Kashmiri language

Kashmiri (English: /kæʃˈmɪəri/)[5] or Koshur (English: /kɜːʃur/; कॉशुर, كٲشُر)[6] is a language from the Dardic subgroup[7] of Indo-Aryan languages and it is spoken primarily by the Kashmiris in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley of Jammu and Kashmir in India.[8][9][10] It is also spoken in few areas of Haveli District, Hattian Bala and Neelum District of Azad Kashmir in Pakistan.[11][12]

There are about 6.8 million speakers of Kashmiri and related dialects in Jammu and Kashmir state of India and amongst the Kashmiri diaspora in other states of India,[13] and about 130,000 in the Neelam and Leepa valleys of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.[14]

The Kashmiri language is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India,[15] and is a part of the eighth Schedule in the constitution of the Jammu and Kashmir. Along with other regional languages mentioned in the Sixth Schedule, as well as Hindi and Urdu, the Kashmiri language is to be developed in the state.[16] Most Kashmiri speakers use Urdu or English as a second language.[1] Since November 2008, the Kashmiri language has been made a compulsory subject in all government schools in the Valley up to secondary level.[17]

Kashmiri
कॉशुर, كٲشُر
Koshur
Native toIndia, Pakistan
RegionJammu and Kashmir,[1] Azad Kashmir
EthnicityKashmiris
Native speakers
7 million (2011 census)
Dialects
  • Kashtawari (standard)
  • Poguli
Perso-Arabic script (contemporary),[2]
Devanagari (contemporary),[2]
Sharada script (ancient/liturgical)[2]
Official status
Official language in
 India[3]
Language codes
ISO 639-1ks
ISO 639-2kas
ISO 639-3kas
Glottologkash1277[4]

Literature

In 1920 George Abraham Grierson wrote that “Kashmiri is the only one of the Dardic languages that has a literature”. Kashmiri literature dates back to over 750 years.

Grammar

Kashmiri is a fusional language[18] with verb-second (V2) word order.[19] Several of Kashmiri’s grammatical features distinguish it from other Indo-Aryan languages.[20]

Nouns

Kashmiri nouns are inflected according to gender, number and case. There are no articles, nor is there any grammatical distinction for definiteness, although there is some optional adverbial marking for indefinite or “generic” noun qualities.[21]

Gender

The Kashmiri gender system is divided into masculine and feminine. Feminine forms are typically generated by the addition of a suffix (or in most cases, a morphophonemic change, or both) to a masculine noun.[22] TA relatively small group of feminine nouns have unique suppletion forms that are totally different from the corresponding masculine forms.[23] The following table illustrates the range of possible gender forms:[24]

Process Masculine Feminine Meaning
vowel change sur suɨr child
consonant change hokh hoch dry
vowel/consonant change tot təts hot
suppletive form marɨd zanān man/woman
masculine only kāv --- crow
feminine only --- məch fly

Some nouns borrowed from other languages, such as Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit, Urdu or English, follow a slightly different gender system. Notably, many words borrowed from Urdu have different genders in Kashmiri.[25]

Case

There are five cases in Kashmiri: nominative, dative, ergative, ablative and vocative.[26] Case is expressed via suffixation of the noun.

Kashmiri utilizes an ergative-absolutive case structure when the verb is in simple past tense.[27] Thus, in these sentences, the subject of a transitive verb is marked in the ergative case and the object in nominative, which is identical to how the subject of an intransitive verb is marked.[28][29][30] However, in sentences constructed in any other tense, or in past tense sentences with intransitive verbs, a nominative-dative paradigm is adopted, with objects (whether direct or indirect) generally marked in dative case.[31]

Other case distinctions, such as locative, instrumental, genitive, comitative and allative, are marked by postpositions rather than suffixation.[32]

Noun morphology

The following table illustrates Kashmiri noun declension according to gender, number and case.[33][34]

Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
Nom.
Erg. -an -av -i -av
Dat. -as -an -i -an
Abl. -i/ɨ -av -i -av
Voc. -av -iy -av

Verbs

Kashmiri verbs are declined according to tense and person, and to a lesser extent, gender. Tense, along with certain distinctions of aspect, is formed by the addition of suffixes to the verb stem (minus the infinitive ending -un), and in many cases by the addition of various modal auxiliaries.[35] Postpositions fulfill numerous adverbial and semantic roles.[36]

Tense

Present tense in Kashmiri is an auxiliary construction formed by a combination of the copula and the imperfective suffix -ān added to the verb stem. The various copula forms agree with their subject according to gender and number, and are provided below with the verb yun (to come):[37]

Present
Masculine Feminine
1st Person Sing. chus yivān chas yivān
2nd Person Sing. chukh yivān chakh yivān
3rd Person Sing. chu yivān cha yivān
1st Person Pl. chi yivān cha yivān
2nd Person Pl. chiv yivān chavɨ yivān
3rd Person Pl. chi yivān cha yivān

