Katharevousa (Greek: Καθαρεύουσα, pronounced [kaθaˈrevusa], literally "purifying [language]") is a conservative form of the Modern Greek language conceived in the late 18th century as a compromise between Ancient Greek and the Demotic Greek of the time. Originally, it was widely used both for literary and official purposes, though seldom in daily language. In the 20th century, it was increasingly adopted for official and formal purposes, until minister of education Georgios Rallis made Demotic Greek the official language of Greece in 1976, and in 1982 Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou abolished the polytonic system of writing both for Demotic and Katharevousa.

Katharevousa was conceived by the intellectual and revolutionary leader Adamantios Korais (1748–1833).[1] A graduate of the University of Montpellier, Korais spent most of his life as an expatriate in Paris. Being a classical scholar, he was repelled by the Byzantine and later influence on Greek society and was a fierce critic of the clergy and their alleged subservience to the Ottoman Empire.[2] He held that education was a prerequisite to Greek liberation.

Part of Katharevousa's purpose was to mediate the struggle between the "archaists" favouring full reversion to archaic forms and the "modernists".


Although Katharevousa has been just recently introduced, the concept of a conservative literary version of Greek had been present since the times of Koine Greek, with there being a tendency towards a state of diglossia between the Attic literary language and the constantly developing spoken Koine, which eventually evolved into Demotic Greek. Medieval Greek texts and documents of the Byzantine Empire were almost always written in conservative literary Greek. Examples of texts written in vernacular Greek prior to the 13th century are very rare.[3] It can be argued that the establishment of Katharevousa was an official declaration and standardization of the conservative form of Greek, which had already existed in one way or another.

The first known use of the term Katharevousa is in a work by the Greek polymath Nikephoros Theotokis, in 1796.[4]

Katharevousa was widely used in public documents and whatever was conceived as work of formal activity by Greek scholars. The name Katharevousa implies a pure form of Greek as it might hypothetically have evolved from ancient Greek without external influences, while in its modern connotation the word has come to mean "formal language".

In later years, Katharevousa was used for official and formal purposes (such as politics, letters, official documents, and newscasting), while Demotic Greek (δημοτική, dimotiki) or popular Greek, was the daily language. This created a diglossic situation whereby most of the Greek population was excluded from the public sphere and advancement in education unless they conformed to Katharevousa. In 1976, Demotic was made the official language, and in 1982 Andreas Papandreou abolished the polytonic system of writing; by the end of the 20th century full Katharevousa in its earlier form had become obsolete. Much of the vocabulary of Katharevousa and its grammatical and syntactical rules have influenced the Demotic language, so that the project's emphasis has made an observable contribution to the language as it is used today. Modern Greek might be argued to be a combination of the original Demotic and the traditional Katharevousa as stressed in the 19th century, also with institutional input from Koine Greek. Amongst Katharevousa's later contributions is the promotion of classically based compounds to describe items and concepts that did not exist in earlier times, such as "newspaper", "police", "automobile", "aeroplane", "television" and many others, rather than borrowing new words directly from other languages.


Katharevousa (Greek: Καθαρεύουσα) is the feminine present participle of the verb "katharévo" (Greek: καθαρεύω, pronounced [kaθarévo] , literally "cleanse, purify, clean"). It is related to the Greek-derived English word "Catharsis".

Present-day use

The Church of Greece and other churches of the Greek Orthodox tradition still use Katharevousa in official communications.[5]

Text sample

This is a text sample of Katharevousa from the Great Greek Encyclopedia, published in 1930. The text has to do with Adamantios Korais's relations with the Greek Church. It is rendered in Demotic and translated into English.

  • Katharevousa: Ἡ δ' ἀπὸ τῆς Ἑλλάδος ἀποδημία του ἐγένετο πρόξενος πολλῶν ἀδίκων κρίσεων περὶ προσώπων καὶ πραγμάτων καὶ πρῶτα πρῶτα τῆς περὶ ἧς ἀνωτέρω ἔγινε λόγος πρὸς τὸν κλῆρον συμπεριφορᾶς του. Ἂν ἔζη ἐν Ἑλλάδι καὶ ἤρχετο εἰς ἐπικοινωνίαν πρὸς τὸν κλῆρον καὶ ἐγνώριζεν ἐκ τοῦ πλησίον ὄχι μόνον τὰς κακίας, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὰς ἀρετὰς αὐτοῦ, ὄχι μόνον πολὺ θὰ συνετέλει εἰς διόρθωσίν τινων ἐκ τῶν κακῶν ἐν τῇ Ἐκκλησίᾳ ἐχόντων, ἀλλὰ καὶ δὲν θὰ ἤκουεν ὅσα ἤκουσεν ἐκ τῶν ὑπερβολικῶν κατὰ τοῦ κλήρου ἐκφράσεών του.[6]
Hē d' apò tē̂s Helládos apodēmía tou egéneto próxenos pollō̂n adíkōn kríseōn perì prosṓpōn kaì pragmátōn kaì prō̂ta prō̂ta tē̂s perì hē̂s anōtérō égine lógos pròs tòn klē̂ron symperiphorâs tou. Àn ézē en Helládi kaì ḗrcheto eis epikoinōnían pròs tòn klē̂ron kaì egnṓrizen ek toû plēsíon óchi mónon tàs kakías, allà kaì tàs aretàs autoû, óchi mónon polỳ thà synetélei eis diórthōsín tinōn ek tō̂n kakō̂n en tē̂i Ekklēsíāi echóntōn, allà kaì dèn thà ḗkouen hósa ḗkousen ek tō̂n hyperbolikō̂n katà toû klḗrou ekphráseṓn tou.
  • Standard Modern Greek: Η αποδημία του από την Ελλάδα έγινε πρόξενος πολλών άδικων κρίσεων για πρόσωπα και πράγματα και πρώτα πρώτα, για την οποία έγινε λόγος παραπάνω, της συμπεριφοράς του προς τον κλήρο. Αν ζούσε στην Ελλάδα και ερχόταν σε επικοινωνία με τον κλήρο και γνώριζε από κοντά όχι μόνο τις κακίες, αλλά και τις αρετές αυτού, όχι μόνο θα συντελούσε πολύ στη διόρθωση μερικών από τα κακά που υπάρχουν στην Εκκλησία, αλλά και δεν θα άκουγε όσα άκουσε εξαιτίας των υπερβολικών εκφράσεών του εναντίον του κλήρου.
Ē apodēmía tou apó tēn Elláda égine próxenos pollṓn ádikōn kríseōn gia prósōpa kai prágmata kai prṓta prṓta, gia tēn opoía égine lógos parapánō, tēs symperiphorás tou pros ton klḗro. An zoúse stēn Elláda kai erchótan se epikoinōnía me ton klḗro kai gnṓrize apó kontá óchi móno tis kakíes, allá kai tis aretés autoú, óchi móno tha synteloúse polý stē diórthōsē merikṓn apó ta kaká pou ypárchoun stēn Ekklēsía, allá kai den tha ákouge ósa ákouse exaitías tōn yperbolikṓn ekphráseṓn tou enantíon tou klḗrou.
  • English: His expatriation from Greece was a cause for many unjust judgements about situations and people and mainly for his behaviour towards the clergy, which was discussed above. If he had lived in Greece and been in contact with the clergy and known closely not only its turpitude but also its virtues, not only would he have contributed greatly to correcting some of the problems within the Church, but also would not have listened to all that he listened to due to his exaggerated sentiments against the clergy.

See also

Similar movements


  1. ^ Stavro Skendi (April 1975). "Language as a Factor of National Identity in the Balkans of the Nineteenth Century". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 119 (2): 186–189. JSTOR 986634.
  2. ^ Adamantios Korais, Αδελφική Διδασκαλία, pages 3sq.
  3. ^ Toufexis, Notis (18 July 2013). "Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies". Diglossia and register variation in Medieval Greek. 32: 203–217.
  4. ^ The Phenomenon of Diglossia: Language and National Identity, interview with Peter Mackridge
  5. ^ Argyropoulou, Christina (2015): Γλώσσα και εξουσία μέσα από ποικίλα κείμενα στην καθαρεύουσα και τη δημοτική μορφή της ελληνικής γλώσσας. Έρκυνα: Επιθεώρηση Εκπαιδευτικών 7: 52–69.
  6. ^ Great Greek Encyclopedia, Vol. XIV, 1930, p. 864.

