The Kashmir Valley, also known as the Vale of Kashmir, is an intermontane valley in the portion of the Kashmir region administered by India. The valley is bounded on the southwest by the Pir Panjal Range and on the northeast by the main Himalayas range. It is approximately 135 km long and 32 km wide, and drained by the Jhelum River.
Kashmir division is one of the three administrative divisions of the Indian administered state of Jammu and Kashmir. The Kashmir division borders Jammu Division to the south and Ladakh to the east while Line of Control forms its northern and the western border. The division consists of the following districts: Anantnag, Baramulla, Budgam, Bandipore, Ganderbal, Kupwara, Kulgam, Pulwama, Shopian and Srinagar.
Geographical feature, Division
Peer Waer (Garden of saints)
Paradise on Earth,Resh Waer 
|State||Jammu and Kashmir|
|Districts||Anantnag, Baramulla, Budgam, Bandipore, Ganderbal, Kupwara, Kulgam, Pulwama, Shopian and Srinagar.|
|• Total||15,948 km2 (6,158 sq mi)|
|• Length||135 km (83.885 mi)|
|• Width||32 km (19.884 mi)|
|Elevation||1,620 m (5,314 ft)|
|• Density||450.06/km2 (1,165.7/sq mi)|
|Demonym(s)||Kashmiri, Koshur (کوٗشُر in Kashmiri)|
|Ethnicity and language|
|• Languages||Kashmiri (majority), Urdu (as a second language), Pahari, Gojri, Shina|
|• Ethnic groups||Kashmiri, Pahari, Gujar, Shina etc|
|• Religions||97.16% Islam, 1.84% Hinduism, 0.88% Sikhism, 0.11% Buddhism|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Highest peak||Machoi Peak (5458 meters)|
|Largest lake||Wular lake(260 square kilometers)|
|Longest river||Jhelum river(725 kilometers)|
In the first half of the 1st millennium, the Kashmir region became an important centre of Hinduism and later of Buddhism; later still, in the ninth century, Kashmir Shaivism arose. In 1339, Shah Mir became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir, inaugurating the Salatin-i-Kashmir or Swati dynasty. For the next five centuries, Muslim monarchs ruled Kashmir, including the Mughals, who ruled from 1526 until 1751, and the Afghan Durrani Empire, which ruled from 1747 until 1819. That year, the Sikhs, under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir. In 1846, after the Sikh defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War, and upon the purchase of the region from the British under the Treaty of Amritsar, the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, became the ruler of a new State of Jammu and Kashmir. The rule of his descendants, under the paramountcy (or tutelage) of the British Crown, lasted until 1947. In that year, facing a rebellion in the western districts of the state as well as an invasion by Pashtun tribes instigated by the Dominion of Pakistan, the Maharaja of the princely state signed the Instrument of Accession, joining the Dominion of India. Subsequently, he transferred power to a popular government headed by Sheikh Abdullah.
Following this, a war ensued between India and Pakistan. The territory of the state, however, has been the centre of a dispute ever since, now administered by three countries: India, Pakistan, and the People's Republic of China, the latter having taken control of Aksai Chin in 1964. Kashmir valley is however fully under the control of India and is about 15,948 Square Kilometres in area which is about 15.73% of the total area under Indian control.
The major ethnic group of Kashmir Valley are Kashmiris and they speak the Kashmiri language. Smaller ethno-linguistic groups include the Gujjars and Bakarwals who mostly live along mountain ranges of the Valley. The Valley has a Muslim majority population and Islam is practiced by 97.16% of the population with the remaining being Hindus (1.84%), Sikhs (0.88%), Buddhists (0.11%) and others. The principal spoken languages in the valley are Kashmiri and Urdu, with Urdu being the official language. Many speakers of these languages also know English as a second language.