Past tense in Kashmiri is significantly more complex than the other tenses, and is subdivided into three past tense distinctions.[38] The simple (sometimes called proximate) past refers to completed past actions. Remote past refers to actions that lack this in-built perfective aspect. Indefinite past refers to actions performed a long time ago, and is often used in historical narrative or storytelling contexts.[39]

As described above, Kashmiri is a split-ergative language; in all three of these past tense forms, the subjects of transitive verbs are marked in the ergative case and direct objects in the nominative. Intransitive subjects are marked in the nominative.[40] Nominative arguments, whether subjects or objects, dictate gender, number and person marking on the verb.[41][42]

Verbs of the simple past tense are formed via the addition of a suffix to the verb stem, which usually undergoes certain uniform morphophonemic changes. First and third person verbs of this type do not take suffixes and agree with the nominative object in gender and number, but there are second person verb endings. The entire simple past tense paradigm of transitive verbs is illustrated below using the verb parun ("to read"):[43]

Simple Past (Transitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person por pər’ pər pari
2nd Person poruth pərith pərɨth par’ath
3rd Person por pər’ pər pari

A group of irregular intransitive verbs (special intransitives), take a different set of endings in addition to the morphophonemic changes that affect most past tense verbs.[44]

Simple Past (Special Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -us -’ -as -i
2nd Person -kh -vɨ -kh -vɨ
3rd Person -ch -i

Intransitive verbs in the simple past are conjugated the same as intransitives in the indefinite past tense form.[45]

Simple Past (Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -yas -yēyi -yēyas -yēyi
2nd Person -yākh -yēyvɨ -yēyakh -yēyvɨ
3rd Person -yōv -yēyi -yēyi -yēyi

In contrast to the simple past, verb stems are unchanged in the indefinite and remote past, although the addition of the tense suffixes does cause some morphophonetic change.[46] Transitive verbs are declined according to the following paradigm:[47]

Indefinite Past (Transitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st/3rd Person -yōv -ēyi -ēyi -ēyi
2nd Person -yōth -ēyath -ēyath -ēyath
Remote Past (Transitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st/3rd Person -ēyōv -ēyāyi -ēyāyi -ēyāyi
2nd Person -ēyōth -ēyēyath -ēyēyath -ēyēyath

As in the simple past, "special intransitive" verbs take a different set of endings in the indefinite and remote past:[48]

Indefinite Past (Special Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -ās -āyas -āyas -āyi
2nd Person -kh -kh -āyakh -āyivɨ
3rd Person -av -āyi -āyi -āyi
Remote Past (Special Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -āyās -ēyāyi -ēyēyas -ēyēyi
2nd Person -ākh -ēyvɨ -āyakh -āyivɨ
3rd Person -ēyōv -ēyēyi -ēyāyɨ -ēyāyɨ

Regular intransitive verbs also take a different set of endings in the indefinite and remote past, subject to some morphophonetic variation:[49]

Indefinite Past (Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -yas -yēyi -yēyas -yēyi
2nd Person -yākh -yēyvɨ -yēyakh -yēyvɨ
3rd Person -yōv -yēyi -yēyi -yēyi
Remote Past (Intransitive)
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Person -yēyās -yēyi -yēyās -yēyi
2nd Person -yēyakh -yēyvɨ -yēyakh -yēyvɨ
3rd Person -yēyōv -yēyi -yēyāyɨ -yēyɨ

Future tense intransitive verbs are formed by the addition of suffixes to the verb stem:[50]

Future (Intransitive)
Singular Plural
1st Person -mɨ -mav
2nd Person -akh -yi
3rd Person -yi -an

The future tense of transitive verbs, however, is formed by adding suffixes that agree with both the subject and direct object according to number, in a complex fashion:[51]

Future (Transitive)
Singular Object Plural Object
1st Person Sing. -an -akh
1st Person Pl. -ɨhōn -ɨhōkh
2nd Person Sing. -ɨhǝn -ɨhǝkh
2nd Person Pl. -ɨhūn -ɨhūkh
3rd Person Sing. -yas -yakh
3rd Person Pl. -ɨnas -ɨnakh

Aspect

There are two main aspectual distinctions in Kashmiri, perfective and imperfective. Both employ a participle formed by the addition of a suffix to the verb stem, as well as the fully conjugated auxiliary āsun (“to be”)—which agrees according to gender, number and person with the object (for transitive verbs) or the subject (for intransitive verbs).[52]

Like the auxiliary, the participle suffix used with the perfective aspect (expressing completed or concluded action) agrees in gender and number with the object (for transitive verbs) or subject (for intransitives) as illustrated below:[53]

Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
mut -mɨt’ -mɨts -matsɨ

The imperfective (expressing habitual or progressive action) is simpler, taking the participle suffix -ān in all forms, with only the auxiliary showing agreement.[54] A type of iterative aspect can be expressed by reduplicating the imperfective participle.[55]

Pronouns

Pronouns are declined according to person, gender, number and case, although only third person pronouns are overtly gendered. Also in third person, a distinction is made between three degrees of proximity, called proximate, remote I and remote II.[56]

