Kaunos (Carian: Kbid;[1] Lycian: Khbide;[1] Ancient Greek: Καῦνος; Latin: Caunus) was a city of ancient Caria and in Anatolia, a few km west of the modern town of Dalyan, Muğla Province, Turkey.

The Calbys river (now known as the Dalyan river) was the border between Caria and Lycia. Initially Kaunos was a separate state; then it became a part of Caria and later still of Lycia.

Kaunos was an important sea port, the history of which is supposed to date back till the 10th century BC. Because of the formation of İztuzu Beach and the silting of the former Bay of Dalyan (from approx. 200 BC onwards), Kaunos is now located about 8 km from the coast.[2] The city had two ports, the southern port at the southeast of Küçük Kale and the inner port at its northwest (the present Sülüklü Göl, Lake of the Leeches). The southern port was used from the foundation of the city till roughly the end of the Hellenistic era, after which it became inaccessible due to its drying out. The inner or trade port could be closed by chains. The latter was used till the late days of Kaunos,[3] but due to the silting of the delta and the ports, Kaunos had by then long lost its important function as a trade port. After Caria had been captured by Turkish tribes and the serious malaria epidemic of the 15th century AD, Kaunos was completely abandoned.

In 1966 Prof. Baki Öğün started the excavations of ancient Kaunos. These have been continued up to the present day, and are now supervised by Prof. Cengiz Işık.

The archeological research is not limited to Kaunos itself, but is also carried out in locations nearby e.g. near the Sultaniye Spa where there used to be a sanctuary devoted to the goddess Leto.[4]

Καῦνος ‹See Tfd›(in Greek)
Basilica of Kaunos AvL
The basilica of Kaunos in front of the acropolis
Kaunos is located in Turkey
Shown within Turkey
LocationDalyan, Muğla Province, Turkey
Coordinates36°49′35″N 28°37′17″E / 36.82639°N 28.62139°ECoordinates: 36°49′35″N 28°37′17″E / 36.82639°N 28.62139°E
Founded10th century BC
Abandoned15th century AD
Associated withProtogenes, Zeno
Site notes
Public accessYes
WebsiteKaunos Archaeological Site
Harbor of Kaunos AvL
View of Heraklion fortress, the old port and the Dalyan River estuary.
Stoa of Kaunos AvL
Stoa north of the harbor agora


According to mythology Kaunos was founded by King Kaunos, son of the Carian King Miletus and Kyane, and grandson of Apollo. Kaunos had a twin sister by the name of Byblis who developed a deep, unsisterly love for him. When she wrote her brother a love letter, telling him about her feelings, he decided to flee with some of his followers to settle elsewhere. His twin sister became mad with sorrow, started looking for him and tried to commit suicide. Mythology says that the Calbys river emerged from her tears.[5][6][7]


The oldest find at the Kaunos archeological site is the neck of a Protogeometric amphora dating back to the 9th century BC, or even earlier. A statue found at the western gate of the city walls, pieces of imported Attic ceramics and the S-SE oriented city walls show habitation in the 6th century BC. However, none of the architectural finds at Kaunos itself dates back to earlier than the 4th century BC.

First Persian rule

CARIA, Kaunos. Circa 470-450 BC
Coinage of Kaunos at the time of tyrant Pisindelis. Circa 470-450 BC.

Kaunos is first referred to by Herodotus in his book Histories. He narrates that the Persian general Harpagus marches against the Lycians, Carians and Kaunians during the Persian invasion of 546 BCE.[8] Herodotus writes that the Kaunians fiercely countered Harpagus' attacks but were ultimately defeated.[9] Despite the fact that the Kaunians themselves said they originated from Crete, Herodotus doubted this.[10] He thought it was far more likely that the Kaunians were the original inhabitants of the area because of the similarity between his own Carian language and that of the Kaunians. He added that there were, however, great differences between the lifestyles of the Kaunians and those of their neighbours, the Carians and Lycians. One of the most conspicuous differences being their social drinking behaviour. It was common practice that the villagers -men, women and children alike- had get-togethers over a good glass of wine.[10]