Kashmir Division consists of ten districts:
|Name of District||Headquarters||Area (km²)||Population
The major political parties in the region are the National Conference, the Jammu and Kashmir People's Democratic Party and the Congress. Srinagar in the valley is the summer capital of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The capital moves out of the valley in the winter to Jammu in a grand ceremony called Darbar Move.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Kashmir Valley has a moderate climate, which is largely defined by its geographic location, with the towering Karakoram Range in the north, Pir Panjal Range in the south and west and Zanskar Range in the east. It can be generally described as cool in the spring and autumn, mild in the summer and cold in the winter. As a large valley with significant differences in geo-location among various districts, the weather is often cooler in the hilly areas compared to the flat lower part.
Summer is usually mild and fairly dry, but relative humidity is generally high and the nights are cool. The precipitation occurs throughout the year and no month is particularly dry. The hottest month is July (mean minimum temperature 16 °C, mean maximum temperature 32 °C) and the coldest are December–January (mean minimum temperature −15 °C, mean maximum temperature 0 °C).
Compared with other plain parts of India, Kashmir valley enjoys a more moderate climate but weather conditions are unpredictable. The recorded high temperature is 33 °C and the recorded low is −18 °C. On 5 and 6 January 2012, after years of relatively little snow, a wave of heavy snow and low temperatures (winter storm) shocked the valley covering it in a thick layer of snow and ice.
Kashmir Valley has seen an increase in relative humidity and annual precipitation in the last few years. This is most likely because of the commercial afforestation projects which also include expanding parks and green cover.
Kashmir valley is a popular tourist destination for domestic and foreign tourists. Among the popular tourist places in the valley are Gulmarg that has a ski resort, Dal Lake that has popular house boats, Pahalgam and the major Hindu shrine Amarnath Temple.
Before insurgency intensified in 1989, tourism formed an important part of the Kashmiri economy. As a result, the tourism economy in the Kashmir valley was worst hit. Thousands of Hindu pilgrims visit holy shrine of Amarnath every year and this significantly benefits the state's economy. But this yatra has put Kashmir on the verge of ecological disaster.
Tourism in the Kashmir valley has rebounded in recent years and in 2009, the state became one of the top tourist destinations of India. Gulmarg, one of the most popular ski resort destinations in India, is also home to the world's highest green golf course. However, with the decrease in violence in the state has boosted the states economy specifically tourism. It was reported that 736,000 tourists including 23,000 foreigners visited Kashmir in 2010. Other tourist places include Sonamarg, Kokernag, Verinag, Aharabal and Semthan-Top.
Kashmiri cuisine includes dum aloo (boiled potatoes hollowed and stuffed with heavy amounts of spice), tzaman (a solid cottage cheese), rogan josh (lamb cooked in heavy spices), yakhiyn (lamb cooked in curd with mild spices), hakh (kohlrabi greens), rista-gushtaba (minced meat balls in tomato and curd curry), danival korme and the signature rice. The traditional wazwan feast involves cooking meat or vegetables, usually mutton, in several different ways.
Alcohol is not consumed by many Muslims in the valley. There are two styles of making tea in the region: Noon Chai or salt tea that is pink in colour (known as chinen posh rang or peach flower colour) and popular with locals, and kahwah, a tea for festive occasions, made with saffron and spices (cardamom, cinnamon, sugar, noon chai leaves) and black tea.
Kashmir valley is connected to Jammu and Ladakh regions by road and air. It has access to Jammu region and the rest of India through the Banihal road tunnel near Qazigund on national highway NH 1A and through NH 1B that passes through Sinthan pass and Kishtwar.
Srinagar is the main airport in Kashmir valley and has scheduled flights from Jammu, Leh, Mumbai, Chandigarh and New Delhi. Kashmir valley has a 119 km (74 mi) long modern railway line that started in October 2009 and connects Baramulla in the western part of the valley to Srinagar and Qazigund. It further links the Kashmir Valley to Banihal across the Pir Panjal mountains through the new 11.215 km (7 mile) long Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel or Banihal rail tunnel from 26 June 2013. Banihal railway station will be linked to the rest of India in another few years as the construction of the railway line from Jammu to Banihal progresses steadily. Transport within the valley is predominantly by road.Other airports are in Udhampur, Awantipora, Leh and Jammu. Another airport is proposed in Anantnag.