Nominative
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st ǝs’ ǝs’
2nd tsɨ toh’ tsɨ toh’
3rd prox. yi yim yi yim
3rd R I hu hum humɨ
3rd R II su tim timɨ
Ergative
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st me asi me asi
2nd tse tɔhi tse tɔhi
3rd prox. yem’ yimav yemi yimav
3rd R I hom’ humav homi humav
3rd R II tǝm’ timav tami timav
Dative
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st me asi me asi
2nd tse tɔhi tse tɔhi
3rd prox. yemis yiman yemis yiman
3rd R I homis human homis human
3rd R II tǝmis timan tǝmis timan
Ablative
Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st me asi me asi
2nd tse tɔhi tse tɔhi
3rd prox. yemi yimav yemi yimav
3rd R I homi humav homi humav
3rd R II tami timav tami timav

There is also a dedicated genitive pronoun set, in contrast to the way that the genitive is constructed adverbially elsewhere. As with future tense, these forms agree with both the subject and direct object in person and number.[57]

Masc. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Sing. Fem. Pl.
1st Sing. m’ōn mēn’ mēn’ m’āni
1st Pl. sōn sǝn’ sǝn’ sāni
2nd Sing. cōn cǝn’ cǝn’ cāni
2nd Pl. tuhund tuhɨnd’ tuhɨnz tuhɨnzɨ
3rd Sing. Prox. yem’sund yem’sɨnd’ yem’sɨnz yems’sɨnzi
3rd Pl. Prox. yihund yihɨnd’ yihɨnz yihanzɨ
3rd Sing. R I hom’sund hom’sɨnd’ hom’sɨnz hom’sɨnzɨ
3rd Pl. R I huhund huhɨnd’ huhɨnz huhɨnzɨ
3rd Sing. R II tǝm’sund tǝm’sɨnd’ tǝm’sɨnz tǝm’sɨnzɨ
3rd Pl. R II tihund tihɨnd’ tihɨnz tihɨnzɨ

Adjectives

There are two kinds of adjectives in Kashmiri, those that agree with their referent noun (according to case, gender and number) and those that are not declined at all.[58] Most adjectives are declined, and generally take the same endings and gender-specific stem changes as nouns.[59] The declinable adjective endings are provided in the table below, using the adjective wozul (“red”):[60][61]

Masc. Sing. Fem. Sing. Masc. Pl. Fem. Pl.
Nom. wozul wozaj wozal wozaji
Erg. wozal wozaji wozalav wozalan
Dat. wozalis wozaji wozalan wozalan
Abl. wozalis wozaji wozalav wozalav
Voc. wozaliā wozaj wozalav wozalav

Among those adjectives not declined are adjectives that end in -lad or -a, adjectives borrowed from other languages, and a few isolated irregulars.[62]

The comparative and superlative forms of adjectives are formed with the words tsor (“more”) and sitha (“most”), respectively.[63]

Vocabulary

There are minor differences between the Kashmiri spoken by Hindus and Muslims.[64] For 'fire', a traditional Hindu uses the word agun while a Muslim more often uses the Arabic word nar.[65]

Preservation of old Indo-Aryan vocabulary

Kashmiri retains several features of Old Indo-Aryan that have been lost in other modern Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi and Sindhi.[66] Some vocabulary features that Kashmiri preserves clearly date from the Vedic Sanskrit era and had already been lost even in Classical Sanskrit. This includes the word-form yodvai (meaning if), which is mainly found in Vedic Sanskrit texts. Classical Sanskrit and modern Indo-Aryan use instead the word yadi.[66]

First person pronoun

Both the Indo-Aryan and Iranian branches of the Indo-Iranian family have demonstrated a strong tendency to eliminate the distinctive first person pronoun ("I") used in the nominative (subject) case. The Indo-European root for this is reconstructed as *eǵHom, which is preserved in Sanskrit as aham and in Avestan Persian as azam. This contrasts with the m- form ("me", "my") that is used for the accusative, genitive, dative, ablative cases. Sanskrit and Avestan both used forms such as ma(-m). However, in languages such as Modern Persian, Baluchi, Hindi and Punjabi, the distinct nominative form has been entirely lost and replaced with m- in words such as ma-n and mai. However, Kashmiri belongs to a relatively small set that preserves the distinction. 'I' is ba/bi/bo in various Kashmiri dialects, distinct from the other me terms. 'Mine' is myoon in Kashmiri. Other Indo-Aryan languages that preserve this feature include Dogri (aun vs me-), Gujarati (hu-n vs ma-ri), Konkani (hā̃v vs mhazo), and Braj (hau-M vs mai-M). The Iranian Pashto preserves it too (za vs. maa).[67]

Phonology

Kashmiri has the following vowel phonemes:[68][69]

Vowels

  Front Central Back
High i ɨ ɨː u
Mid e ə əː o
Low a ɔ ɔː

Consonants

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Alveolo
-palatal
Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Stop /
Affricate
plain p b t d ts ʈ ɖ k ɡ
aspirated tsʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
Fricative s z ʃ h
Approximant w l j
Trill r