Argolis or Argolida (Greek: Αργολίδα Argolída, [arɣoˈliða]; Ἀργολίς Argolís in ancient Greek and Katharevousa) is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Peloponnese, situated in the eastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula and part of the tripoint area of Argolis, Arcadia and Corinthia. Much of the territory of this region is situated in the Argolid Peninsula.

Demotic Greek

Demotic Greek (Greek: δημοτική γλώσσα, dimotikí glóssa [ðimotiˈci], "language of the people") or dimotiki (Greek: δημοτική, dimotikí), is the modern vernacular form of the Greek language. The term has been in use since 1818. Demotic refers particularly to the form of the language that evolved naturally from Ancient Greek, in opposition to the artificially archaic Katharevousa, which was the official standard until 1976. The two complemented each other in a typical example of diglossia until the resolution of the Greek language question in favour of Demotic.


In linguistics, diglossia () is a situation in which two dialects or languages are used by a single language community. In addition to the community's everyday or vernacular language variety (labeled "L" or "low" variety), a second, highly codified lect (labeled "H" or "high") is used in certain situations such as literature, formal education, or other specific settings, but not used normally for ordinary conversation. In most cases, the H variety has no native speakers.

The high variety may be an older stage of the same language (as in medieval Europe, where Latin remained in formal use even as colloquial speech diverged), an unrelated language, or a distinct yet closely related present day dialect (e.g. Standard German alongside Low German; or Chinese, with Mandarin as the official, literary standard and local varieties of Chinese used in everyday communication). Other examples include literary Katharevousa versus spoken Demotic Greek; literary Tamil versus spoken Tamil, and Indonesian, with its Baku and Gaul forms; and literary versus spoken Welsh.

The Garifuna language is unusual in that it has gender-based diglossia, with men and women having different words for the same concepts.


Eleftheroupoli (Greek: Ελευθερούπολη, katharevousa: Ελευθερούπολις - Eleftheroupolis, until 1929 Πράβι - Pravi, Bulgarian: Правище; Turkish: Pravişte) is a town and a former municipality in the Kavala regional unit, East Macedonia and Thrace, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Pangaio, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 126.974 km2. At the 2011 census, the municipal unit's population was 9,492, the town's population was 4,360.

Foinikas, Cyprus

Phinikas (Greek: Φοίνικας, also spelled Φοίνηξ in Katharevousa and Phoenix in English, meaning Palm tree, Turkish: Finike) is an abandoned village in the Paphos District of Cyprus, located 3 km northeast of Anarita.


Galatsi (Greek: Γαλάτσι, Galátsi [ɣaˈlatsi]), called in Katharevousa Galatsion (Greek: Γαλάτσιον, Galátsion), is a northern suburb of Athens, Greece, and a municipality of the Attica region. The municipality has an area of 4.026 km2. Until the mid-20th century, the area was mainly made up of farmlands but due to the continuous expansion of the Greek capital, Galatsi was rapidly urbanised and has come to lie in the center of the Athens agglomeration.

Greek Constitution of 1911

The Greek Constitution of 1911 was a major step forward in the constitutional history of Greece. Following the rise to power of Eleftherios Venizelos after the Goudi revolt in 1909, Venizelos set about attempting to reform the state. The main outcome of this was a major revision to the Greek Constitution of 1864.

The most noteworthy amendments to the Constitution of 1864 concerning the protection of human rights, were the more effective protection of personal security, equality in tax burdens, of the right to assemble and of the inviolability of the domicile. Furthermore, the Constitution facilitated expropriation to allocate property to landless farmers, while simultaneously judicially protecting property rights.

Other important changes included the institution of an Electoral Court for the settlement of election disputes stemming from the parliamentary elections, the addition of new conflicts for MPs, the re-establishment of the State Council as the highest administrative court (which, however, was constituted and operated only under the Constitution of 1927), the improvement of the protection of judicial independence and the establishment of the non-removability of public employees. Finally, for the first time, the Constitution provided for mandatory and free education for all, and declared Katharevousa (i.e. archaising "purified" Greek) as the "official language of the Nation".

Greek exonyms

Below is a list of modern-day Greek language exonyms for mostly European places outside of Greece and Cyprus. Place names that are not mentioned are generally referred to in Greek by their respective names in their native languages, or at the closest pronunciation a Greek speaker can get. Toponyms in italics mean that although their 'proper' name in Greek is the given one, a direct transliteration (and pronunciation) is much more widespread.

Greek language question

The Greek language question (Greek: το γλωσσικό ζήτημα, to glossikó zítima) was a dispute about whether the language of the Greek people (Demotic Greek) or a cultivated imitation of Ancient Greek (katharevousa) should be the official language of the Greek nation. It was a highly controversial topic in the 19th and 20th centuries, and was finally resolved in 1976 when Demotic was made the official language. The language phenomenon in question, which also occurs elsewhere in the world, is called diglossia.

Ladon (river)

The Ladon (Ancient Greek and Katharevousa: Λάδων, Ládōn; Demotic Greek: Λάδωνας, Ládōnas) is a river in the Peloponnese peninsula of Greece. It features in Greek mythology. It is a tributary to the river Alfeios, which empties into the Ionian Sea. It is 70 km (43 mi) long.

List of Greek exonyms in Turkey

This is the list of Greek exonyms for the places in Turkey.

Çanakkale Province: Çanakkale ili (Greek: νομός Δαρδανέλλιων nomós Dardanélliōn; Katharevousa: νομὸς Δαρδανέλλιων nomòs Dardanélliōn).

Bozcaada district: Bozcaada ilçesi (Greek: επαρχία Τενέδου eparchía Tenédou; Katharevousa: ἐπαρχία Τενέδου eparkhía Tenédou).


during Ancient, Roman and Byzantine era (until 1354): Tenedos (Ancient Greek: Τένεδος Ténedos; Latin: Tenedvs).

until 1922: Tenedos (Greek: and Katharevousa: Τένεδος Ténedos /ˈteneðos/)

Eceabat district: Eceabat ilçesi (Greek: επαρχία Μαδύτου eparchía Madýtou; Katharevousa: ἐπαρχία Μαδύτου eparkhía Madútou).


until 1922: Krithia (Greek: Κριθιά Krithiá; Katharevousa: Κριθιὰ Krithià).


until 1922: Agioi Apostoloi (Greek: Άγιοι Απόστολοι Ágioi Apóstoloi; Katharevousa: Ἄγιοι Απόστολοι Hágioi Apóstoloi). Nowadays ruined


until 1922: Chrisostomos (Greek: Χρυσόστομος Chrysóstomos; Katharevousa: Χρυσόστομος Khrusóstomos). Nowadays ruined


until 1922: Vergi (Greek: Βέργη Vérgī; Katharevousa: Βέργη Bérgē). Nowadays ruined


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Bakse-kioi (Greek: Βακσέ-κιοϊ Baksé-kioï; Katharevousa: Βακσὲ-κιοϊ Baksè-kioï)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Kipochori (Greek: Κηποχώρι Kīpochṓri; Katharevousa: Κηποχώριον Kēpokhṓrion)


during Ancient, Roman and Byzantine era (until 1354): Helikon (Ancient Greek: Ἔλικων Élikōn; Latin: Helicvm) during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Virchanli (Greek: Βιρχανλή Virchanlī́; Katharevousa: Βιρχανλῆ Birkhanlē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Charmoni (Greek: Χαρμονή Charmonī́; Katharevousa: Χαρμονὴ Kharmonḕ)


until 1922: Agios Alexios (Greek: Άγιος Αλέξιος Ágios Aléxios; Katharevousa: Ἄγιος Αλέξιος Hágios Aléksios). Nowadays ruined


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Toursoun (Greek: Τουρσούν Toursoún; Katharevousa: Τουρσοὺν Toursoùn)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Melissa (Greek and Katharevousa: Μέλισσα Mélissa)


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Mpigali (Greek: Μπιγαλή Mpigalī́; Katharevousa: Μπιγαλῆ Mpigalē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Sigali (Greek: Σιγαλή Sigalī́; Katharevousa: Σιγαλὴ Sigalḕ)


during Byzantine era (until 1354): Anobathra (Ancient Greek: Ἀνοβάθρα Anobáthra; Latin: Anobathra).

until 1922: Megali Anafertos (Greek: Μεγάλη Ανάφερτος Megalī Anáfertos; Katharevousa: Μεγάλη Ἀνάφερτος Megálē Anáphertos)


during Roman and Byzantine age (until 1354): Madytos (Ancient Greek: Μάδυτος Mádutos; Latin: Madytvs).