On 5 December 2014, there were four different terror attacks at multiple places in the Kashmir Valley of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.Baramulla railway station
Baramulla railway station is situated in notified area of Baramulla. It is the first station of 130 km long railway line which connects Kashmir Valley with Banihal.Exodus of Kashmiri Hindus
The Hindus of the Kashmir Valley, were forced to flee the Kashmir valley as a result of being targeted by JKLF and Islamist insurgents during late 1989 and early 1990. Of the approximately 300,000 to 600,000 Hindus living in the Kashmir Valley in 1990 only 2,000–3,000 remain there in 2016.According to the Indian government, more than 62,000 families are registered as Kashmiri refugees including some Sikh families. Most families were resettled in Jammu, National Capital Region surrounding Delhi and other neighbouring states.Jammu-Srinagar National Highway
The Jammu-Srinagar National Highway is the northernmost segment of NH 44 (formerly NH 1A before the renumbering of all national highways). It runs from Srinagar in the Kashmir Valley southward to the city of Jammu.
It is one of the two road links (the other being the Mughal Road) that connects the Kashmir Valley with the rest of India. The traffic on the highway is controlled by two control rooms, one in Srinagar and the other in Jammu.Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front
The Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) is a political organisation active in both Pakistan-administered and Indian-administered Kashmir. It was founded by Amanullah Khan, with Maqbool Bhat also credited as a co-founder. Originally a militant wing of the Plebiscite Front, it changed its name to JKLF in Birmingham, England on 29 May 1977. From then until 1994 it was an active militant organisation. It first established branches in several cities and towns of the UK, and other countries of Europe, United States and Middle East. In 1982, it established a branch in Pakistan-administered Azad Kashmir; in 1987, a branch in Indian-administered Kashmir Valley.
After 1994, the JKLF in Kashmir Valley, under the leadership of Yasin Malik, declared an 'indefinite ceasefire' and reportedly disbanded its military wing. It committed itself to a political struggle for achieving its objective of independence for the entire region of the former princely state. The JKLF branch in Azad Kashmir did not agree with this change of direction and split off from the JKLF in the Valley. In 2005, the two groups merged again retaining the original identity.
Even though the JKLF has only Muslim members, it is notionally secular. It continues to assert that a secular, independent Kashmir free of both India and Pakistan is its eventual goal. Despite having received weapons and training from Pakistani military, it regards Pakistan as an 'occupation power' and carries out political struggle against it in Azad Kashmir.The JKLF in the Kashmir Valley was banned by Indian government under anti-terror law in March 2019.Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir ( and (listen)) is a large region in the southern portion of Kashmir which is administered by India as a state, and often denoted by the acronym, J&K. It is located mostly in the Himalayan mountains, and shares borders with the Indian states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south. The Line of Control separates it from the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan in the west and north respectively, and a Line of Actual Control separates it from the Chinese-administered territory of Aksai Chin in the east. The state has special autonomy under Article 370 of the Constitution of India.A part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, the region is the subject of a territorial conflict among India, Pakistan and China. The western districts of the former princely state known as Azad Kashmir and the northern territories known as Gilgit-Baltistan have been under Pakistani control since 1947.
The Aksai Chin region in the east, bordering Tibet, has been under Chinese control since 1962.
