Kars

Kars (Turkish: Kars, Ottoman Turkish: قارص[3], Armenian: Կարս, less commonly known as Ղարս Ghars)[4] is a city in northeast Turkey and the capital of Kars Province. With a population of 73,836 as of 2011, it is the largest city along Turkey's closed border with Armenia. (As of September 2018, Turkey maintains that the border will remain closed until Armenia ends the occupation of Karabakh region).[5]

For a brief period of time it served as the capital of the medieval Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia.[6][7] The seat of an independent Armenian Kingdom of Vanand during the 9th and 10th centuries.[8] Its significance increased in the 19th century, when the Ottoman and Russian empires contested the possession of the city, with the Russians gaining control as a result of the 1877-78 war. During World War I, the Ottomans took control of the city in 1918 and declared the Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus (promulgated 1 December 1918), but ceded it to the First Republic of Armenia following the Armistice of Mudros (signed 30 October 1918). During the war in 1915, Turkish revolutionaries captured Kars for the last time. The Treaty of Kars, signed in 1921 by the Government of the Grand National Assembly and by the Soviet republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, established the current north-eastern boundaries of Turkey. The treaty included de jure provisions guaranteeing the Armenian residents right to relinquish Turkish nationality, leave the territory freely and take with them either their goods or the proceeds of their sale, but by some accounts formerly Armenian lands had de facto become state property as a consequence of the treaty,[9]. In 1945 Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov rejected the treaty.[10]

Kars
Kars Municipality
Kars Belediyesi
Clockwise from top left: The Cathedral of Kars; Castle of Kars, panoramic view of Kars.
Clockwise from top left: The Cathedral of Kars; Castle of Kars, panoramic view of Kars.
Kars is located in Turkey
Kars
Kars
Location of Kars
Coordinates: 40°37′N 43°6′E / 40.617°N 43.100°ECoordinates: 40°37′N 43°6′E / 40.617°N 43.100°E
Country Turkey
RegionEastern Anatolia
ProvinceKars
Government
 • MayorMurtaza Karaçanta (MHP)
Area
 • District1,804.58 km2 (696.75 sq mi)
Elevation
1,768 m (5,801 ft)
Population
(2012)[2]
 • Urban
78,100
 • District
111,597
 • District density62/km2 (160/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+3 (FET)
Area code(s)(+474)
WebsiteKars Municipality

History

Etymology

As Chorzene, the town appears in Roman historiography (Strabo) as part of ancient Armenia.[11] For the origin of the name "Kars", some sources claim it to be derived from the Georgian word კარი (kari), meaning "the gate" as was the case for other border region strongholds[12] while other sources claim it is from the Armenian word հարս (hars), meaning "bride",[13] or rather from կառուց բերդ (kaṛuts berd), "Kaṛuts Fortress". The Turkish etymology offered by M. Fahrettin Kırzıoğlu (that the name came from the "Karsak", a Turkish tribe), has been dismissed as unsustainable by scholars.[14]

Medieval period

Armenian Cathedral of Kars
The 10th-century Armenian Church of the Holy Apostles, as seen in a photo taken in the late 19th century.
Bagratuni Armenia 1000-en
The Map of Armenian Kingdom under the Reign of Bagratid Dynasty, 10-11th centuries A.D.

Little is known of the early history of Kars beyond the fact that, during medieval times, it had its own dynasty of Armenian rulers and was the capital of a region known as Vanand. Medieval Armenian historians referred to the city by a variety of names, including "Karuts' K'aghak'" (Kars city), "Karuts' Berd", "Amrots'n Karuts'" (both meaning Kars Fortress) and "Amurn Karuts'" (Impenetrable Kars).[4] At some point in the ninth century (at least by 888) it became part of the territory of the Armenian Bagratunis. Kars was the capital of Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia between 928 and 961.[7] During this period the town's cathedral, later known as the Church of the Holy Apostles, was built.[15]

In 963, shortly after the Bagratuni seat was transferred to Ani, Kars became the capital of a separate independent kingdom, again called Vanand. However, the extent of its actual independence from the Kingdom of Ani is uncertain: it was always in the possession of the relatives of the rulers of Ani, and, after Ani's capture by the Byzantine Empire in 1045, the Bagratuni title "King of Kings" held by the ruler of Ani was transferred to the ruler of Kars. In 1064, just after the capture of Ani by Alp Arslan (leader of the Seljuk Turks), the Armenian king of Kars, Gagik-Abas, paid homage to the victorious Turks so that they would not lay siege to his city. In 1065 Gagik-Abas ceded his kingdom to the Byzantine Empire, but soon after Kars was taken by the Seljuk Turks.[4]