until 1922: Ma(d)ytos (Greek: Μά(δ)υτος Má(d)ytos /ˈma(ð)vtos/; Katharevousa: Μά(δ)υτος Má(d)utos)


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Kitseli (Greek: Κιτσελή Kitselī́; Katharevousa: Κιτσελῆ Kitselē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Kissini (Greek: Κισσίνη Kissínī; Katharevousa: Κισσίνη Kissínē)


during Ancient, Roman and Byzantine era (until 1354): Kynos Sema (Ancient Greek: Κυνὸς Σῆμα Kunòs Sē̂ma; Latin: Cynossema) during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Kilit-mpachr (Greek: Κιλίτ-μπάχρ Kilít-mpáchr; Katharevousa: Κιλὶτ-μπὰχρ Kilìt-mpàkhr)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Elli (Greek: Έλλη Éllī; Katharevousa: Ἕλλη Héllē) or Kynos Sima (Greek: Κυνός Σήμα Kynós Sī́ma; Katharevousa: Κυνὸς Σῆμα Kunòs Sē̂ma )


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Kotsa-Dere (Greek: Κοτςά-Δερέ Kotsá-Deré; Katharevousa: Κοτςὰ-Δερὲ Kotsà-Derè)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Kylla (Greek: Κύλλα Kýlla; Katharevousa: Κύλλα Kúlla)


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Koum-kioi (Greek and Katharevousa: Κούμ-κιοϊ Koúm-kioï)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Koulia (Greek: and Katharevousa: Κούλια Koúlia)


during Byzantine era (until 1354): Anobathra (Ancient Greek: Ἀνοβάθρα Anobáthra; Latin: Anobathra).

until 1922: Mikra Anafertos (Greek: Μικρά Ανάφερτος Mikrá Anáfertos; Katharevousa: Μικρὰ Ἀνάφερτος Mikrà Anáphertos)


during Ancient, Roman and Byzantine era (until 1354): Elaious (Ancient Greek: Ἐλαιοῦς Elaioū̂s; Latin: Elævs) during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Elaious (Greek: Ελαιούς Elaioús; Katharevousa: Ἐλαιοῦς Elaioū̂s) or Sent-il-mpachr (Greek: Σέντ -ίλ-μπάχρ Sént-íl-mpáchr; Katharevousa: Σὲντ-ἴλ-μπὰχρ Sènt-íl-mpàkhr)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Elaious (Greek: Ελαιούς Elaioús; Katharevousa: Ἐλαιοῦς Elaioū̂s)


during Greek administration (1920–1922): Akrotiri (Greek: Ακρωτήρι Akrōtī́ri; Katharevousa: Ἀκρωτῆρι Akrōtē̂re) or Greko (Greek and Katharevousa: Γρέκο Gréko)


during Ottoman administration (1354–1920) Teke (Greek: Τεκέ Teké; Katharevousa: Τεκὲ Tekè)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Teues (Greek: Τευές Tefés; Katharevousa: Τευὲς Teuès)


during Ancient, Roman and Byzantine era (until 1354): Sestos (Ancient Greek: Σηστὸς Sēstōs; Latin: Sestvs) during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Gialova (Greek and Katharevousa: Γιάλοβα Giálova)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Sistos (Greek: Σηστὸς Sīstōs; Katharevousa: Σηστὸς Sēstōs)


until 1922: Silvia (Greek: Σίλβια Sílvia; Katharevousa: Σίλβια Sílbia).

Gelibolu district: Gelibolu ilçesi (Greek: επαρχία Καλλιπόλεως eparchía Kallipóleōs; Katharevousa: ἐπαρχία Καλλιπόλεως eparkhía Kallipóleōs).


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Mpairi (Greek: Μπαΐρι Mpaḯri; Katharevousa: Μπαΐριον Mpaḯrion)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Vairi (Greek: Βαΐρι Baḯri; Katharevousa: Βαΐριον Baḯrion)


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Mpairamitsi(o) (Greek: Μπαϊραμίτσι(ο) Mpaïramítsi(o); Katharevousa: Μπαϊραμίτσιον Mpaïramítsion)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Paschalia (Greek: Πασχαλιά Paschaliá Katharevousa: Πασχαλιὰ Paskhalià)


during Ancient, Roman and Byzantine era (until 1354): Kardia (Ancient Greek: Καρδία Kardía; Latin: Cardia) during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Mpolair (Greek: Μπολαΐρ Mpolaḯr; Katharevousa: Μπολαῒρ Mpolaï̀r) or Plagiari (Greek: Πλαγιάρι Plagiári; Katharevousa: Πλαγιάρου Plagiárou)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Kardia (Greek and Katharevousa: Καρδία Kardía)


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Vourchanli (Greek: Βουρχανλή Vourchanlī́; Katharevousa: Βουρχανλῆ Bourkhanlē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Vrochili (Greek: Βροχηνή Vrochīlī́; Katharevousa: Βροχηνὴ Brokhēlḕ)


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Dzevizli (Greek: Δζεβιζλή Dzevizlī́; Katharevousa: Δζεβιζλῆ Dzebizlē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Karisos (Greek: Κάρησος Kárisos; Katharevousa: Κάρησος Kárēsos)


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Dzoumanli (Greek: Δζουμαλή Dzoumalī́; Katharevousa: Δζουμαλῆ Dzoumanlē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Paraskevi (Greek: Παρασκευή Paraskevī́; Katharevousa: Παρασκευὴ Paraskeuḕ)


during Ottoman age (1362-1920) Tzympin (Greek: Τζύμπην Tzýmpīn; Katharevousa: Τζὺμπην Tzúmpēn)


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Tsokali (Greek: Τσοκαλή Tsokalī́; Katharevousa: Τσοκαλῆ Tsokalē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Sikalis (Greek and Katharevousa: Σίκαλις Síkalis)


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Pergazi(o) (Greek: Περγάζι(ο) Pergázi(o); Katharevousa: Περγάζιον Pergázion)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Pyrgio (Greek: Πύργιο Pýrgio Katharevousa: Πύργιον Púrgion)


during Ancient, Roman and Byzantine era (until 1354): Afrodisia (Ancient Greek: Ἀφροδισία Aphrodisía; Latin: Aphrodisia) during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Evres (Greek: Έβρες Évres; Katharevousa: Ἔβρες Ébres) or Kadi-kioi (Greek: Καδή-κιοϊ Kadī́-kioï; Katharevousa: Καδῆ-κιοϊ Kadē̂-kioï)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Afrodisia (Greek: Αφροδισία Afrodisía; Katharevousa: Ἀφροδισία Aphrodisía) or Evres (Greek: Έβρες Évres; Katharevousa: Ἔβρες Ébres)


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Angelochori (Greek: Αγγελ(λ)οχώρι Angel(l)ochṓri; Katharevousa: Ἀγγελ(λ)οχώριον Angel(l)okhṓrion) or Seitan-kioi (Greek: Σεϊτάν-κιοϊ Seïtán-kioï; Katharevousa: Σεϊτὰν-κιοϊ Seïtàn-kioï)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Angelochori (Greek: Αγγελ(λ)οχώρι Angel(l)ochṓri; Katharevousa: Ἀγγελ(λ)οχώριον Angel(l)okhṓrion)


during Ancient, Roman and Byzantine era (until 1354): Kallipolis (Ancient Greek: Καλλίπολης Kallípolis; Latin: Callipolis).

until 1922: Kallipolis (Greek and Katharevousa: Καλλίπολης Kallípolis /kaˈlipoli/)


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Ourgkar-Dere (Greek: Ουργκάρ-Δερέ Ourgkár-Deré; Katharevousa: Οὐργκὰρ-Δερὲ Ourgkàr-Derè)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Dravos (Greek: Δράβος Drávos; Katharevousa: Δράβος Drábos)


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Kale-Alti (Greek: Καλέ-Αλτή Kalé-Altī́; Katharevousa: Καλὲ-Ἀλτῆ Kalè-Altē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Alki (Greek: Άλκη Álkī; Katharevousa: Ἄλκη Álkē)


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Karna-Mveili (Greek: Καρνά-Μβεϊλή Karná-Mveïlī́; Katharevousa: Καρνᾶ-Μβεϊλῆ Karnā̂-Mbeïlē̂) or Sagos (Greek: and Katharevousa: Σάγος Ságos)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Kaliros (Greek: Κάληρος Kálīros; Katharevousa: Κάληρος Kálēros)