Herodotus mentions that Kaunos participated in the Ionian Revolt (499–494 BCE).[11]

Some important inscriptions in Carian language were found here, dating to c. 400 BC, including a bilingual inscription in Greek and Carian found in 1996. They helped to decipher the Carian alphabets.[12]

Greek influences

After Xerxes I was beaten in the Second Persian War and the Persians were gradually withdrawn from the western Anatolian coast, Kaunos joined the Delian League. Initially they only had to pay 1 talent of tax, an amount that was raised by factor 10 in 425 BC. This indicates that by then the city had developed into a thriving port, possibly due to increased agriculture and the demand for Kaunian export articles, such as salt, salted fish, slaves, pine resin and black mastic – the raw materials for tar used in boat building and repair [13]– and dried figs. During the 5th and 4th centuries BC the city started to use the name Kaunos as an alternative for its ancient name Kbid, because of the increased Hellenistic influence. The myth about the foundation of the city probably dates back to this period.

Second Persian rule

After the Peace of Antalcidas in 387 BC, Kaunos again came under Persian rule. During the period that Kaunos was annexed and added to the province of Caria by the Persian rulers, the city was drastically changed. This was particularly the case during the reign of the satrap Mausolos (377–353 BC). The city was enlarged, was modeled with terraces and walled over a huge area. The city gradually got a Greek character, with an agora and temples dedicated to Greek deities. Alexander the Great's 334 BC brought the city under the rule of the Macedonian empire.

Hellenistic period and Roman rule

Roman baths of Kaunos AvL
Roman baths
Theater of Kaunos AvL

After Alexander's death, Kaunos, due to its strategic location, was disputed among the Diadochi, changing hands between the Antigonids, Ptolemies, and Seleucids.

Because of differences between the Hellenistic kingdoms, the Roman Republic was able to expand its influence in the area and annex a considerable number of Hellenistic kingdoms. In 189 BC the Roman senate put Kaunos under the jurisdiction of Rhodes. At that time it was known as the Rhodian Peraia.

In 167 BC this led to a revolt by Kaunos and a number of other cities in western Anatolia against Rhodes. As a result, Rome discharged Rhodes from its task. In 129 BC the Romans established the Province of Asia, which covered a large part of western Anatolia. Kaunos was near the edge of this province and was assigned to Lycia.

In 88 BC Mithridates invaded the province, trying to curb further expansion by the Romans. The Kaunians teamed up with him and killed all the Roman inhabitants of their city. After the peace of 85 BC they were punished for this action by the Romans, who again put Kaunos under Rhodian administration. During Roman rule Kaunos became a prospering sea port. The amphitheater of the city was enlarged and Roman baths and a palaestra were built. The agora fountain was renovated and new temples arose.

Byzantine era

Mozaïek bij de Koepelbasiliek
Mosaics next to the domed Byzantine basilica

Kaunos was christianized at an early date and when the Roman Empire officially adopted the Christian faith, its name changed into Caunos-Hegia.

Decline of Kaunos

From 625 AD onwards Kaunos was faced with attacks by Muslim Arabs and pirates. The 13th century brought invasions by Turkish tribes. Consequently, the old castle on the acropolis was fortified with walls, giving it a typical medieval appearance. In the 14th century the Turkish tribes had conquered part of Caria, which resulted in a dramatic decrease in sea trade.

The resulting economical slump caused many Kaunians to move elsewhere. In the 15th century the Turks captured the entire area north of Caria and Kaunos was hit by a malaria epidemic. This caused the city to be abandoned. The ancient city was badly devastated in an earthquake and gradually got covered with sand and a dense vegetation. The city was forgotten until the English archeologist Hoskyn found a law tablet, referring to the Council of Kaunos and the inhabitants of this city. Hoskyn visited the ruins in 1842 and brought the ancient city under the attention again.[2]

Ecclesiastical history

Kaunos was christianized at an early date and when the Roman Empire officially adopted the Christian faith, its name changed into Caunos-Hegia.