Archaisms

Kashmiri, as also the other Dardic languages, shows important divergences from the Indo-Aryan mainstream. One is the partial maintenance of the three sibilant consonants s ṣ ś of the Old Indo-Aryan period. For another example, the prefixing form of the number 'two', which is found in Sanskrit as dvi-, has developed into ba-/bi- in most other Indo-Aryan languages, but du- in Kashmiri (preserving the original dental stop d). Seventy-two is dusatath in Kashmiri, bahattar in Hindi-Urdu and Punjabi, and dvisaptati in Sanskrit.[66]

Certain features in Kashmiri even appear to stem from Indo-Aryan even predating the Vedic period. For instance, there was an /s/ > /h/ consonant shift in some words that had already occurred with Vedic Sanskrit (this tendency is even stronger in the Iranian branch of Indo-Iranian), yet is lacking in Kashmiri equivalents. The word rahit in Vedic Sanskrit and modern Hindi-Urdu (meaning 'excluding' or 'without') corresponds to rost in Kashmiri. Similarly, sahit (meaning 'including' or 'with') corresponds to sost in Kashmiri.[66]

Writing system

There are three orthographical systems used to write the Kashmiri language: the Sharada script, the Devanagari script and the Perso-Arabic script. The Roman script is also sometimes informally used to write Kashmiri, especially online.[2]

The Kashmiri language is traditionally written in the Sharada script after the 8th Century A.D.[70] This script however, is not in common use today, except for religious ceremonies of the Kashmiri Pandits.[71]

Today it is written in Perso-Arabic and Devanagari scripts (with some modifications).[72] Among languages written in the Perso-Arabic script, Kashmiri is one of the scripts that regularly indicates all vowel sounds.[73] The Kashmiri Perso-Arabic script has come to be associated with Kashmiri Muslims, while the Kashmiri Devanagari script has come to be associated with the Kashmiri Hindu community.[74][75]

Perso-Arabic alphabet

Consonants

Name Transliteration IPA Isolated glyph
بے be b /b/ ب
پے pe p /p/ پ
تے te t /t̪/ ت
ٹے ṭe /ʈ/ ٹ
ثے se s /s/ ث
جیم jīm j /d͡ʒ/ ج
چے če č /t͡ʃ/ چ
بڑی حے baṛī he h /h/ ح
خے khe kh /kʰ/ خ
دال dāl d /d̪/ د
ڈال ḍāl /ɖ/ ڈ
ذال zāl z /z/ ذ
رے re r /r/ ر
ڑے ṛe /ɽ/ ڑ
زے ze z /z/ ز
ژے ce c /t͡s/ ژ
سین sīn s /s/ س
شین šīn š /ʃ/ ش
صواد swād s /s/ ص
ضواد zwād z /z/ ض
طوئے toʾe t /t̪/ ط
ظوئے zoʾe z /z/ ظ
عین ain ’, – /ʔ, ∅/ ع
غین gain g /g/ غ
فے fe f /f, pʰ/ ف
بڑی قاف baṛī kāf k /k/ ق
كاف kāf k /k/ ک
گاف gāf g /ɡ/ گ
لام lām l /l/ ل
میم mīm m /m/ م
نون nūn n, ̃ /n, ̃/ ن
واؤ wāʾo -v /-w/ و
هے he h /h/ ھ
بڑی یے baṛī ye y /j/ ے
چھوٹی یے choṭī ye -y- /ʲ/ ؠ

The digraphs of Aspirated consonant are as follow.

Digraph Transcription IPA
پھ ph [pʰ]
تھ th [t̪ʰ]
ٹھ ṭh [ʈʰ]
چھ čh [t͡ʃʰ]
ژھ ch [t͡sʰ]
کھ kh [kʰ]

Vowels

Transliteration IPA Initial & combined glyph
a /a/ اَ,بَ
ā /aː/ آ,با
ạ (ö) /ə/ أ,بٔ
ạ̄ (ȫ) /əː/ ٲ,بٲ
i /i/ اِ,بِ
ī /iː/ ايٖ,بيٖ
u',ü /ɨ/ إ,بٕ
ū',ǖ /ɨː/ ٳ,بٳ
u /u/ اُ,بُ
ū /uː/ اوٗ,بوٗ
o /o/ اۆ,بۆ
ō /oː/ او,بو
/ɔ/ اۄ,بۄ
ọ̄ /ɔː/ اۄآ,بۄآ
e /e/ اێ,بێ
ē /eː/ اي,بي

Devanagari

Consonants

Letter च़ छ़ ज़
IPA [k] [kʰ] [g] [t͡ʃ] [t͡ʃʰ] [d͡ʒ] [t͡s] [t͡sʰ] [z] [ʈ] [ʈʰ] [ɖ] [t] [tʰ] [d] [n] [p] [pʰ] [b] [m] [j] [l] [w] [ʃ] [s] [h]
Transliteration k kh g č čh j c ch z ṭh t th d n p ph b m y l w š s h

Vowels

Tabulated below is one version of the proposal to spell the Kashmiri vowels with Devanagari:[76][77]