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Kavak (Greek: Καβάκ Kavák; Katharevousa: Καβὰκ Kabàk)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Leuki (Greek: Λευκή Lefkī́; Katharevousa: Λευκὴ Leukḕ)


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Kavakli (Greek: Καβακλή Kavaklī́; Katharevousa: Καβακλῆ Kabaklē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Chalyvi (Greek: Χαλύβη Chalývī́; Katharevousa: Χαλύβη Khalúbē)


during Ancient and Roman era: Lysimachia (Ancient Greek: Λυσιμάχ(ε)ια Lusimákh(e)ia; Latin: Lysimachia).

until 1922: Examili (Greek: Εξαμίλι Examíli; Katharevousa: Ἑξαμίλιον Eksamilion)


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Pazarli (Greek: Παζαρλή Pazarlī́; Katharevousa: Παζαρλῆ Pazarlē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Anaplos (Greek: Άναπλος Ánaplos; Katharevousa: Ἄναπλος Ánaplos)


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Souleimanie (Greek: Σουλεϊμανιέ Souleïmanié; Katharevousa: Σουλεϊμανιὲ Souleïmaniè)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ekklisochori (Greek: Εκκλησοχώρι Ekklīsochṓri; Katharevousa: Ἐκκλησοχώριον Ekklēsochṓrion)


during Ancient, Roman and Byzantine era (until 1354): Aigos Potamoi (Ancient Greek: Αιγὸς Ποταμοὶ Aigòs Potamoì; Latin: Ægospotami) during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Galata(s) (Greek: Γαλατά(ς) Galatá(s); Katharevousa: Γαλατᾶς Galatā̂(s))

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Aigos Potamoi (Greek: Αιγός Ποταμοί Aigós Potamoí; Katharevousa: Αιγὸς Ποταμοὶ Aigòs Potamoì)


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Santili (Greek: Σαντιλή Santilī́; Katharevousa: Σαντιλῆ Santilē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Sandali (Greek: Σανδάλη Sandálī; Katharevousa: Σανδάλη Sandálē)


until 1922: Tayfiri (Greek: Ταϋφίρι Taüphíri; Katharevousa: Ταϋφύριον Taüphírion) or Tayfyri (Greek: Ταϋφύρι Taüphýri; Katharevousa: Ταϋφύριον Taüphúrion).


during Ottoman age (1354–1920): Geni-kioi (Greek: Γενή-κιοϊ Genī́-kioï; Katharevousa: Γενῆ-κιοϊ Genē̂-kioï)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Neochori (Greek: Νεοχώρι Neochṓri /neoˈxori/; Katharevousa: Νεοχώριον Neokhṓrion)Edirne Province: Edirne ili (Greek: νομός Αδριανοπόλεως nomós Adrianopóleōs; Katharevousa: νομὸς Ἀδριανοπόλεως nomòs Adrianopóleōs).

Edirne district: merkez ilçesi (Greek: επαρχία Αδριανοπόλεως eparchía Adrianopóleōs; Katharevousa: ἐπαρχία Ἀδριανοπόλεως, eparchía Adrianopóleōs).


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Achi(r)-kioi (Greek: Αχή(ρ)-κιοϊ Achī́r-kioï; Katharevousa: Ἀχῆ(ρ)-κιοϊ Akhē̂r-kioï)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Agra (Greek: Άγρα Ágra; Katharevousa: Ἄγρα Ágra)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Arnaout-kioi (Greek and Katharevousa: Ἀρναούτ-κιοϊ Arnaoút-kioï)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Kaloneri (Greek and Katharevousa: Καλονέρι Kalonéri). Nowadays ruined


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Chavaris (Tsiflik) (Greek: Χάβαρις (Τσιφλίκ) Chávaris (Tsiflík); Katharevousa: Χάβαρις (Τσιφλὶκ) Khábaris (Tsiphlìk))

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Chavaris (Greek: Χάβαρις Chávaris; Katharevousa: Χάβαρις Khábaris)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Mposna (Greek and Katharevousa: Μπόσνα Mpósna), Mposnakioi (Greek and Katharevousa: Μποσνάκιοϊ Mposnákioï) or Mposn(i)ochori (Greek: Μποσν(ι)οχώρι Mposn(i)ochṓri; Katharevousa: Μποσν(ι)οχῶρι Mposn(i)okhō̂ri)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Bosn(i)ochori (Greek: Βοσν(ι)οχώρι Bosn(i)ochṓri; Katharevousa: Βοσν(ι)οχῶρι Bosn(i)okhō̂ri), Visa (Greek: Βίσα Vísa; Katharevousa: Βίσα Bísa) or Vyssa (Greek: Βύσσα Výssa; Katharevousa: Βύσσα Bússa)


during Roman and Byzantine era (...-1361) Palation (Ancient Greek: Παλάτιον Palátion; Latin: Palativm) during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Mpalat (Greek and Katharevousa: Μπαλάτ Mpalát)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Palati (Greek: Παλάτι Paláti; Katharevousa: Παλάτιον Palátion) or Pedias Palatiou (Greek and Katharevousa: Πεδιάς Παλατιού Pediás Palatioú). Nowadays ruined


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Michtrer (Greek: Μιχρέρ Michtrér; Katharevousa: Μιχρέρ Mikhtrér)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Megali Pedias (Greek: Μεγάλη Πεδιάς Megálī Pediás; Katharevousa: Μεγάλη Πεδιάς Megálē Pediás). Nowadays ruined


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): (Mpountak-)Dougantzia (Greek and Katharevousa: (Μπουντάκ-)Δουγάντζια (Mpounták-)Dougántzia)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Gerani (Greek: Γεράνη Geránī; Katharevousa: Γεράνη Geránē)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Vougiouk-Doliouk (Greek: Βουγιούκ-Δολιούκ Vougioúk-Dolioúk; Katharevousa: Βουγιοὺκ-Δολιοὺκ Bougioùk-Dolioùk)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Megali Genea (Greek: Μεγάλη Γενεά Megálī Geneá; Katharevousa: Μεγάλη Γενεὰ Megálē Geneà)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Mpegiouk-Ismailtze (Greek: Μπεγιούκ-Ἰσμαήλτζε Mpegioúk-Ismaī́ltze; Katharevousa: Μπεγιοὺκ-Ἰσμαῆλτζε Mpegioùk-Ismaē̂ltze)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Smilitsa (Greek and Katharevousa: Σμιλίτσα Smilítsa)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Dermen-Geni-kioi (Greek: Δερμέν-Γενή-κιοϊ Dermén-Genī́-kioï; Katharevousa: Δερμὲν-Γενῆ-κιοϊ Dermèn-Genḕ-kioï)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Myloi (Greek: Μύλοι Mýloi; Katharevousa: Μύλοι Múloi)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Demirchanli (Greek: Δεμιρχανλή Demirchanlī́; Katharevousa: Δεμιρχανλῆ Demirkhanlē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Sidirokastro (Greek: Σιδηρόκαστρο Sidīrókastro;Katharevousa: Σιδηρόκαστρον Sidērókastron)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Doiran (Greek: Δοϊράν Doïrán; Katharevousa: Δοϊρὰν Doïràn)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Doirani (Greek: Δοϊράνη Doïranī;Katharevousa: Δοϊράνη Doïránē)


during Ancient era: Orestias (Ancient Greek: Ὀρεστιὰς Orestiàs; Latin: Orestias). during Roman and Byzantine era (...-1361) Hadrianopolis (Ancient Greek: Ἀδριανούπολις Hadrianoúpolis; Latin: Hadrianopolis).

until 1922: Adrianopoli (Greek: Αδριανούπολη Adrianoúpolī /aðriaˈnupoli/ or Αντριανούπολη Antrianoúpolī; Katharevousa: Ἀδριανούπολις Hadrianoúpolis)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Ekmektse-kioi (Greek: Εκμεκτσή-κιοϊ Ekmektsī́-kioï; Katharevousa: Ἐκμεκτσῆ-κιοϊ Ekmektsē̂-kioï)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Artoforo (Greek: Αρτοφόρο Artophóro;Katharevousa: Ἀρτοφόρον Artophóron)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Eltsili (Greek: Ελτσιλή Eltsilī́; Katharevousa: Ἐλτσιλῆ Eltsilē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Kirykas (Greek: Κήρυκας Kī́rykas;Katharevousa: Κήρυκας Kḗrukas)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Mpegiouk-Tatarkioi (Greek: Μπεγιούκ-Τατάρκιοϊ Mpegioúk-Tatárkioï; Katharevousa: Μπεγιοὺκ-Τατάρκιοϊ Mpegioùk-Tatárkioï)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Herakleion (Greek: Ηράκλειον Īrákleion;Katharevousa: Ἡράκλειον Īrákleion). Nowadays ruined