Residential Bishops are known beginning from the 4th century. Four bishops are mentioned by Lequien :[14]

The Synecdemus of Hierocles and most Notitiae Episcopatuum, as late as the 12th or 13th century, place it in Lycia, as a suffragan of Myra.[15]

Titular see

The see is included, under the Latinized form of its name, Caunus, among the Latin titular bishoprics recognized by the Catholic Church.[15][16] since it was nominally restored (no later than 1911), as a suffragan of the Lycian Metropolitan of the capital's Archdiocese of Myra.[17]

It vacant since 1972,[18] having had the following incumbents, both of the fitting Episcopal (lowest) rank :[17]

Main archeological sites

Een dalyan bij Kaunos
The fishing weir at the foot of the Heraklion of Kaunos

Kaunos is a site that is interesting for both its archeological and ecological importance. Situated in the Köyceğiz-Dalyan Special Environmental Protection Area, it offers outstanding vistas and is rich in wildlife. The ruins of the city are near Dalyan, on the west bank of the ancient Kalbis river. The main sights at the archeological site itself are:[2]

  • The Acropolis (Persikon), situated on a 152 m high rock, fortified with Byzantine walls. The city's acropolis was called Imbros and it lay at the foot of Mount Tarbelos (present-day "Mount Ölemez").
Adjacent to the acropolis is a smaller fortification, called Heraklion. Until the 5th century BC this 50 m high cape reached into sea and there were two ports south and north of it. From the Acropolis there is a stunning view of the ancient city, Dalyan, the Dalyan river, the estuary and İztuzu Beach. From the small fortification, you look down on a traditional dalyan (fishing weir) situated quite near the former southern port.
  • The theater on the slope of the acropolis featuring both Hellenistic and Roman characteristics
The theater has a diameter of 75 m and was built at a 27-degree angle. It had a capacity for 5000 spectators and is in a fairly good state. It is still occasionally used for performances.
Archaeological research has shown that the palaestra was built over part of the old city that most probably had been a place of worship.
The Roman baths served as a social meeting place and were meant to impress the Kaunians — by their sheer dimensions — of the power of the Roman Empire. In the Byzantine era the baths were dismantled and the frigidarium was re-used as a church. The wind-measuring platform dates back to 150 BC and was used for city planning. According to the archeologists Öğün and Işık, it must have consisted of a circular building with a base diameter of 15.80 m and a top diameter of 13.70 m. The building has collapsed, however, probably as a result of an earthquake. The measuring method is therefore not quite clear. In his De architectura the Roman architect Vitruvius stated that wind-measuring platforms were used to plan streets in accordance with the prevailing wind direction, in order to keep the air in cities clean. The domed Byzantine basilica on the palaestra terrace dates back to the 5th century AD. It was made with building materials taken from previous buildings on a foundation belonging to a 4th-century building that was probably also used as a place of worship. The archeologist team think that its inner walls were plastered and decorated with frescoes. The domed basilica is the only remaining Byzantine edifice in Kaunos that still stands. Next to the basilica mosaics have been uncovered.
The port agora is located at the flat area in front of Sülüklü Lake. It dates back to the 4th century BC and kept its function as an economic, political and social meeting place until the end of the Roman era. The remains of pedestals indicate that there must have been many (bronze) statues of influential Romans, but these have not been found. Most likely these were melted down in the Byzantine era, for the archeologists found a smelting furnace of that period near to the pedestal of a bronze equestrial statue of the Roman governor of Asia, Lucius Licinius Murena. The covered stoa at the north side of the agora offered sun and rain protection. The stoa was created in the early Hellenistic era (3rd century BC), but part dates to the early Roman era. The Nympheon is also Hellenistic, but the fountain basin was extended during the Roman era. Inscriptions from the period of Emperor Hadrian reveal that the toll for merchants and boat owners was relaxed to compensate for the gradually silting port.
  • The temples
Six temples have been excavated, two of Hellenistic and four of Roman origin. Probably the terrace temple of the 3rd century BC facing a circle of columns has the greatest appeal. Inside the circle an obelisk has been found, which is also depicted on old Kaunian coins. The obelisk was the symbol of king Kaunos, who according to mythology established the ancient city bearing his name.
Kaunian rock tombs in Hellenistic style