Letter
IPA [a] [aː] [ɔ] [ɔː] [e] [eː] [ə] [əː] [i] [iː] [ɨ] [ɨː] [u] [uː] [o] [oː] [◌̃]
Transliteration[78] a ā ọ̄ e ē ö ȫ i ī ü ǖ u ū o ō ̃
Vowel mark indicated on consonant k का कॅ कॉ कॆ के कऺ कऻ कि की कॖ कॗ कु कू कॊ को कं

The other version of the proposal is shown below:[79]

Letter -व
IPA [a] [aː] [ə] [əː] [ɨ] [ɨː] [i] [iː] [u] [uː] [e] [eː] [əi] [o] [oː] [əu] [ɔ] [◌̃]
Transliteration a ā ö ȫ ü ǖ i ī u ū e ē ai o ō au ̃
Vowel mark indicated on consonant k का कॅ कॉ कॖ कॗ कि की कु कू कॆ के कै कॊ को कौ क्व or कव कं

In Unicode Block

Devanagari[1]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+090x
U+091x
U+092x
U+093x ि
U+094x
U+095x
U+096x
U+097x ॿ
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 12.0

See also

References

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  2. ^ a b c d Sociolinguistics. Mouton de Gruyter. Retrieved 30 August 2009.
  3. ^ "Jammu, Kashmir & Ladakh: Ethno-linguistic areas". koshur.org. Retrieved 2 June 2007.
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kashmiri". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh
  6. ^ "Kashmiri". Ethnologue. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  7. ^ "Kashmiri language". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2 June 2007.
  8. ^ "Koshur: An Introduction to Spoken Kashmiri". Kashmir News Network: Language Section (koshur.org). Retrieved 2 June 2007.
  9. ^ "Kashmiri Literature". Kashmir Sabha, Kolkata. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 2 June 2007.
  10. ^ S. S. Toshkhani. "Kashmiri Language: Roots, Evolution and Affinity". Kashmiri Overseas Association, Inc. (KOA). Archived from the original on 21 April 2007. Retrieved 2 June 2007.
  11. ^ Shakil, Mohsin. "Languages of Erstwhile State of Jammu Kashmir (A Preliminary Study)".
  12. ^ Snedden, Christopher (2015). Understanding Kashmir and Kashmiris. Oxford University Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-84904-622-0.
  13. ^ "Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011" (PDF). Retrieved 2 July 2018. The precise figures from the 2011 census are 6,554,36 for Kashmiri as a "mother tongue" and 6,797,587 for Kashmiri as a "language" (which includes closely related smaller dialects/languages).
  14. ^ Shakil, Mohsin (2012). "Languages of Erstwhile State of Jammu Kashmir (A Preliminary Study)".
  15. ^ "Scheduled Languages of India". Central Institute of Indian Languages. Retrieved 2 June 2007.
  16. ^ "The Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir (India)" (PDF). General Administrative Department of the Government of Jammu & Kashmir (India). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2007.
  17. ^ "Kashmiri made compulsory subject in schools". One India. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
  18. ^ Koul, Omkar N and Kashi Wali (2006). Modern Kashmiri Grammar Dunwoody Press. pp.25.
  19. ^ Koshur: An Introduction to Spoken Kashmiri (2002). Kashmir News Network, pp.80.
  20. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.ii.
  21. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.25.
  22. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.25.
  23. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.28.
  24. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.26-28.
  25. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.28.
  26. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.31.
  27. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.31.
  28. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.31.
  29. ^ Wade, TR (1888). A Grammar of the Kashmiri Language, SPCK. pp.16.
  30. ^ Bhatt, Rajesh (2007)."Ergativity in Indo-Aryan Languages", MIT Ergativity Seminar, pp.6.
  31. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.32.
  32. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.39.
  33. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.32.
  34. ^ Wade 1888, pp.10-15.
  35. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.83-84.
  36. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.119.
  37. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.84.
  38. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.86.
  39. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.87.
  40. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.87.
  41. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.87.
  42. ^ Zakharyin, Boris (2015). "Indo-Aryan Ergativity and its Analogues in Languages of Central and Western Eurasia", The Poznań Society for the Advancement of Arts and Sciences, PL ISSN 0079-4740, pp.66.
  43. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.89-90.
  44. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.91-92.
  45. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.93.
  46. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.94.
  47. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.94-95.
  48. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.96-97.
  49. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.96-99.
  50. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.100-101.
  51. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.103.
  52. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.105.
  53. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.105.
  54. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.107.
  55. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.108.
  56. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.53.
  57. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.52.
  58. ^ Koshur 2002, pp.79.
  59. ^ Wade 1888, pp.19.
  60. ^ Wade 1888, pp.20.
  61. ^ Koul and Wali 2006, pp.59.
  62. ^ Wade 1888, pp.20.
  63. ^ Wade 1888, pp.21.
  64. ^ Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie, Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world, Elsevier, 2008, ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7, ... Kashmiri occupies a special position in the Dardic group, being probably the only dardic language that has a written literature dating back to the early 13th century ...
  65. ^ Krishna, Gopi (1967). Kundalini: The Evolutionary Energy in Man. Boston: Shambhala. p. 212. ISBN 978-1-57062-280-9.
  66. ^ a b c d K.L. Kalla, The Literary Heritage of Kashmir, Mittal Publications, ... Kashmiri alone of all the modern Indian languages preserves the dvi (Kashmiri du) of Sanskrit, in numbers such as dusatath (Sanskrit dvisaptati), dunamat (Sanskrit dvanavatih) ... the latter (Yodvai) is archaic and is to be come across mainly in the Vedas ...
  67. ^ John D. Bengtson, Harold Crane Fleming, In hot pursuit of language in prehistory: essays in the four fields of anthropology, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2008, ISBN 978-90-272-3252-6, ... However, Gujarati as well as a Dardic language like Kashmiri still preserve the root alternation between subject and non-subject forms (but they replaced the derivative of the Sanskrit subject form ahám by new forms) ...
  68. ^ "Koshur: Spoken Kashmiri: A Language Course: Transcription". Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  69. ^ Koul, Omkar N.; Wali, Kashi (2006). Modern Kashmiri Grammar (PDF). Dunwoody Press. pp. 9–16.
  70. ^ "Sarada". Lawrence. Retrieved 2 June 2007.
  71. ^ "The Sharada Script: Origin and Development". Kashmiri Overseas Association. Archived from the original on 7 January 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  72. ^ "Kashmiri (कॉशुर / كٲشُر)". Omniglot. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  73. ^ Daniels & Bright (1996). The World's Writing Systems. pp. 753–754.
  74. ^ "Valley divide impacts Kashmiri, Pandit youth switch to Devnagari". Indian Express. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  75. ^ "Devnagari Script for Kashmiri: A Study in its Necessity, Feasibility and Practicality". Kashmiri Overseas Association. Archived from the original on 3 January 2009. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
  76. ^ Government of India. (2009). Proposal to add six characters in the Devanagari block for representation of Kashmiri language in Devanagari script.
  77. ^ Pandey, Anshuman. (2009). Comments on India’s Proposal to Add Devanagari Characters for Kashmiri.
  78. ^ The central vowels are typically transcribed ⟨ạ⟩ and ⟨u’⟩ when transliterating Arabic script, ⟨ö⟩ and ⟨ü⟩ when transliterating Nagari.
  79. ^ Everson, Michael & Pravin Satpute. (2006). Proposal to add four characters for Kashmiri to the BMP of the UCS.