The Seljuks quickly relinquished direct control over Kars and it became a small emirate whose territory corresponded closely to that of Vanand, and which bordered the similarly created but larger Shaddadid emirate centered at Ani. The Kars emirate was a vassal of the Saltukids in Erzurum, whose forces were effective in opposing Georgian attempts at seizing Kars. Thus, it was only in 1206 that Zakare of the Zakarids-Mkhargrzeli succeeded in capturing Kars, joining it to their fiefdom of Ani.[16] It was conquered in 1242 by the Mongols; was regained by Georgian Kingdom during the reign of George V the Brilliant (1314–1346), it remained part of the Kingdom before its disintegration, which then passed into the hands of Georgian Atabegs belonging to the House of Jaqeli. In 1387 the city surrendered to Timur (Tamerlane) and its fortifications were damaged. Anatolian beyliks followed for some time after that, until it firstly fell into the hands of the Kara Koyunlu and subsequent Ak Koyunlu. After the Ak Koyunlu, as it went naturally for almost all their former territories, the city fell into the hands of the newly established Safavid dynasty of Iran, founded by king Ismail I. Following the Peace of Amasya of 1555 that followed through the Ottoman-Safavid War of 1533-1555, the city was declared neutral, and its existing fortress was destroyed.[17][18] In 1585, during the Ottoman-Safavid War of 1579-1590, the Ottomans took the city alongside Tabriz.[19] On June 8, 1604, during the next bout of hostilities between the two archrivals, the Ottoman-Safavid War of 1603-1618, Safavid ruler Abbas I retook the city from the Ottomans.[20] The fortifications of the city were rebuilt by the Ottoman Sultan Murad III and were strong enough to withstand a siege by Nader Shah of Persia, in 1731.[21] It became the head of a sanjak in the Ottoman Erzurum Vilayet.[21] In August 1745, a huge Ottoman army was routed at Kars by Nader Shah during the Ottoman-Persian War of 1743-1746.[22] As a result, the Turks fled westwards, raiding their own lands as they went.[22]

Russian administration

Kars 1828
The 1828 Russian siege of Kars (painter January Suchodolski).

In 1807 Kars successfully resisted an attack by the Russian Empire. During a break between the Russian campaigns in the region conducted against the Ottomans, in 1821, commander-in-chief Abbas Mirza of Qajar Iran occupied Kars,[23] further igniting the Ottoman-Persian War of 1821-1823. After another Russian siege in 1828 the city was surrendered by the Ottomans on June 23, 1828 to the Russian general Count Ivan Paskevich, 11,000 men becoming prisoners of war.[21] At the end of the war it returned to Ottoman control for diplomatic reasons, Russia gaining only two border forts. During the Crimean War an Ottoman garrison led by British officers including General William Fenwick Williams kept the Russians at bay during a protracted siege; but after the garrison had been devastated by cholera and food supplies had depleted, the town was surrendered to General Mouravieff in November 1855.[21]

The fortress was again stormed by the Russians in the Battle of Kars during the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78[21] under generals Loris-Melikov and Ivan Lazarev. Following the war, Kars was transferred to Russia by the Treaty of San Stefano. Kars became the capital of the Kars Oblast (province), comprising the districts of Kars, Ardahan, Kaghisman, and Oltu,which was the most southwesterly extension of the Russian Transcaucasus.

From 1878 to 1881 more than 82,000 Muslims from formerly Ottoman-controlled territory migrated to the Ottoman Empire. Among those there were more than 11,000 people from the city of Kars. At the same time, many Armenians and Pontic Greeks (here usually called Caucasus Greeks) migrated to the region from the Ottoman Empire and other regions of Transcaucasia. According to the Russian census data, by 1897 Armenians formed 49.7%, Russians 26.3%, Caucasus Greeks 11.7%, Poles 5.3% and Turks 3.8%.[24]

World War I

Armenians fleeing Kars
Armenian civilians fleeing Kars after its capture by Kâzım Karabekir's forces.