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Chatzi-Omar (Tsiflik) (Greek: Χατζή-Ομάρ (Τσιφλίκ) Chatzī́-Omár (Tsiflík); Katharevousa: Χατζῆ-Ὀμὰρ (Τσιφλὶκ) Khatzē̂-Omàr (Tsiflìk))

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Tomaro (Greek: Τόμαρο Tómaro; Katharevousa: Τόμαρον Tómaron)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Chasan-Aga (Greek: Χασάν-Αgά Chasán-Agá; Katharevousa: Χασὰν-Ἀgᾶ Khasàn-Agā̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Kallithea (Greek and Katharevousa: Καλλιθέα Kallithéa)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Chatip-kioi (Greek: Χατίπ-κιοϊ Chatíp-kioï; Katharevousa: Χατίπ-κιοϊ Khatíp-kioï)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Xylokopos (Greek: Ξυλοκόπος Xylokópos; Katharevousa: Ξυλοκόπος Ksylokópos)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Chadir-Aga (Greek: Χαδήρ-Αγά Chadī́r-Agá; Katharevousa: Χαδὴρ-Ἀγᾶ Khadḕr-Agā̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Charauge (Greek: Χαραυγή Charaugī́; Katharevousa: Χαραυγὴ Kharaugḕ)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Iskenter-kioi (Greek: Ισκεντέρ-κιοϊ Iskentér-kioï; Katharevousa: Ἰσκεντέρ-κιοϊ Iskentér-kioï)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Alexandrochori (Greek: Αλεξανδροχώρι Alexandrochṓri; Katharevousa: Ἀλεξανδροχῶρι Aleksandrokhō̂ri)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Kara-Agats (Greek: Καρά-Αγάτς Kará-Agáts; Katharevousa: Καρὰ-Ἀγὰτς Karà-Agàts)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Orestias (Greek: Ορεστιάς Orestiás; Katharevousa: Ὀρεστιὰς Orestiàs)

Lalapaşa district: Lalapaşa ilçesi (Greek: επαρχία Δρογγυλίου eparchía Drongylíou; Katharevousa: ἐπαρχία Δρογγυλίου eparkhía Drongylíou).


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Mpougiounlou (Greek: Μπουγιουνλού Mpougiounloú; Katharevousa: Μπουγιουνλοῦ Mpougiounloū̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Vistinos (Greek: Βίστιρος Vístinos; Katharevousa: Βίστιρος Bístinos)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Tsiali-Dere (Greek: Τσιαλή-Δερέ Tsialī́-Deré; Katharevousa: Τσιαλῆ-Δερὲ Tsialē̂-Derè)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Vatorreyma (Greek: Βατόρρευμα Vatórrefma; Katharevousa: Βατόρρευμα Batórreyma)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Tsiatma (Greek: Τσιατμά Tsiatmá; Katharevousa: Τσιατμᾶ Tsiatmā̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Skapani (Greek: Σκαπάνη Skapánī; Katharevousa: Σκαπάνη Skapánē)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Tsiomlek-Ak-Mpounar (Greek: Τσιομλέκ-Άκ-Μπουνάρ Tsiomlék-Ák-Mpounár; Katharevousa: Τσιομλὲκ-Ἄκ-Μπουνὰρ Tsiomlèk-Ák-Mpounàr)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Nerofolia (Greek: Νεροφωλιά Nerofōliá; Katharevousa: Νεροφωλιὰ Nerophōlià)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Tsiomlek-kioi (Greek and Katharevousa: Τσιομλέκ-κιοϊ Tsiomlék-kioï)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Chytrades (Greek: Χυτράδες Chytrádes; Katharevousa: Χυτράδες Khutrádes)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Demir-kioi (Greek and Katharevousa: Δεμίρ-κιοϊ Demír-kioï)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Siderio (Greek: Σιδέριο Sidério; Katharevousa: Σιδέριον Sidérion)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Don-kioi (Greek and Katharevousa: Δόν-κιοϊ Dón-kioï)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Pagonia (Greek: Παγωνιά Pagōniá; Katharevousa: Παγωνιὰ Pagōnià)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Dompan (Greek: Δομπάν Dompán; Katharevousa: Δομπὰν Dompàn)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Dompano (Greek: Δόμπανο Dómpano; Katharevousa: Δόμπανον Dómpanon)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Chatzi-Danisman (Greek: Χατζή-Δανισμάν Chatzī́-Danismán; Katharevousa: Χατζῆ-Δανισμὰν Khatzē̂-Danismàn)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Tania (Greek and Katharevousa: Τανία Tanía)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Chatzilar (Greek: Χατζιλάρ Chatzilár; Katharevousa: Χατζιλὰρ Khatzilàr)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Proskynitario (Greek: Προσκυνητάριο Proskynītário; Katharevousa: Προσκυνητάριον Proskynētárion)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Chachza-Veili (Greek: Χαχζά-Βεϊλή Chachzá-Veïlī́; Katharevousa: Χαχζᾶ-Βεϊλῆ Khakhzā̂-Beïlē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Vigla (Greek: Βίγλα Vígla; Katharevousa: Βίγλα Bígla)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Chanli-Genitze (Greek: Χανλή-Γενιτζέ Chanlī́-Genitzé; Katharevousa: Χανλῆ-Γενιτζὲ Khanlē̂-Genitzè)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Chania (Greek: Χανιά Chaniá; Katharevousa: Χανιὰ Khanià)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Chousein-Mpounar (Greek: Χουσεΐν-Μπουνάρ Chouseḯn-Mpounár; Katharevousa: Χουσεῒν-Μπουνὰρ Khouseï̀n-Mpounàr)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Anario (Greek: Ανάριο Anário; Katharevousa: Ἀνάριον Anárion)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Kalkan-Sogiout (Greek: Καλκάν-Σογιούτ Kalkán-Sogioút; Katharevousa: Καλκὰν-Σογιοὺτ Kalkàn-Sogioùt)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Aspida (Greek: Ασπίδα Aspída; Katharevousa: Ἀσπίδα Aspída)


until 1922: Kavakli (Greek: Καβακλή Kavaklī́; Katharevousa: Καβακλῆ Kabaklē̂).


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Kiotsouklou (Greek: Κιουτσουκλού Kioutsougloú; Katharevousa: Κιουτσουκλοῦ Kioutsougloū̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Mikrolofos (Greek: Μικρόλοφος Mikrólofos; Katharevousa: Μικρόλοφος Mikrólophos)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Lala-Pasa (Greek: Λαλά-Πασά Lalá-Pasá; Katharevousa: Λαλᾶ-Πασᾶ Lalā̂-Pasā̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Drongylio (Greek: Δρογγύλιο Drongýlio; Katharevousa: Δρογγύλιον Drongýlion)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Ortaktsi (Greek: Ορτακτσή Ortaktsī́; Katharevousa: Ὀρτακτσῆ Ortaktsē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Mesochori (Greek: Μεσοχώρι Mesochṓri; Katharevousa: Μεσοχῶρι Mesokhō̂ri)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Omerova (Greek: Ομέροβα Omérova; Katharevousa: Ὀμέροβα Oméroba)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Kefalari (Greek: Κεφαλάρι Kefalári; Katharevousa: Κεφαλάρι Kephalári)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Saxagan (Greek: Σαξαγάν Saxagán; Katharevousa: Σαξαγὰν Saksagàn)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Kissaros (Greek and Katharevousa: Κίσσαρος Kíssaros)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Sari-Danisman (Greek: Σαρή-Δανισμάν Sarī́-Danismán; Katharevousa: Σαρῆ-Δανισμὰν Sarē̂-Danismàn)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Xanthino (Greek: Ξάνθινο Xánthino; Katharevousa: Ξάνθινον Ksánthinon)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Pravadi (Greek: Πραβαδή Pravadī́; Katharevousa: Πραβαδῆ Prabadē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Provatoteicho (Greek: Προβατότειχο Provatóteicho; Katharevousa: Προβατότειχον Probatóteikhon)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Souleiman (Greek: Σουλεϊμάν Souleïmán; Katharevousa: Σουλεϊμὰν Souleïmàn)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Selinous (Greek: Σελινούς Selinoús;Katharevousa: Σελινοῦς Selinoū̂s)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Tasli-Mouselim (Greek: Τασλή-Μουσελήμ Taslī́-Mouselī́m; Katharevousa: Τασλῆ-Μουσελὴμ Taslē̂-Mouselḕm)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Petrochori (Greek: Πετροχώρι Petrochṓri; Katharevousa: Πετροχώριον Petrokhṓrion)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Touglalik (Greek: Τουγλαλήκ Touglalī́k; Katharevousa: Τουγλαλὴκ Touglalḕk)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Plinthio (Greek: Πλίνθιο Plínthio; Katharevousa: Πλίνθιον Plínthion)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Ouzoun-Mpair (Greek: Ουζούν-Μπαΐρ Ouzoún-Mpaḯr; Katharevousa: Οὐζοὺν-Μπαῒρ Ouzoùn-Mpaï̀r)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Aniforia (Greek: Ανηφοριά Anīphoriá; Katharevousa: Ἀνηφοριὰ Anēphorià)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Vaisal (Greek: Βαΐσαλ Vaḯsal; Katharevousa: Βαΐσαλ Baï̀sal)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Visaltai (Greek: Βησάλται' Vīsáltai; Katharevousa: Βησάλται' Bēsáltai)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Chouloutze (Greek: Χουλουτζέ Chouloutzé; Katharevousa: Χουλουτζὲ Khouloutzè)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Chalazio (Greek: Χαλάζιο Chalázio; Katharevousa: Χαλάζιον Khalázion)

