchy. After Mehmed II codified his kanun, kadis relied on this dynastic secular law, local customs, and the sharia- Islamic divine law- to guide their rulings. Along with adjudicating over criminal and civil matters, the kadi oversaw the administration of religious endowments and was the legal guardian of orphans and others without a guardian. Although Muslims, in particular Muslim men, possessed a higher status in the kadi’s court, non-Muslims and foreigners also had access to the judicial system. Within the Ottoman's provincial administrative system, known as the timar system, the kadi served as an important check on the power of the military class. Despite the unquestioned authority of the sultan, kadis possessed a certain degree of autonomy in their rulings.A kadi's territory was called a kadiluk; there could be several kadiluks in a province (sanjak). Each sub-province or kaza, governed by a kaymakam, had a kadı (though not every kadı was assigned to one kaza, and the boundaries would shift over time).

Kadiluk

A kadiluk, in some cases equivalent to a kaza, was a local administrative subdivision of the Ottoman empire, which was the territory of a kadı, or judge.There could be several kadiluks in a sanjak. The kadı's duties extended beyond those of a modern judge; in addition to law enforcement, kadiluks were involved in matters such as taxation and conscription.Although every kaza had a kadı, not every kadı was in charge of a kaza; a kadı's position moved, over time, with demographic and political changes. In the Tanzimat reforms of 1864, kadiluks were decoupled from kazas.

Kavango–Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area

Kavango–Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area (KAZA) is situated in a region of Southern Africa where the international borders of five countries converge. It includes a major part of the Upper Zambezi River and Okavango basins and Delta, the Caprivi Strip of Namibia, the southeastern part of Angola, southwestern Zambia, the northern wildlands of Botswana and western Zimbabwe. The centre of this area is at the confluence of the Zambezi Chobe Rivers where the borders of Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe meet. It incorporates Chobe National Park, Hwange National Park, and the Victoria Falls.

Kaza, Himachal Pradesh

The town of Kaza or Kaze is the subdivisional headquarters of the remote Spiti Valley in the western Himalayas in the Lahaul and Spiti district of the northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. Spiti is a high altitude or cold desert having close similarities to the neighbouring Tibet and Ladakh regions in terms of terrain, climate and the Buddhist culture. Kaza, situated along the Spiti River at an elevation of 3,650 metres (11,980 ft) above mean sea level, is the largest township and commercial center of the Spiti valley.

Kumanovo district (Ottoman)

The Kumanovo district (Turkish: Kumanova, Serbian: Кумановска каза/Kumanovska kaza) was a kaza (district) in the Sanjak of Üsküp (Skopje) of the Ottoman Empire. It was formed in 1867, during the reign of Abdülaziz I. It was dissolved in 1912. The district had 3 divisions: Karadak, Kozjak and Ovče Pole.

Latvia in the Eurovision Song Contest 2005

Latvia and Latvijas Televīzija (LTV) held a national final to choose who would represent them in the Eurovision Song Contest 2005. On February 26, 2005, the Latvian public, along with an expert jury, chose Valters & Kaža with "The War Is Not Over" as the 2005 entry. It placed tenth in the semi-final and fifth at the Eurovision Final giving Latvia its third-best position ever in the contest.

Nahiye (Ottoman)

The nahiye or nahia or nahiyah was an administrative territorial entity of the Ottoman Empire, smaller than a kaza. The head was a mütesellim (governor) who was appointed by the Pasha.

The kaza was a subdivision of a sanjak and corresponded roughly to a city with its surrounding villages. Kazas, in turn, were divided into nahiyes (governed by müdürs) and villages (karye, governed by muhtars). Revisions of 1871 to the administrative law established the nahiye (still governed a müdür) as an intermediate level between the kaza and the village.

National Highway 505 (India)

National Highway 505, commonly called NH 505 is a national highway in India. It is a spur road of National Highway 5. NH-505 traverses the state of Himachal Pradesh in India. NH505 a high altitude road, covers Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spiti districts of Himachal Pradesh, mainly running along Spity river in Spity valley. The highway from Kaza to Gramphu remains closed for nine months in a year due to heavy snowfall and closure of Kunzum La pass at an altitude of 4,550 m (14,930 ft).