Outside the official Kaunos archeological site, there are:

  • Six rock tombs on the Dalyan river (4th – 2nd century BC), which are Dalyan's prime sight
The façades of the rock tombs resemble the fronts of Hellenistic temples with two Ionian pillars, a triangular pediment, an architrave with toothed friezes, and acroterions shaped like palm leaves.
  • The Kaunos city walls
The spectacular Kaunos city walls were erected during the reign of Mausolos in the 4th century BC. They are extraproportional in relation to the size of Kaunos and its population, presumably because the satrap had high expectations of the city's future as a marine and commercial port. The city walls start west of the inner port and run along the hills N and NW of the city, to the top of the steep cliff opposite Dalyan centre. There is a walking track along the wall, starting at the Çandır water station. The regularly-shaped rectangular blocks and the way the blocks have been positioned give a fine impression of Hellenistic building techniques. Parts of the wall are well-kept, other parts have been taken down and rebuilt.
  • The niche tombs at the port of Çandır
Kaunos is surrounded by ancient necropoli, because the ancient Greeks and Romans always buried their deceased at considerable distance from their homes. The niche tombs were the most common ones. The ashes of the deceased were put in urns and then placed in a niche. At the port of Çandır, some km beyond the archeological site of Kaunos, there are tens of niche tombs hewn from the rock of Kızıltepe.

Notable people


  1. ^ a b Adiego, I.J. (2007). "Greek and Carian". In Christidis, A.F.; Arapopoulou, Maria; Chriti, Maria (eds.). A History of Ancient Greek From the Beginning to Late Antiquity. Chris Markham (trans.). Cambridge University press. p. 762. ISBN 0-521-83307-8.. Translator Chris Markham.
  2. ^ a b c Köyceğiz-Dalyan, a journey through history within the labyrinth of nature; Altan Türe; 2011; Faya Kültür Yayınları-1; ISBN 978-978-978-605-3
  3. ^ Dalyan 2005 Gezi Kitabı/Travel book; Fatih Akaslan; ISBN 975-270-471-9
  4. ^ History surfaces from Köyceğiz Lake, Land of Lights, October 28th, 2010
  5. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses, 446 – 665
  6. ^ Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses, 30
  7. ^ Parthenius, Love Romances, 11
  8. ^ Herodotus I.171
  9. ^ Herodotus I.176
  10. ^ a b Herodotus I.172
  11. ^ Herodotus V.103
  12. ^ Ignacio-Javier Adiego Lajara, The Carian Language. Volume 86 of Handbook of Oriental Studies. BRILL, 2006 ISBN 9004152814 p3
  13. ^ Ancient Caria: In the garden of the sun, CANAN KÜÇÜKEREN, Hürriyet Daily News, 28 March 2011
  14. ^ Le Quien,(I, 981)
  15. ^ a b Sophrone Pétridès, "Caunus" in Catholic Encyclopedia (New York 1908
  16. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 911
  17. ^ a b http://www.gcatholic.org/dioceses/former/t0447.htm
  18. ^ Caunus (Titular See)


  • Bean, George E. (2002). Turkey beyond the Maeander. London: Frederick A. Praeger. ISBN 0-87471-038-3.

External links

Baltic Women's Basketball League

The Baltic Women's Basketball League (BWBL) is a top-level regional basketball league, featuring women's teams from Belarus, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia and Ukraine. Teams from Finland, Kazakhstan, Latvia and Sweden have competed in the past seasons.