Meriç district: Meriç ilçesi

Akçadam: Λουλού-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Λιλὴ

Akıncılar: Δραγκὶς

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Δραγάτσι

Karahamza: Καράμζα

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Καρτερία

Kavaklı: Καβακλῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Καλύκη

Olacak: Ὀλατζιὰκ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Παρδαλὸς

Paşayenice: Πασᾶ-Γενιτζὲ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Κριθιὰ

Rahmanca: Ραχμάντζα

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ραφάνη

Saatağacı: Σαὰτ-Ἀγατσῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Πλάτανος

Yakupbey: Γιακοὺπ-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Σιταριὰ

Süloğlu district: Süloğlu ilçesi (Greek: επαρχία Ασβεστοχωρίου eparchía Asvestochōríou; Katharevousa: ἐπαρχία Ἀσβεστοχωρίου eparkhía Asbestokhōríou).


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Akar-Dere (Greek: Ακάρ-Δερέ Akár-Deré; Katharevousa: Ἀκὰρ-Δερὲ Akàr-Derè)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Reumatia (Greek: Ρευματιά Refmatià; Katharevousa: Ρευματιὰ Reumatià)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Mega Gkerdeli (Greek: Μέγα Γκερδελή Méga Gkerdelī́; Katharevousa: Μέγα Γκερδελῆ Méga Gkerdelē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Megalochori (Greek: Μεγαλοχώρι Megalochṓri; Katharevousa: Μεγαλοχῶρι Megalokhō̂ri)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Domourtzali (Greek: Δομουρτζαλή Domourtzalī́; Katharevousa: Δομουρτζαλῆ Domourtzalē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Voliko (Greek: Βολικό Volikó; Katharevousa: Βολικὸν Bolikòn)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Ketskenli (Greek: Κετσκενλή Ketskenlī́; Katharevousa: Κετσκενλῆ Ketskenlē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Palaio (Greek: Παλαιό Palaió; Katharevousa: Παλαιὸν Palaiòn)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Keramedin (Greek: Κεραμεδίν Keramedín; Katharevousa: Κεραμεδὶν Keramedìn)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Kemidrio (Greek: Κεμίδριο Kemídrio; Katharevousa: Κεμίδριον Kemídrion)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Kioukiler (Greek: Κιουκιλέρ Kioukilér; Katharevousa: Κιουκιλὲρ Kioukilèr)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Riziko (Greek: Ριζικό Rizikó; Katharevousa: Ριζικὸν Rizikòn)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Soule-kioi (Greek and Katharevousa: Σουλέ-κιοϊ Soulé-kioï)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Kalathochori (Greek: Καλαθοχώρι Kalathochṓri; Katharevousa: Καλαθοχώριον Kalathochṓrion)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Soule-Oglou (Greek: Σουλέ-Ογλού Soulé-Ogloú; Katharevousa: Σουλὲ-Ὀγλοῦ Soulè-Ogloū̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Asvestochori (Greek: Ασβεστοχώρι Asvestochṓri; Katharevousa: Ἀσβεστοχῶρι Asbestokhō̂ri)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Tasli-Sigmpan (Greek: Τασλή-Σιγμπάν Taslī́-Sigmpán; Katharevousa: Τασλῆ-Σιγμπὰν Taslē̂-Sigmpàn)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Stratolithos (Greek and Katharevousa: Στρατόλιθος Stratólithos)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Tatarlar (Greek: Ταταρλάρ Tatarlár; Katharevousa: Ταταρλὰρ Tatarlàr)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Pezoporos (Greek and Katharevousa: Πεζοπόρος Pezopóros)


during Ottoman age (1361–1920): Giagtzili (Greek: Γιαγτζηλή Giagtzīlī́; Katharevousa: Γιαγτζηλῆ Giagtzēlē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Theofilochori (Greek: Θεοφιλοχώρι Theophilochṓri; Katharevousa: Θεοφιλοχῶρι Theophilokhō̂ri)

Uzunköprü district: Uzunköprü ilçesi

Altınyazı: Χαραλὰ-Γκιουνὲ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Γαρέλλα

Aslıhan: Ἀσλαχὰν

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Λεοντάριον

Başağıl: Μάνδρα

Bayramlı: Τύρναβον

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ταυρόκωμον

Beykonağı: Παλάτι or Μπέη Κονὰκ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Διλιανὸν

Bıldır: Μπιλδὴρ-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Πρῖνος

Çakmakköy: Τσακμάκ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Τσακμάκι

Çalıköy: Τσιαλῆ-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Παληοῦρι

Çiftlikköy: Τσιφλὶκ-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Τσιφλικάκι

Çobanpınarı: Τσιομπὰν-Μπουνὰρ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Στάνη

Çöpköy: Τσιόπ-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Γεωργιούπολις

Değirmenci: Δεϊρμεντζῆ-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Μυλωνάδες

Dereköy: Δερέ-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Μοναστηράκιον

Elmalı: Ἐρμενί-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ἄρμενα

Hamidiye: Χαμηδιὲ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Χορταριὰ

Hamitli: Χιμιτλῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Χυμὸς

Harmanlı: Χαρμανλῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ἁλωνάκι

Hasanpınar: Χασὰν-Μπουνὰρ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Πηγάδια

Kadıağılı: Καδῆ-Γκαλᾶ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Κατύχαλα

Kadıköy: Βέργη or Καδήκιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Εἰρηνικὸν

Karapınar: Καρᾶ-Μπουνὰρ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Μαυροπήγαδον

Karayayla: Καραγιαϊλὰ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Καρέγλη

Kavacık: Καβατζὴκ

during Greek administration (1920–1922):Μαγούλα

Kırcasalih: Ζαλοὺφ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ζαλούφιον

Kırkkavak: Κίρκ-Καβὰκ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Λεῦκες

Kırköy: Κίρ-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ἀμυγδαλιὰ

Kurdu: Κουρδὶ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Δανιήλειον

Kurtbey: Κοὺρτ-Μπέη

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Γάζα

Kurttepe: Κοὺρτ-Τεπὲ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Λυκοβούνιον

Malkoçköy: Μαλκὸτς

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Γραβιὰ

Meşeli: Μεσελῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Δρῦς

Muhacirkadı: Μουχατζὶκ or Καδήκιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Καρυὰ

Ömerbey: Ὀμὲρ Μπέη

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Κεφαλάρι

Övenler: Τσόγγαρα

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Μένθη

Saçlımüsellim: Σατσλῆ-Μουσελὴμ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Καλαμωτὴ

Salarlı: Παλάτια or Σαλαρλῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Σαλαρὴ

Sazlımalkoç: Σαζλῆ-Μαλκὸτς

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Καλαμάτα

Sığırcılı: Σιγιρτζιλῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Μέλισσα

Sultanşah: Σουλτὰν-Σιὰχ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Βασιλικὰ

Süleymaniye: Τσιγγενὲ-Μερασὶ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Μοιρασιὰ

Turnacı: Τούρνατζη

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Γεράνιον

Uzunköprü: Οὐζοὺν-Κιοπροῦ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Μακρὰ Γέφυρα

Yağmurca: Κεξαμπὸλ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Καστανιὰ

Yeniköy: Γενῆ-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): ΝεοχῶριKırklareli Province: Kırklareli ili

Babaeski district: Babaeski ilçesi

Ağayeri: Ἀγᾶ-Γερῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Γερῆ

Alpullu: Ἄλπολου

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ἀλόπη

Babaeski: Ἐλευθεραὶ or Μπαμπᾶ Ἐσκῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ἀρτισκὸς

Büyük Mandıra: Μάνδρα.