Further reading

  • Chapter on Indo-Persian Literature in Kashmir in "The Rise, Growth And Decline Of Indo-Persian Literature" by R. M. Chopra, 2012, published by Iran Culture House, New Delhi. 2nd Edition 2013.
  • Koul, Omkar N & Kashi Wali Modern Kashmiri Grammar Hyattsville, Dunwoody Press, 2006.

External links

12th National Film Awards

The 12th National Film Awards, then known as State Awards for Films, presented by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, India to felicitate the best of Indian Cinema released in 1964. Ceremony took place at Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi on 31 May 1965 and awards were given by then Governor of Maharashtra, P. V. Cherian.Starting with 12th National Film Awards, a new award was introduced at All India level for Best Story Writer. Also awards for films made in English and Kashmiri language are also considered for the President's Silver Medal for Best Feature Film in the respective language at the regional level.

Banihal Pass

Banihal Pass (Devanagari: बनिहाल दर्रा Urdu: بانہال درا)is a mountain pass across the Pir Panjal Range at 2,832 m (9,291 ft) maximum elevation. This mountain range connects the Kashmir Valley in the Indian state Jammu and Kashmir to the outer Himalaya and plains to the south. In the Kashmiri language, "Banihāl" means blizzard.The road from Jammu to Srinagar transversed Banihal Pass until 1956 when Jawahar Tunnel was constructed under the pass. The road now passes through the tunnel and the Banihal Pass is no longer used for road transport.

Zaban Glacier:Zaban is a famous Hill Station located in Sanglaab Valley. This Glacier is situated in the west of Khairkoot Village of SANGLAAB VALLEY.Zaban Glacier is almost 2 kms long in the lap of Sundur Top(3660 meters above sea level)

Zaban Glacier is the origion of Bachliri Nallaha,The main tributary of Chenab River.The local Tourists visits this glacier from march to Mid May.There is a road connectivity for the glacier from jammu srinagar national highway enroutes from Nowgam.The glacier is almost 3 kms from Nowgam and 2 kms from Sanglaab colony.

Bub (film)

Bub (English: Father) is an Indian film in Kashmiri language directed by Jyoti Sarup. It was released in Jammu on 1 December 2001. It is the third Kashmiri film, the preceding one was released 38 years before. The film won the [Nargis Dutt Award for Best Feature Film on National Integration]at the [49th National Film Awards]. The film is based on the [Wandhama Massacre], where several [Kashmiri Pandits] were killed by militants before the Republic Day on 26 January and focuses on one such family that was massacred.