Jammu and Kashmir consists of three regions: Jammu, the Kashmir Valley and Ladakh. Srinagar is the summer capital, and Jammu is the winter capital. Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India with a Muslim-majority population.Kashmir
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term "Kashmir" denoted only the Kashmir Valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal Range. Today, it denotes a larger area that includes the Indian-administered territory of Jammu and Kashmir (which includes the divisions Jammu, Kashmir Valley, and Ladakh), the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan, and Chinese-administered territories of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract.In the first half of the 1st millennium, the Kashmir region became an important centre of Hinduism and later of Buddhism; later still, in the ninth century, Kashmir Shaivism arose. In 1339, Shah Mir became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir, inaugurating the Salatin-i-Kashmir or Shah Mir dynasty. Kashmir was part of the Mughal Empire from 1586 to 1751, and thereafter, until 1820, of the Afghan Durrani Empire. That year, the Sikhs, under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir. In 1846, after the Sikh defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War, and upon the purchase of the region from the British under the Treaty of Amritsar, the Raja of Jammu, Gulab Singh, became the new ruler of Kashmir. The rule of his descendants, under the paramountcy (or tutelage) of the British Crown, lasted until the partition of India in 1947, when the former princely state of the British Indian Empire became a disputed territory, now administered by three countries: India, Pakistan, and China.Kashmiri
Kashmiri may refer to:
something of, from, or related to the Kashmir Valley or the broader region of Kashmir
Kashmiris, an ethnic group native to the Kashmir Valley
Kashmiri language, their languageKashmiri Pandit
The Kashmiri Pandits (also known as Kashmiri Brahmins) are Kashmiri Hindus and a part of the larger Saraswat Brahmin community. They belong to the Pancha (five) Gauda Brahmana groups. from the Kashmir Valley, a mountainous region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. Kashmiri Pandits originally lived in the Kashmir Valley before Muslim influence entered the region after which large numbers converted to Islam. They are one of the only few remaining Kashmiri Hindu community native to Kashmir.Kashmiri cinema
Kashmiri cinema is the Kashmiri language-based film industry in the Kashmir Valley of India. The first Kashmiri feature film, Mainz Raat, was released in 1964. Kashmir is a shooting destination for Bollywood films, and Kashmiri actors are well known in Bollywood such as Raj Kumar, Jeevan, Kiran Kumar, Tariq Shah, Sanjay Suri, Rahul Bhat, Amir Bashir, Mir Sarwar to name few of them.Kashmiris
The Kashmiris (Kashmiri: کٲشُر لُکھ / कॉशुर लुख) are an ethnic group native to the Kashmir Valley, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, who speak Kashmiri, an Indo-Aryan Dardic language. The bulk of Kashmiri people predominantly live in the Kashmir Valley–which is the 'actual' Kashmir and does not include the other territories of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir (i.e. Jammu, Gilgit-Baltistan, Azad Kashmir and Ladakh). Other ethnic groups living in the Jammu and Kashmir state include Gujjars, Dogras, Paharis, Baltis and Ladakhis.While Kashmiris are native to the Kashmir Valley, smaller populations of Kashmiris also live in the remaining districts of Jammu and Kashmir. Ethnic Kashmiris can be found in the Chenab region's Doda, Ramban, Reasi and Kishtwar districts and in the Neelam Valley and Leepa Valley of northern Azad Kashmir. Since 1947, many ethnic Kashmiris are also found in Pakistan. Many ethnic Kashmiris from the Kashmir Valley migrated to the Punjab region during the Dogra, Sikh and Afghan rule of Kashmir. Most Kashmiris today are Sunni Muslim but a sizeable Hindu community also exists. Most ethnic Kashmiri Muslims are descended from Kashmiri Pandits and Buddhists, some also use the prefix 'Sheikh'. Common surnames among these people include Bhat/Butt, Dar, Lone, Malik etc.Although all residents of Azad Kashmir call themselves 'Kashmiri', most residents of Azad Kashmir are not ethnic Kashmiris.Kashmiriyat
Kashmiriyat is the ethno-national and social consciousness and cultural values of the Kashmiri people. The term Kashmiriat has come to signify a centuries-old indigenous secularism of Kashmir. Emerging around the 16th century, it is characterised by religious and cultural harmony, patriotism and pride for their mountainous homeland of Kashmir. In recent 2007 poll conducted by the Centre for the Study of Developing Societies in New Delhi, 84 percent of people in Srinagar want to see the return of Kashmiri Pandits. A MORI survey of popular opinion in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, including the Kashmir Valley, found 92% respondents opposed to the state being divided on the basis of religion or ethnicity. However, scholar Christopher Snedden states that the concept of Kashmiriyat has been 'romanticised' and Kashmiriyat could not prevent antipathy and rivalry between the Kashmiri Pandits and the Kashmiri Muslims.Mughal Road
Mughal Road is a road in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. It gives the rest of India access to the Kashmir valley other than the Jammu-Srinagar National Highway (part of NH 44).