Çavuşköy: Τσαούς-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Μανούσιον

Çengerli: Τσεγγερλῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ἀγγελῆ

Çiğdemli: Τσιφιλῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Φυλὴ

Düğüncülü: Δογάντζαλη

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Διοβούνιον

Erikleryurdu: Ἐρεκλὲρ-Γιορντοῦ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ἐρικιὰ

Hazinedar: Χαζνατὰρ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Χαρμιόνη

Kadıköy: Καδῆ-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Κάδη

Karabayır: Καρᾶ-Μπαῒρ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Μαυροβούνιον

Karacaoğlan: Καρατζασλὰν

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Καραβιὰ

Katranca: Κατράντζα

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Κατράνη

Kuleli: Κούλελι

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Νίκισσα

Kumrular: Κομρουλὰρ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Περιστέριον

Kuzuçardağı: Κουζοῦ-Τσαρδὰκ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Καψάλα

Minnetler: Μινετλὲρ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Μελικὴ

Müsellim: Μουσελὴμ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Μουσοχώριον

Nacak: Νατζὰκ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Νασάκιον

Nadırlı: Ναδιρλῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Καλλονὴ

Sinanlı: Συνανλῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Σινάλη

Sofuhalil: Σοφοῦ-Χαλὴλ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Σοφοῦ

Taşağıl: Τὰς-Ἀγὴλ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ἄσυλον

Taşköprü: Τὰς-Κιοπροῦ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Τάσσος

Terzili: Τερζιλῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Τερσηνὴ

Yeniköy: Γενῆ-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ἀέτιον

Yenimahalle: Γενῆ-Μαχαλὲ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Βαθύλειμον

Lüleburgaz district: Lüleburgaz ilçesi

Ahmetbey: Ἀχμὲτ-Βέη

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Στρατηγεῖον

Akçaköy: Ἀκτσέ-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ἀσβέστη

Ayvalı: Ἀϊβαλῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Κύδωνες

Büyükkarıştıran: Μέγα Καρυστιρὰν

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Μεγάλη Δριζυπάρα

Celaliye: Γιουβάν-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Γιάννινα

Çengelli: Τσεγκλερλῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ἀγγίστριον

Çeşmekolu: Τσεσμὲ-Κολοῦ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Κολλίνα

Çiftlikköy: Τσιφλὶκ-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Βερωνὴ

Davutlu: Δαουτλοῦ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Δαυλὸς

Emirali: Ἐμὶρ-Ἀλῆ or Ἰμραλῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Δασοχώριον

Evrensekiz: Ἐβρὲν-Σεκὴζ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ἰτέα

Karaağaç: Καραγὰτς

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Καραγὸς

Karamusul: Καρᾶ-Μουσοὺλ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Μαυρόγεια

Kayabeyli: Καλιᾶ-Μπεϊλῆ or Καϊμπελῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Καψάμπελα

Kırıkköy: Κιρὶκ-Μουσᾶ or Κρίκιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Κοντάδεστος

Küçükkarıştıran: Μικρὸ Καρυστιρὰν

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Μικρὰ Δριζυπάρα

Lüleburgaz: Ἀρκαδιούπολης.

Müsellim: Μουσελὴμ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Καταφυλὴ

Oklalı: Ὀκλακλῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ὀκλάδες

Ovacık: Κούμσαϊκ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Σαΐττα

Seyitler: Σεϊτλὲρ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Μαρτύριον

Tatarköy: Τατὰρ-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ξάνθος

Turgutbey: Τοὺρ-Βέη

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Τέαρος

Umurca: Ὀμούρτζα

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Μύριννα

Pehlivanköy district: Pehlivanköy ilçesi

Doğanca: Δογάντζα

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Δογάδες

İmampazarı: Ἰμὰμ-Παζὰρ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ἀμάδες

Kuştepe: Κοὺς-τεπὲ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ἀκουστὴ

Pehlivanköy: Παυλῆ-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Παυλοχώριον

Yeşilova: Μπουρουνσοὺζ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Πουρναριὰ

Yeşilpınar: Τιλκῆ-Μπουνὰρ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Τελικὴ

Pınarhisar district: Pınarhisar ilçesi

Kurudere: Κουροῦ-Δερὲ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): ΚουρούναTekirdağ Province: Tekirdağ ili (Greek: νομός Ραιδεστού nomós Raidestoú; Katharevousa: νομὸς Ραιδεστοῦ nomòs Raidestoū̂).

Çerkezköy district: Çerkezköy ilçesi

Bahçeağıl: Μπαχτσὲ-Ἀγὴλ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ἄζηλον

Çerkezköy: Τσερκέζ-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Κουπέριον

Kapaklı: Καπακλῆ-Μπουνὰρ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Κανάλιον

Karaağaç: Καρᾶ-Ἀγὰτς

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Καραβᾶς

Karlı: Καρλῆ-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Κοράλλιον

Kızılpınar: Κιζὴλ-Μπουνὰρ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Πηγαὶ

Pınarca: Μπουνάρτζα

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ἀνάργια

Uzunhacı: Οὐζοὺν-Χατζῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ὀζόνη

Yanıkağıl: Γιαννὴκ-Ἀγὶλ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ἀργίλη

Çorlu district: Çorlu ilçesi

Ahimehmet: Ἀχήρ-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ἄχυρα

Misinli: Μουσινλῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Μεσσήνη

Paşaköy: Πασᾶ-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Κρυφονέριον

Saray district: Saray ilçesi

Ayvacık: Αϊβατζὴκ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ἀήττητον

Bahçedere: Μπαχτσὲ-Δερὲ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Δάρα

Büyükyoncalı: Μπουγιοὺκ-Μανίκα

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Μεγάλη Μανούκα

Çayla: Τσαϊλὰ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Καήλα

Çukuryurt: Τσιουκοὺρ-Γιοὺρτ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ζακούριον

Demirler: Δεμιρλὲρ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Δημούλη

Edirköy: Ἐδίρ-κιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Δίρκη

Göçerler: Γκιουρτζελὲρ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Σφύρα

Güngörmez: Γκιοὺν-Γκιορμὲζ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ἀνήλιον

Kadıköy: Καδήκιοϊ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Καλὴ

Karabürçek: Καρᾶ-Μπεζλὲκ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Διάβα

Kavacık: Καβατζὶκ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Λεύκη

Küçükyoncalı: Κιουτσοὺκ-Μανίκα

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Μικρὰ Μανούκα

Osmanlı: Ὀσμανλῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ὁμαλὴ

Sefaalan: Σεφὰ-Ἀλὰν

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Σέφαλος

Sinanlı: Συνανλῆ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Σινᾶς

Sofular: Σοφουλὰρ-Σεχρᾶ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Ζαφύριον

Yuvalı: Γουβαλὴ

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Καλημέριον

Şarköy district: Şarköy ilçesi (Greek: επαρχία Περιστάσεως eparchía Peristáseōs; Katharevousa: ἐπαρχία Περιστάσεως eparkhía Peristáseōs).