In the First World War, the city was one of the main objectives of the Ottoman army during the lost Battle of Sarikamish in the Caucasus Campaign. Russia ceded Kars, Ardahan and Batum to the Ottoman Empire under the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on March 3, 1918. However, by then Kars was under the effective control of Armenian and non-Bolshevik Russian forces. The Ottoman Empire captured Kars on April 25, 1918, but under the Armistice of Mudros (October 1918) was required to withdraw to the pre-war frontier. The Ottomans refused to relinquish Kars; its military governor instead established a government, the Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus, led by Fahrettin Pirioglu, that claimed Turkish sovereignty over Kars and Turkish-speaking regions as far as Batumi and Alexandropol (Gyumri). Much of the region fell under the administrative control of Armenia in January 1919 but the pro-Turkish government remained in the city until a joint operation launched by British and Armenian troops dissolved it on April 19, 1919, arresting its leaders and sending them to Malta.[25] In May 1919 Kars came under the full administration of the Armenian Republic and became the capital of its Vanand province.

Skirmishes between the Turkish revolutionaries and Armenian border troops in Olti took place during the summer of 1920. In the autumn of that year four Turkish divisions under the command of General Kâzım Karabekir invaded the Armenian Republic, triggering the Turkish-Armenian War.[26] Kars had been fortified to withstand a lengthy siege but, to the astonishment of all, was taken with little resistance by Turkish forces on October 30, 1920, in what some modern scholars have called one of the worst military fiascoes in Armenian history.[27] The terms of the Treaty of Alexandropol, signed by the representatives of Armenia and Turkey on December 2, 1920, forced Armenia to give back all the Ottoman territories granted to it in the Treaty of Sèvres.

After the Bolshevik advance into Armenia, the Treaty of Alexandropol was superseded by the Treaty of Kars (October 23, 1921), signed between Turkey and the Soviet Union. The treaty allowed for Soviet annexation of Adjara in exchange for Turkish control of the regions of Kars, Igdir, and Ardahan. The Treaty of Kars established peaceful relations between the two nations, but as early as 1939, some British diplomats noted indications that the Soviet Union was not satisfied with the established border.

Recent history

After World War II, the Soviet Union attempted to annul the Kars treaty and regain the Kars region and the adjoining region of Ardahan. On June 7, 1945, Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov told the Turkish ambassador to Moscow Selim Sarper that the regions should be returned to the Soviet Union, on behalf of the Georgian and Armenian republics. Turkey found itself in a difficult position: it wanted good relations with the Soviet Union, but at the same time they refused to give up the territories. Turkey itself was in no condition to fight a war with the Soviet Union, which had emerged as a superpower after the second world war. By the autumn of 1945, Soviet troops in the Caucasus were ordered to prepare for a possible invasion of Turkey. Prime Minister Winston Churchill objected to these territorial claims, while President Harry Truman initially felt that the matter should not concern other parties. With the onset of the Cold War, however, the United States came to see Turkey as a useful ally against Soviet expansion and began to support it financially and militarily. By 1948 the Soviet Union dropped its claims to Kars and the other regions.[28]

In April 1993, Turkey closed its Kars border crossing with Armenia, in a protest against the capture of Kelbajar district of Azerbaijan by Armenian forces during the Nagorno-Karabakh War.[29] Since then the land border between Armenia and Turkey has remained closed. In 2006, former Kars mayor Naif Alibeyoğlu said that opening the border would boost the local economy and reawaken the city.[30] Despite unsuccessful attempts to establish diplomatic relations between the two countries in 2009,[31] there remained opposition and pressure from the local population against the re-opening of the border.[32] Under pressure from Azerbaijan, and the local population, including the 20% ethnic Azerbaijani minority, the Turkish foreign minister Ahmet Davutoğlu reiterated in 2010 and 2011 that opening the border with Armenia was out of question.[33][34] As of 2014, the border remains closed.[35]

Demographics

According to Turkey's 2011 Statistical Yearbook, the area has been depopulating because of migration to bigger cities.[36] In İstanbul alone, there are 269,388 people from Kars, more than three times the city's population.[37][38]

Year Total Turks Armenians Others
1878[39] 4,244 2,835 (66.8%) 1,031 (24.4%) 378 Caucasus Greeks (8.9%)
1886[40] 3,939 841 (21.4%) 2,483 (63%) 322 Caucasus Greeks (8.2%), 247 Russians (6.3%)
1897[24] 20,805 786 (3.8%) 10,332 (49.7%) 5,478 Russians (26.3%), 1,084 Poles (5.2%), 733 Caucasus Greeks (3.5%), 486 Tatars (2.3%)
1913[4] 12,175
1970[4] 54,000
1990[41] 78,455
2000[42] 78,473
2013[42] 78,100