The southern end of the road is Rajouri. It ascends following a river called Tawi (not the one at Jammu) past Aitey, Thanamandi, and Azmatabad, passes over the Pir Panjal mountain range, at an altitude of 3,500 metres (11,500 ft), higher than the Banihal pass at 2,832 metres (9,291 ft), and descends to Bufliaz, a town in the Surankote tehsil of the Poonch district on the Poonch River. From there, the Surankote Draba Road follows this river westward to Poonch, near the border with Pakistan.
The Mughal Road goes up the Poonch River eastward to the Peer Ki Gali pass. It then picks up the Rimbiara River and descends to Shopian, in the Shopian District, at the westerly edge of the Kashmir Valley. This segment, which passes through Behramgalla, Chandimarh, Poshana, Chattapani, Aliabad, Zaznar, Dubjan, and Hirpora, is 84 km long. It is the key route from Poonch to Shopian; the journey of 126 km would otherwise take 588 km. For travelers between Jammu and the Kashmir valley, the Mughal Road is part of a rougher alternative to the Jammu-Srinagar National Highway.National Highway 1A (India, old numbering)
National Highway 1A (NH 1A) was a National Highway in North India that connected the Kashmir valley to Jammu and the rest of India. The northern terminal was in Uri in Jammu & Kashmir and the southern terminal was in Jalandhar. Stretches of old NH 1A ran through some extremely treacherous terrain and shut-offs because of avalanches or landslides common in Winter months. The famous Jawahar Tunnel that connects Jammu with the Kashmir Valley across the Pir Panjal Range falls en route. The total length of NH 1A was 663 km.
New tunnels on the road were planned to reduce the distance between the two cities by 82 km and the travel time by two-thirds. Most of these tunnels such as Chenani-Nashri Tunnel and new Banihal double_road_tunnel have been executed and commissioned.Noon chai
Noon chai, also called sheer chai (from Persian, meaning 'milk tea'), gulabi chai, Kashmiri tea or pink tea, is a traditional tea beverage, originating from Kashmir Valley, made with gunpowder tea (green tea leaves rolled in the shape of gun powder), milk and baking soda.Srinagar railway station
Srinagar railway station or Nowgam railway station is a railway station of the city of Srinagar in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
The station is part of the Jammu–Baramulla line, which once completed, will connect the city to the Rail network of India. Currently,services are to Baramulla and Banihal.The railway line once fully completed is expected to increase tourism and travel to the Kashmir Valley. The work of last leg Chenab Bridge is in final stages and is expected to be completed by 2017.
The station is also planned to be part of a second railway line, the Srinagar–Kargil–Leh line.Tourism in Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state of India locked in Himalayan Mountains. Jammu and Kashmir is home to several Valleys such as the Kashmir Valley, Tawi, Chenab Valley, Poonch, Sindh Valley and Lidder Valley. Some major tourist attractions in Jammu and Kashmir are Srinagar, the Mughal Gardens, Gulmarg, Pahalgam, Patnitop, Jammu, and Ladakh. Some areas require a special permit for non-Indians to visit.Yusmarg
Yusmarg or Yousmarg ( meaning 'Meadow of Jesus') is a hill station in the western part of Kashmir Valley in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is situated 47 km south of Srinagar the capital of the state.Zoji La
Zoji La is a high mountain pass in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, located on National Highway 1 between Srinagar and Leh in the western section of the Himalayan mountain range. It separates Kashmir Valley to its west from Dras Valley to its northeast.
|Average max. and min. temperatures in °F|
|Precipitation totals in inches|
|Districts and divisions|