Carian alphabets

The Carian alphabets are a number of regional scripts used to write the Carian language of western Anatolia. They consisted of some 30 alphabetic letters, with several geographic variants in Caria and a homogeneous variant attested from the Nile delta, where Carian mercenaries fought for the Egyptian pharaohs. They were written left-to-right in Caria (apart from the Carian–Lydian city of Tralleis) and right-to-left in Egypt. Carian was deciphered primarily through Egyptian–Carian bilingual tomb inscriptions, starting with John Ray in 1981; previously only a few sound values and the alphabetic nature of the script had been demonstrated. The readings of Ray and subsequent scholars were largely confirmed with a Carian–Greek bilingual inscription discovered in Kaunos in 1996, which for the first time verified personal names, but the identification of many letters remains provisional and debated, and a few are wholly unknown.

Caunos (mythology)

In Greek mythology, Caunus or Kaunos (Ancient Greek: Καῦνος) was a son of Miletus, grandson of Apollo and brother of Byblis.

Chrysaorian League

The Chrysaorian League (Ancient Greek: σύστημα Χρυσαορικόν, systema Chrysaorikon) was an informal loose federation of several cities in ancient region of Caria, Anatolia that was apparently formed in the early Seleucid period and lasted at least until 203 BC. The League had its primary focus on unified defense, and secondarily on trade, and may have been linked by ethnic bonds (the Chrysaorians). It had an assembly and financial institutions, and a form of reciprocal citizenship whereby a citizen of a member city was entitled to certain rights and privileges in any other member city. The capital of the League was Chrysaorium where the assembly met. [1]

Other member cities included: Alabanda (renamed Antiochia of the Chrysaorians), Alinda, Amyzon, Ceramus, Mylasa, Kaunos, Stratonicea, Thera.

For periods of time, some of the member cities were subject to Rhodes as part of the Rhodian Peraea.


Dalyan is a town in Muğla Province located between the well-known districts of Marmaris and Fethiye on the south-west coast of Turkey. The town is an independent municipality, within the administrative district of Ortaca.

Dalyan achieved international fame in 1987 when developers wanted to build a luxury hotel on the nearby İztuzu Beach, a breeding ground for the endangered loggerhead sea turtle species. The incident created major international storm when David Bellamy championed the cause of conservationists such as June Haimoff, Peter Günther, Nergis Yazgan, Lily Venizelos and Keith Corbett. The development project was temporarily stopped after Prince Philip called for a moratorium and in 1988 the beach and its hinterland were declared a protected area, viz. Köyceğiz-Dalyan Special Environmental Protection Area.

Life in Dalyan revolves around the Dalyan Çayı River which flows past the town. The boats that ply up and down the river, navigating the maze of reeds, are the preferred means of transport to all the local sites.

Incest between twins

Incest between twins or twincest is a subclass of sibling incest and includes both heterosexual and homosexual relationships.

June Haimoff

June Haimoff (MBE) is an English environmentalist who lives in Dalyan in the Turkish province of Muğla. In the period from 1984–1988 she and fellow-environmentalists such as David Bellamy, Lily Venizelos, Günther Peter, Nergis Yazgan and Keith Corbett launched a successful campaign to preserve İztuzu Beach as a habitat for the endangered loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta). This beach is one of the main nesting places of the species in Turkey and the Mediterranean.


Karbasyanda or Carbasianda (Ancient Greek: Καρβασυανδα) was a town of ancient Caria. It was a member of the Delian League since it appears in tribute records of Athens between the years 454/3 and 421/0 BCE, paying a phoros or 1000 drachmae. The territory of Karbasyanda bordered that of Kaunos.Its site is suggested to be located on a hill located 1 mile (1.6 km) southwest of the ruins of Kaunos, Asiatic Turkey.


Kekova, also named Caravola (Greek: Dolichiste), is a small Turkish island near Demre (Demre is the Lycian town of Myra) district of Antalya province which faces the villages of Kaleköy (ancient Simena) and Üçağız (ancient Teimioussa). Kekova has an area of 4.5 km2 (2 sq mi) and is uninhabited.