Kanger

A kanger (Kashmiri: कांगर (Devanagari), کانگر (Nastaleeq); also known as kangri or kangid or kangir) is an earthen pot woven around with wicker filled with hot embers used by Kashmiris beneath their traditional clothing to keep the chill at bay, which is also regarded as a work of art. It is normally kept inside the Phiran, the Kashmiri cloak, or inside a blanket. If a person is wearing a jacket, it may be used as a hand warmer. It is about 6 inches (150 mm) in diameter and reaches a temperature of about 150 °F (66 °C). It comes in different variants, small ones for children and large ones for adults.

Kashmiri

Kashmiri may refer to:

something of, from, or related to the Kashmir Valley or the broader region of Kashmir

Kashmiris, an ethnic group/cast native to the Kashmir Valley

Kashmiri language, their language

Kashmiri cinema

Kashmiri cinema is the Kashmiri language-based film industry in the Kashmir Valley of India. The first Kashmiri feature film, Mainz Raat, was released in 1964. Kashmir is a shooting destination for Bollywood films, and Kashmiri actors are well known in Bollywood such as Raj Kumar, Jeevan, Kiran Kumar, Tariq Shah, Sanjay Suri, Rahul Bhat, Amir Bashir, Mir Sarwar to name few of them.

Kashmiris

The Kashmiris (Kashmiri: کٲشُر لُکھ / कॉशुर लुख) are an ethnic group native to the Kashmir Valley, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, who speak Kashmiri, an Indo-Aryan Dardic language. The bulk of Kashmiri people predominantly live in the Kashmir Valley–which is the 'actual' Kashmir and does not include the other territories of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir (i.e. Jammu, Gilgit-Baltistan, Azad Kashmir and Ladakh). Other ethnic groups living in the Jammu and Kashmir state include Gujjars, Dogras, Paharis, Baltis, Ladakhis, Poonchi Sudhans.While Kashmiris are native to the Kashmir Valley, smaller populations of Kashmiris also live in the remaining districts of Jammu and Kashmir. Ethnic Kashmiris can be found in the Chenab region's Doda, Ramban, Reasi and Kishtwar districts and in the Neelam Valley and Leepa Valley of northern Azad Kashmir. Since 1947, many ethnic Kashmiris are also found in Pakistan. Many ethnic Kashmiris from the Kashmir Valley migrated to the Punjab region during the Dogra, Sikh and Afghan rule of Kashmir. Most Kashmiris today are Sunni Muslim but a sizeable Hindu community also exists. Most ethnic Kashmiri Muslims are descended from Kashmiri Pandits and Buddhists, some also use the prefix 'Sheikh'. Common surnames among these people include Bhat/Butt, Dar, Lone, Malik etc.Although all residents of Azad Kashmir call themselves 'Kashmiri', most residents of Azad Kashmir are not ethnic Kashmiris.

Kaul

Kaul (also spelled Koul, Caul or Kol; Kashmiri: कौल (Devanagari), کول (Nastaleeq)) is a surname used by the Kashmiri Pandit community in India.The word Kaul, meaning well born, is derived from Kula, the Sanskrit term for family or clan. Its use as a surname or appellation is a derivative of the ancient name Kaula which means well born and is related to Saivite beliefs.

Kichlu

Kichlu (Kashmiri: किचलू (Devanagari), کچلو (Nastaleeq)) or Kitchlew is a Kashmiri Pandit sub-caste in the Kashmir region of India and Pakistan. The Kichlu are both Hindu and Muslim. The Kichlu sub-caste is a part of the larger Malmas gotras is one known as Paldeo Wasgaré, and this gotra embraces families belonging to the following Kráms, or tribal subdivisions: Sopuri-Pandit, Mála, Poot, Mirakhur, Kadlabaju, Kokru, Bangru, Bakáya, Khashu, Kichlu, Misri, Kar, and Mám.Over time, some Kitchlews have migrated from the Kashmir Valley and have settled in other parts of India, as well as in neighbouring Pakistan.

List of ISO 639-1 codes

ISO 639 is a standardized nomenclature used to classify languages. Each language is assigned a two-letter (639-1) and three-letter (639-2 and 639-3), lowercase abbreviation, amended in later versions of the nomenclature.

This table lists all of:

ISO 639-1: two-letter codes, one per language for ISO 639 macrolanguageAnd some of:

ISO 639-2/T: three-letter codes, for the same languages as 639-1

ISO 639-2/B: three-letter codes, mostly the same as 639-2/T, but with some codes derived from English names rather than native names of languages (in the following table, these differing codes are highlighted in boldface)

ISO 639-3: three-letter codes, the same as 639-2/T for languages, but with distinct codes for each variety of an ISO 639 macrolanguageNote: Colors on the leftmost column represent the language family mentioned in second column.

Literature of Kashmir

Literature of Kashmir has a long history, the oldest texts having been composed in the Sanskrit language. Early names include Patanjali, the author of the Mahabhashya commentary on Pāṇini's grammar, suggested by some to have been the same to write the Hindu treatise known as the Yogasutra, and Dridhbala, who revised the Charaka Samhita of Ayurveda.

In medieval times, philosophers of Kashmir Shaivism include Vasugupta (c. 800), Utpala (c. 925), Abhinavagupta, and Kshemaraja as well as Anandavardhana.