Ptolemaida

Ptolemaida (Greek: Πτολεμαΐδα, romanized: Ptolemaïda, Katharevousa: Πτολεμαΐς, Ptolemaïs), is a town and a former municipality in Kozani regional unit, West Macedonia, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Eordaia, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. It is known for its coal (lignite) mines and its power stations.

Raya (country subdivision)

Raya or Raia is a term used in Romanian historiography to refer to former territories of the mediaeval principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia held under the direct administration of the Ottoman Empire, as opposed to the principalities, which kept their internal autonomy under Ottoman suzerainty. The term originated from rayah, a generic name for the non-Muslim subjects of the Ottoman Empire. Though mainly populated by Christian populations, a raya was ruled according to Ottoman law.A raia consisted of an important fortress and its hinterland, which generally formed a kaza in the Ottoman administrative system. In Wallachia, the raia were located on the northern bank of the Danube, around the fortresses of Turnu Măgurele, Giurgiu and Brăila, while in Moldavia they were situated on the eastern border, around the fortresses of Kiliya, Akkerman, Bender and Khotin. The territories in Wallachia were transferred back to the latter in 1829 by the Treaty of Adrianople.

Spiti Valley

Spiti Valley is a cold desert mountain valley located high in the Himalayas in the north-eastern part of the northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. The name "Spiti" means "The Middle Land", i.e. the land between Tibet and India.Local population follow Vajrayana Buddhism similar to that found in the nearby Tibet and Ladakh regions. The valley and surrounding region is one of the least populated regions in India and is the gateway to the northernmost reaches of the nation. Along the northern route from Manali, Himachal Pradesh or Keylong via the Rohtang Pass or Kunzum Pass respectively, the valley lies in the North Eastern section of the Indian state Himachal Pradesh, and forms part of the Lahaul and Spiti district. The sub-divisional headquarters (capital) is Kaza, Himachal Pradesh which is situated along the Spiti River at an elevation of about 12,500 feet (3,800 m) above mean sea level.

Lahaul and Spiti district is surrounded by high mountain ranges. The Rohtang Pass, at 13,054 feet (3,979 m), separates Lahul and Spiti from the Kullu Valley. Lahul and Spiti are cut off from each other by the higher Kunzum Pass, at 15,059 feet (4,590 m). A road connects the two divisions, but is cut off frequently in winter and spring due to heavy snow. The valley is likewise cut off from the north up to eight months of the year by heavy snowfalls and thick icing conditions. A southern route to India proper is periodically closed for brief periods in the winter storms of November through June, but road access is usually restored a few days after storms end via Shimla and the Sutlej in the Kinnaur district.

Valters and Kaža

Valters and Kaža, sometimes spelt Walters and Kazha were a Latvian duo consisting of Valters Frīdenbergs and Kārlis Būmeisters. They were best known for representing Latvia in the Eurovision Song Contest 2005 with the song "The War Is Not Over", written by Mārtiņš Freimanis, finishing in fifth place with 153 points.

Visa policy of Angola

Visitors to Angola must obtain either a visa in advance from one of the Angolan diplomatic missions or a pre-visa online, unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries.

A tourist visa must be used within 60 days from the issue date and is valid for 30 days, a period that can be extended once for an additional period of 30 days. Passports must have a validity of 9 months and at least 2 blank pages. Transit without visa is allowed for passengers continuing their trip to a third country by the same or first departing plane if they do not leave the airport.In the future, Angola is expected to participate in the KAZA UniVisa programme, which if delivered as planned will allow holders of the KAZA visa to travel freely between Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Visa policy of Namibia

The Government of Namibia allows citizens of specific countries and territories to travel to Namibia for tourism or business purposes for three months with an ordinary passport, and diplomatic and service passports without having to obtain a visa. All visitors must hold a passport valid for 6 months.

Namibia will soon start issuing African passport holders with visas on arrival at ports of entry as a first step towards the eventual abolition of all visa requirements for all Africans.Namibia is expected to become part of the universal KAZA visa.

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