Knipowitschia byblisia

Knipowitschia byblisia, the Byblis goby, is a species of ray-finned fish from the family Gobiidae which is endemic to a single lake in western Anatolia. This species is endemic to Lake Köycegiz, a brackish lake in eastern Anatolia near the Aegean Sea. The lake is a protected and the species is abundant within the lake so the IUCN have classified K. byblis as Least Concern. The specific name references the mythological figure Byblis, who was the twin sister of Caunos, the legendary founder of the ancient city Kaunos, the ruins of which are situated on the southwest Anatolian coast; near to Lake Köycegiz.

Knipowitschia caunosi

Knipowitschia caunosi, the Caunos goby or Köycegiz dwarf goby, is a species of ray-finned fish from the family Gobiidae which is endemic to a single lake in western Anatolia. This species is endemic to Lake Köycegiz, a brackish lake in eastern Anatolia near the Aegean Sea. The lake is a protected and the species is abundant within the lake so the IUCN have classified K. caunosi as Least Concern. The specific name references the mythological figure Caunos, who was the twin sister of Byblis, in legend his sister fell in love with him and he fled to avoid committing incest, founding the ancient city Kaunos in Caria, the ruins of which are situated on the southwest Anatolian coast; near to Lake Köycegiz.

Lake Köyceğiz

Having an area of 5200 hectares, Lake Köyceğiz in the province of Muğla is one of the vastest coastal lakes of Turkey. It bears the name of the town of Köyceğiz, situated on its north bank. It is connected to the Mediterranean through a narrow and reedy channel called "Dalyan" which flows by a township of the same name (Dalyan) and the ancient city of Kaunos. Dalyan channel joins the sea at İztuzu Beach.

The surroundings of the lake as a whole and particularly the banks of its Dalyan sea connection are important nature reserves and popular tourist attractions.

They are part of the Köyceğiz-Dalyan Special Environmental Protection Area

List of World Heritage Sites in Turkey (tentative list)

Below is the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Turkey. (For the criteria see the Selection criteria)

List of ancient settlements in Turkey

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Mamure Castle

Mamure Castle (Turkish: Mamure kalesi) is a medieval castle in the Anamur District of Mersin Province, Turkey.


Passanda (Ancient Greek: Πάσσανδα) or Pasanda (Πάσανδα) was a town of ancient Caria. It was a member of the Delian League since it appears in tribute records of Athens between the years 450/49 and 421/0 BCE, paying a phoros of 3000 drachmae. At least during part of the Hellenistic period it belonged to the territory of Kaunos. Passanda is also mentioned by Stephanus of Byzantium and by the Stadiasmus. The latter places it at a distance of thirty stadia from Kaunos.Its site is located near Gökbel, Asiatic Turkey.

Philocles, King of Sidon

Philocles (Greek: Φιλοκλής, romanized: Philokles) was King of the Sidonians and a senior commander under the Ptolemaic dynasty in the late 4th and early 3rd century BC, and one of the architects of Ptolemaic imperialism in the coasts of Asia Minor and the Aegean Sea.