during Ottoman age (1362-1920) Mpoulgouri (Greek: Μπουλγούρη Mpolgoúrī; Katharevousa: Μπουλγούρη Mpoulgoúrē)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Polydori (Greek: Πολυδώρη Polydṓrī Katharevousa: Πολυδώρη Poludṓrē)


during Ottoman age (1362-1920) Tsigkirli (Greek: Τσιγκιρλή Tsigkirlī́; Katharevousa: Τσιγκιρλῆ Tsigkirlē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Chalkanthi (Greek: Χαλκάνθη Chalkánthī Katharevousa: Χαλκάνθη Khalkánthē)


during Ancient, Roman and Byzantine era (...-1362) Herakleia Peristaseos (Ancient Greek: Ηράκλεια Περιστάσεως Hērákleia Peristáseōs; Latin: Heraclea Peristasis) during Ottoman age (1362-1920) Heracleitsa (Greek: Ηρακλείτσα Īrakleítsa; Katharevousa: Ἡρακλείτσα Hērakleítsa)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Herakleitsa Peristaseos (Greek: Ηρακλείτσα Περιστάσεως Īrakleítsa Peristáseōs; Katharevousa: Ἡρακλείτσα Περιστάσεως Hērakleítsa Peristáseōs)


during Ottoman age (1362-1920) Isaakli (Greek: Ισαακλή Isaaklī́; Katharevousa: Ἰσαακλῆ Isaaklē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Agios Ioannis (Greek: Άγιος Ιωάννης Ágios Iōánnīs Katharevousa: Ἅγιος Ἰωάννης Hágios Iōánnēs)


during Ottoman age (1362-1920) Kiziltza-Terzi (Greek: Κιζηλτζά-Τερζή Kizīltzá-Terzī́; Katharevousa: Κιζηλτζᾶ-Τερζῆ Kizēltzā̂-Terzē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Trausoi (Greek: Τραυσοί Trafsoí Katharevousa: Τραυσοὶ Trausoì)


during Ottoman age (1362-1920) Kotsa-Ali (Greek: Κοτςά-Αλή Kotsá-Alī́; Katharevousa: Κοτςᾶ-Ἀλῆ Kotsā̂-Alē̂)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Elpis (Greek: Ελπίς Elpís Katharevousa: Ἐλπὶς Elpìs)


during Ottoman age (1362-1920) Palamout (Greek and Katharevousa: Παλαμούτ Palamoút)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Dryinochori (Greek: Δρυϊνοχώρι Dryïnochṓri; Katharevousa: Δρυϊνοχώριον Druïnokhṓrion)


during Ottoman age (1362-1920) Sofi-kioi (Greek: Σοφί-κιοϊ Sofí-kioï; Katharevousa: Σοφί-κιοϊ Sophí-kioï)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Sofiko (Greek: Σοφικό Sofikó Katharevousa: Σοφικὸν Sophikòn)


during Ottoman age (1362-1920) Oulaman (Greek: Ουλαμάν Oulamán; Katharevousa: Οὐλαμὰν Oulamàn)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Oulamos (Greek: Ουλαμός Oulamós; Katharevousa: Οὐλαμὸς Oulamòs)


during Ottoman age (1362-1920) Giagiats (Greek: Γιαγιάτς Giagiàtś; Katharevousa: Γιαγιὰτς Giagiàts)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Kalodendro (Greek: Καλόδενδρο Kalódendro Katharevousa: Καλόδενδρον Kalódendron)


during Ottoman age (1362-1920) Geni-kioi (Greek: Γενή-κιοϊ Genī́-kioï /neoˈxori/; Katharevousa: Γενῆ-κιοϊ Genē̂-kioï)

during Greek administration (1920–1922): Neochori (Greek: Νεοχώρι Neochṓri Katharevousa: Νεοχώριον Neokhṓrion)

List of Greek place names

This is a list of Greek place names as they exist in the Greek language.

Places involved in the history of Greek culture, including:

Historic Greek regions, including:

Ancient Greece, including colonies and contacted peoples

Hellenistic world, including successor states and contacted peoples

Roman Empire and Byzantine Empire, including successor states

Ottoman Empire, including successor states

Septinsular Republic

Modern Greece and Cyprus, and also what remains of treaty Greek minorities in Turkey

Places that have or had important Greek-speaking or ethnic Greek minorities or exile communities

Places of concern to Greek culture, religion or tradition, including:

Greek mythology

Greek Jews, including Romaniotes and exiled Sephardim


Christianity until the Great Schism, and afterwards the Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Rite, etc.

Greek Muslims, and those outside Greece who are Greek-speaking or ethnic Greek

Places whose official names include a Greek form.

Places whose names originate from the Greek language, even if they were never involved in Greek history or culture.Αlthough this list includes toponyms from Roman times, this list does not include later wholly Latin-derived names that have (nor had) no Greek linguistic involvement, involvement with the Greek world, nor significant Greek-speaking communities. (A notable exception may be places such as Australia, which has one of the largest modern Greek-speaking communities outside Greece and Cyprus.) However, much of the Roman Empire did have significant Greek-speaking communities, as Greek had been a popular language among the Roman elite from the beginning.

Both koine and modern forms and transliterations (including polytonic spellings) are listed if available. This list is incomplete, and some items in the list lack academic detail.

As a historical linguistics article, this list is an academic lexicon for the history of Greek place names, and is not a formal dictionary nor gazetteer and should not be relied upon as such.

Indeed, many toponyms in Modern Greek now have different names than were used in by Greek-speaking communities in the past. An example is Malta, which was called Μελίτη (Melítē) and was once home to a Greek-speaking community. However, this community is gone or assimilated, and the common Modern Greek name is Μάλτα (Málta, from Maltese).

However, in other cases, Modern Greek has retained archaic names (sometimes with grammatical modifications).

Distinctly Greek names are also largely retained for places without significant modern Greek populations that had a larger Greek-speaking presence until relatively recent times in history, including many areas in what are now Turkey, Egypt, Russia and Ukraine.

Modern Greek

Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά néa elliniká or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα neoellinikí glóssa) refers collectively to the dialects of the Greek language spoken in the modern era, and includes Standard Modern Greek. The end of the Medieval Greek period and the beginning of Modern Greek is often symbolically assigned to the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, even though that date marks no clear linguistic boundary and many characteristic modern features of the language arose centuries earlier, between the fourth and the fifteenth centuries AD.

During most of the period, the language existed in a situation of diglossia, with regional spoken dialects existing side by side with learned, more archaic written forms, as with the vernacular and learned varieties (Dimotiki and Katharevousa) that co-existed throughout much of the 19th and 20th centuries.

Modern Greek theatre

Modern Greek theatre refers to the theatrical production and theatrical plays written in the Modern Greek language, from the post-Byzantine times until today.

Neophytos Doukas

Neophytos Doukas or Dukas (Greek: Νεόφυτος Δούκας; 1760, Ano Soudena, Ottoman Empire – 1845, northwestern Greece) was a Greek priest and scholar, author of a large number of books and translations from ancient Greek works, and one of the most important personalities of the modern Greek Enlightenment (Diafotismos) during the Ottoman occupation of Greece. His contributions to Greek education have been neglected because of the traditional ideas he advocated concerning the Greek language question (supporting the use of classical Greek over Katharevousa [Puristic Greek] and Dimotiki).

New Athenian School

The term New Athenian School (Greek: Νέα Αθηναϊκή Σχολή), also known as the 1880s Generation (Γενιά του 1880) or the Palamian School (Παλαμική Σχολή) after its leading member Kostis Palamas, denotes the literary production in Athens after 1880. It was a reaction against the First Athenian School and its main aim was the use of Demotic Greek instead of Katharevousa.

The influence of Palamas led many Greek writers who were using the Katharevousa, like Aristomenis Provelengios and Jean Moréas, to abandon it and adopt the Demotic.


Pelion or Pelium (Modern Greek: Πήλιο, Pílio; Ancient Greek/Katharevousa: Πήλιον. Pēlion) is a mountain at the southeastern part of Thessaly in central Greece, forming a hook-like peninsula between the Pagasetic Gulf and the Aegean Sea. Its highest summit, Pourianos Stavros, is 1,624 metres (5,328 ft) amsl. The Greek National Road 38 (GR-38) runs through the southern portion of the peninsula and GR-38A runs through the middle.


Phthiotis (Greek: Φθιώτιδα, Fthiótida, [ˈfθjɔtiða]; ancient Greek and Katharevousa: Φθιῶτις) is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the administrative region of Central Greece. The capital is the city of Lamia. It is bordered by the Malian Gulf to the east, Boeotia in the south, Phocis in the south, Aetolia-Acarnania in the southwest, Evrytania in the west, Karditsa regional unit in the north, Larissa regional unit in the north, and Magnesia in the northeast. The name dates back to ancient times. It is best known as the home of Achilles.

Varieties of Modern Greek

The linguistic varieties of Modern Greek can be classified along two principal dimensions. First, there is a long tradition of sociolectal variation between the natural, popular spoken language on the one hand and archaizing, learned written forms on the other. Second, there is regional variation between dialects. The competition between the popular and the learned registers (see Diglossia), culminated in the struggle between Dimotiki (Demotic Greek) and Katharevousa during the 19th and 20th centuries. As for regional dialects, variation within the bulk of dialects of present-day Greece is not particularly strong, except for a number of outlying, highly divergent dialects spoken by isolated communities.

Origin and genealogy
Writing systems
Promotion and study

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