Lone (surname)

Lone is a surname found in various cultures.

The Kashmiri surname (Kashmiri: , لون) is native to the Kashmir Region And North-West Tribal Areas. People with Lone surname are also belongs to Buddhist faith native from Nanded,Parbhani ,marathwada region of Maharashtra,India,Gilgit,Islamabad,Karachi,Rawalpindi,Lahore, And Also North-West Regions of Pakistan.. A variation of the name is Loni found in Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Mahatma Gandhi Series

The Gandhi Series of banknotes are issued by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) as the legal tender of Indian rupee. As the name suggests, the series is so called because the obverse of the banknotes prominently display the portrait of Mahatma Gandhi. Since its introduction in 1996, this series replaced all Lion Capital Series banknotes issued before 1996. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) introduced the series in 1996 with 10 and 500 rupee banknotes.

As of 10 November 2016, the RBI issues banknotes in this series in denominations from ₹5 to ₹100. Printing of five-notes, which had stopped earlier, restarted in 2009. On 8 November 2016, the ₹500 and ₹1000 banknote denominations of this series were demonetized and the new Mahatma Gandhi Series of banknotes were revealed in denominations of ₹500 and ₹2000, intended to replace this series.

Malik clan (Kashmir)

Malik (Kashmiri: मलिक (Devanagari), ملک (Nastaleeq)) is a title used by various clans of Kashmir . It was a title bestowed by royalty on the land owners, military officers and tribal heads. According to books on the history of Kashmir, the Seeah-Maliks branch were actually Rajputs before changing there religion from Hinduism to Islam.This particular branch had looked after the local highways from ancient times, and presented local affairs at the royal court

Pakistani dramas

Pakistani dramas (Urdu: پاکستانی ڈرامہ‎ or Pakistani serials) refers to televised serials produced in Pakistan, with characters played by Pakistanis with episodes broadcast on Pakistani television networks. The serials are produced in Urdu Language; however, an increasing number of them are being produced in other Pakistani languages such as Sindhi, Punjabi and Balochi.

The shorter-form serial format has been a trademark of Pakistani dramas since they began broadcasting on television in the 1960s. Pakistani dramas are popular worldwide, mainly in countries with a large Pakistani diaspora. They are popular in India and mostly watched by Indian Muslims due to the cultural similarity and also watched to some extent by other religious groups due to mutual intelligibility between Urdu and Hindi. They are also popular in other countries of South Asia and also in the Middle East, India and other countries of South Asia, including Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Nepal. According to Shailja Kejriwal, an executive at Zee Entertainment Enterprises, Pakistani dramas have a reputation for "being slightly classier than the local fare" in India.

Phiran

The traditional outfit for both males and females in Kashmir is the phiran or pheran (Kashmiri: پھیرن) and poots. The pheran and poots consist of two gowns, one over the other. The traditional phiran and poots extends to the feet, which was popular up to the late 19th century C.E. However, a relatively modern variation of the phiran and poots extends to below the knees, which is worn with a suthan inside (loose form of shalwar) similar to the styles worn in Afghanistan. It is optional to wear the suthan with a long phiran as traditionally lower garments are not worn with phirans. The traditional phiran and poots do not have side slits.

In summer, the phiran and poots are made of cotton, but in winter, the poots are made out of cotton and the phiran of wool, covering and protecting the body from the cold specially during snow. These dresses are used by the residents of the Kashmir valley and Kashmiris residing in Chenab Valley.

Samovar

A samovar (Russian: самовар, IPA: [səmɐˈvar] (listen); literally "self-brewer") is a heated metal container traditionally used to heat and boil water in Russia. Additionally, the samovar is well known outside of Russia and spread through the Russian culture to Eastern Europe, South-Eastern Europe, Iran, Afghanistan, Kashmir India, the Middle East, Vietnam, and is also known in some parts of Central Europe. Since the heated water is typically used to make tea, many samovars have a ring-shaped attachment (Russian: конфорка, konforka) around the chimney to hold and heat a teapot filled with tea concentrate. Though traditionally heated with coal or charcoal, many newer samovars use electricity to heat water in a manner similar to an electric water boiler. Antique samovars are often prized for their beautiful workmanship.

Trilok Gurtu

Trilok Gurtu (Kashmiri: ترلوک گرٹو, Marathi: त्रिलोक गुर्टू) (born 30 October 1951) is an Indian percussionist and composer, whose work has blended the music of his homeland with jazz fusion, world music and other genres.He has released his own albums and has collaborated with many artists, including Terje Rypdal, Gary Moore, John McLaughlin, Jan Garbarek, Joe Zawinul, Michel Bisceglia, Bill Laswell, Maria João & Mário Laginha, and Robert Miles.

Wazwan

Wazwan(Kashmiri: وازِوان) is a multi-course meal in Kashmiri cuisine, the preparation of which is considered an art and a point of pride in Kashmiri culture and identity. Almost all the dishes are meat-based using lamb or chicken with few vegetarian dishes. It is popular throughout the Kashmir. Moreover, Wazwan is also served internationally at Kashmiri food festivals and reunions.

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