Katepensaurus

Katepensaurus is an extinct genus of rebbachisaurid sauropod dinosaur known from the Late Cretaceous of south-central Chubut Province of central Patagonia, Argentina. It contains a single species, Katepensaurus goicoecheai.[1]

Katepensaurus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, Cenomanian–Turonian
Katepensaurus cervical vertebrae
Cervical vertebrae
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Sauropodomorpha
Clade: Sauropoda
Family: Rebbachisauridae
Subfamily: Limaysaurinae
Genus: Katepensaurus
Ibiricu et al., 2013
Type species
Katepensaurus goicoecheai
Ibiricu et al., 2013

Discovery

Katepensaurus dorsal vertebrae
Dorsal vertebrae

Katepensaurus was first described and named by Lucio M. Ibiricu, Gabriel A. Casal, Rubén Dario Martínez, Matthew C. Lamanna, Marcelo Luna and Leonardo Salgado in 2013 and the type species is Katepensaurus goicoecheai. It is known solely from the holotype, a partial axial skeleton that includes cervical, dorsal, and caudal vertebrae, found in close association. The holotype, UNPSJB-PV 1007, was collected from the Bajo Barreal Formation, dating to the Cenomanian or Turonian stage of the Late Cretaceous. The generic name is derived from Tehuelche katepenk, "hole", referring to a distinctive opening in the transverse processes of the dorsal vertebrae. The specific name honours Alejandro Goicoechea, the owner of the Estancia Laguna Palacios where the fossil was found.[1]

Description

The dorsal vertebrae of Katepensaurus were found to be unique among other sauropods, exhibiting five autapomorphies, i.e. unique traits. Lateral pneumatic fossa of the centrum (the central part of a vertebra) is divided by internal laminas. On the lateral surface of the vertebrae, overlying the neurocentral junction, vertical ridges or crests are present. A pair of laminae is present in parapophyseal centrodiapophyseal fossa. There are a well-defined, rounded fossae on lateral aspect of postzygapophyses. Finally, transverse processes are perforated by elliptical fenestrae on the vertebrae. Katepensaurus was assigned to Limaysaurinae, a subfamily of rebbachisaurid diplodocoid, based on the presence of traits that were found to diagnose limaysaurines in previous phylogenetic analyses.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c Ibiricu, L. M.; Casal, G. A.; Martínez, R. N. D.; Lamanna, M. C.; Luna, M.; Salgado, L. (2013). "Katepensaurus goicoecheai, gen. et sp. nov., a Late Cretaceous rebbachisaurid (Sauropoda, Diplodocoidea) from central Patagonia, Argentina". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 33 (6): 1351. doi:10.1080/02724634.2013.776562.
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Apatosaurinae is the name of a subfamily of diplodocid sauropods that existed between 157 and 150 million years ago in North America. The group includes two genera for certain, Apatosaurus and Brontosaurus, with at least five species. Atlantosaurus and Amphicoelias might also belong to this group.Below is a cladogram of apatosaurinae interrelationships based on Tschopp et al., 2015.

Brasilotitan

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Cetiosauridae

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Diplodocinae

Diplodocinae is an extinct subfamily of diplodocid sauropods that existed from the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous of North America, Europe and South America, about 161.2 to 136.4 million years ago. Genera within the subfamily include Tornieria, Supersaurus, Leinkupal, Galeamopus, Diplodocus, Kaatedocus and Barosaurus.Cladogram of the Diplodocidae after Tschopp, Mateus, and Benson (2015).

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Flagellicaudata

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Gravisauria

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Pilmatueia

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Rebbachisauridae

Rebbachisauridae is a family of sauropod dinosaurs known from fragmentary fossil remains from the Cretaceous of South America, Africa, North America, and Europe.

Rebbachisaurinae

Rebbachisaurinae is a subfamily within the family Rebbachisauridae, defined to include Rebbachisaurus garasbae and exclude Limaysaurus tessonei. It was first proposed as a rank by Jose Bonaparte in 1995, to include Rebbachisaurus. Some phylogenies however, include Rebbachisaurus in a clade with Limaysaurus, and thus the subfamily was not used. In 2015, a phylogenetic analysis was conducted, and it found Rebbachisaurus instead to be closer to Nigersaurus and related genera than Limaysaurus, and thus was used to replace Nigersaurinae as Rebbachisaurinae is the older term and is named after the genus used for the formation of the family Rebbachisauridae. The 2015 cladogram of Fanti et al. is shown below.

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Vulcanodontidae

The Early Jurassic sauropod dinosaurs Zizhongosaurus, Barapasaurus, Tazoudasaurus, and Vulcanodon may form a natural group of basal sauropods called the Vulcanodontidae. Basal vulcanodonts include some of the earliest known examples of sauropods. The family-level name Vulcanodontidae was erected by M.R. Cooper in 1984. In 1995 Hunt et al. published the opinion that the family is synonymous with the Barapasauridae. One of the key morphological features specific to the family is an unusually narrow sacrum.

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