His life is known only through inscriptions and a single literary passage. Philocles' origin and early life are therefore unknown. The name of his father, Apollodorus, survives, but it is likely that despite the Greek names used in the Greek sources, both were Phoenicians, and most likely descendants or relatives of the royal line of Sidon.The date and circumstances of his acquiring of the royal title are unknown; after his capture of Sidon in 332 BC Alexander the Great installed one Abdalonymos as king, but nothing further is known of him. Philocles is first securely attested as "King of the Sidonians" in an Athenian inscription of 286/5 BC. Philocles however first appears much earlier, in a list of benefactors who donated money to rebuild the city of Thebes, which had been razed by Alexander. He is recorded twice in the list, as having donated the huge sum of 100 talents and as having donated an unspecified sum in Alexandrian talents. As the name is partially erased, it is unclear what title, if any, Philocles bore at the time. Since the list dates to the last decades of the 4th century—the reconstruction of Thebes was decreed by Cassander in 316 BC—and Sidon was under the control of Antigonus I Monophthalmus at the time, it has been suggested that Philocles was in Antigonid service originally, but his later career as a high-ranking and evidently trusted Ptolemaic official seems to argue against this. As Sidon itself did not come under the control of Ptolemy I Soter until 287 BC, therefore, Philocles either laid claim on the royal title as a claimant in exile, or he was originally simply a private citizen and a trusted agent of Ptolemy, and was only later elevated to the kingship. His donation of such a large amount of money to Thebes would then have to be considered as part of his role as a Ptolemaic agent, trying to curry favour with the Greek city-states.In his collection of stratagems, the 2nd-century author Polyaenus records that "Philocles, general of Ptolemy" took the city of Kaunos by treachery. It is likely that this Philocles is identical to the "King of the Sidonians", but the date is unclear: Kaunos was first captured by Ptolemy in 309 BC—thus confirming that Philocles was in Ptolemaic, rather than Antigonid, service at the time—but it then reverted to Antigonid rule until sometime after c. 286 BC, which coincides with the Athenian inscription mentioning him. A decree from Aspendos honouring mercenaries who, under Philocles and the Ptolemaic general Leonidas, saved the city from an unspecified attack, has variously been dated between 306 BC and 287 BC. Given that Leonidas is otherwise attested mostly for the period 310–306 BC, an earlier date in that range seems the more likely, indicating again that Philocles was never in Antigonid service.In the late 280s, Philocles is attested in a series of inscriptions from various Greek islands, which show him intervening in various disputes and issues of governance in the city-states under Ptolemaic control. His title is unspecified, but he was clearly senior to the nesiarchos of the Nesiotic League, and probably the overall commander of the Ptolemaic forces in the Aegean, perhaps with the title of nauarchos. The last inscriptions concerning him date to c. 280/279 BC, indicating that this was the end of his career in the region. According to Hans Hauben, this activity means that Philocles "should probably be considered the main architect, or at least one of the main architects, of early Ptolemaic expansion in the Mediterranean".

Rhodian Peraia

The Rhodian Peraea or Peraia (Ancient Greek: ἡ τῶν Ῥοδίων περαία, lit. 'peraia of the Rhodians') was the name for the southern coast of the region of Caria in western Asia Minor during the 5th–1st centuries BC, when the area was controlled and colonized by the nearby island of Rhodes.

Already in Classical times, before their synoecism and creation of the single Rhodian state in 408 BC, the three city-states of Rhodes, Lindos, Ialyssos, and Kameiros, separately possessed territory on the mainland of Asia Minor. This comprised the Cnidian Peninsula (but not Cnidus itself), as well as the nearby Trachea peninsula and its neighbouring region to the east. Like Rhodes, these territories were divided into demes, and their citizens were Rhodian citizens.During the Hellenistic period the extent of the Peraia grew with the addition of various vassal regions. It reached its greatest extent after the Treaty of Apamea in 188 BC, when the entirety of Caria and Lycia south of the Maeander River came under Rhodian rule, but this was short-lived; when Rhodes submitted to Rome in 167 BC, this region was lost again. During this time, the Peraia comprised the fully incorporated portion, lying between Cnidus and Kaunos, which as before was divided into demes and formed part of the Rhodian state, and the remainder of Caria and Lycia, which were tributary to Rhodes. Rhodes retained a portion of its old domains in Asia until 39 BC, when they were ceded to Stratonicea.

Zeno of Kaunos

Zeno (or Zenon, Greek: Ζήνων; 3rd century BC), son of Agreophon, was a native of the Greek town of Kaunos in lower Asia Minor. He moved to the village of Philadelphia on the edge of the Faiyum in Egypt and became a private secretary to Apollonius, the finance minister to Ptolemy II Philadelphus and Ptolemy III Euergetes.A cache of over 2,000 Greek and Demotic letters and documents written on papyri by Zeno were discovered in the 1900s and are referred to as the Zenon Archive or Zenon Papyri.A substantial part of the Zenon Papyri are now online and grammatically tagged at the Perseus Project hosted at Tufts University.Drimylus and Dionysius, two Greek employees under Zeno, were known for their involvement in selling women as sex-slaves in the areas that Zeno was visiting.

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