Government

On 30 March 2014, Murtaza Karaçanta (MHP) was elected mayor. The previous mayor, Nevzat Bozkuş (AKP), was not reelected. During the June 2015 elections, Kars became a stronghold of the pro-Kurdish HDP, becoming the largest political party in both the city and the province of Kars. Kars has a Kurdish majority. The current mayor is a government appointed mayor and not an elected one.[43] The mayor before Bozkuş was Naif Alibeyoğlu (AKP).[44]

Climate

Kars has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfb), with a significant difference between summer and winter temperatures, as well as night and day temperatures, due to its location away from large bodies of water, its high elevation and relatively high latitude, being where the high plateau of Eastern Anatolia converges with the Lesser Caucasus mountain range. Summers are generally brief and warm with cool nights. The average high temperature in August is 26 °C (79 °F). Winters are very cold. The average low January temperature is −16 °C (3 °F). However, temperatures can plummet to −35 °C (−31.0 °F) during the winter months. It snows a lot in winter, staying for an average of four months in the city. Due to its geographic location of the city in the province, it has a slightly milder climate compared to the surrounding region. Some hills and peaks in the province, especially around the Sarıkamış region, are subarctic (Köppen climate classification Dfc) due to the higher elevation of the region. Both the summers and winters are colder in this area, with winter temperatures reaching −40 °C (−40 °F) more regularly.

Sports

The town has a football club Kars S.K.. Bandy, a sport which does not exist in Turkey today, was once played here.[47]

Education

Kars hosts the Kafkas University, which was established in 1992.

Transport

Kars is served by a main highway from Erzurum, and lesser roads run north to Ardahan and south to Igdir. The town has an airport (Kars Harakani Airport), with daily direct flights to Ankara and Istanbul. Kars is served by a station on the Turkish Railways (TCDD) that links it to Erzurum. This line was originally laid when Kars was within the Russian Empire and connected the city to nearby Alexandropol and Tiflis, with a wartime, narrow-gauge extension running to Erzurum. Turkey's border crossings with Armenia, including the rail link, the Kars-Gyumri-Tbilisi railway, have regrettably been closed since April 1993. Construction on a new line, the Kars–Tbilisi–Baku railway, intended to connect Turkey with Georgia and Azerbaijan, began in 2010 and is scheduled for completion by 2017. The line became operational on October 30, 2017.[48] The line connects Kars to Akhalkalaki in Georgia, from where trains will continue to Tbilisi, and Baku in Azerbaijan.[49]

Places of interest

Kars Citadel

Kars kalesi
Kars Citadel

The Castle of Kars (Turkish: Kars Kalesi), also known as the Citadel, sits at the top a rocky hill overlooking Kars. Its walls date back to the Bagratuni Armenian period (there is surviving masonry on the north side of the castle) but it probably took on its present form during the thirteenth century when Kars was ruled by the Zak'arid dynasty.

The walls bear crosses in several places, including a khachkar with a building inscription in Armenian on the easternmost tower, so the much repeated statement that Kars castle was built by Ottoman Sultan Murad III during the war with Persia, at the close of the sixteenth century, is inaccurate. However, Murad probably did reconstruct much of the city walls (they are similar to those that the Ottoman army constructed at Ardahan). During the eighteenth century at the Battle of Kars (1745) a crushing defeat was inflicted upon the Ottoman army by the Persian conqueror, Nader Shah, not far from the city of Kars.

By the nineteenth century the citadel had lost most of its defensive purpose and a series of outer fortresses and defensive works were constructed to encircle Kars – this new defensive system proved particularly notable during the Siege of Kars in 1855.

Other historical structures

20110419 Tas Kopru bridge Kars Turkey Panorama
"Taşköprü" (Stone Bridge 1725) over the Kars river.
Kars Church Of The Apostles 2009
The Armenian Church of the Apostles housed a museum in the 1960s–70s and was converted to a mosque in 1993.[50]

Below the castle is an Armenian church known as Surb Arak'elots, the Church of the Holy Apostles. Built in the 930s, it has a tetraconch plan (a square with four semicircular apses) surmounted by a spherical dome on a cylindrical drum. On the exterior, the drum of contains bas-relief depictions of twelve figures, usually interpreted as representing the Twelve Apostles. The dome has a conical roof. The church was converted to a mosque in 1579, and then converted into a Russian Orthodox church in the 1880s. The Russian people constructed porches in front of the church's 3 entrances, and an elaborate belltower (now demolished) next to the church. The church was used as a warehouse from the 1930s, and it housed a small museum from 1963 until the late 1970s. Then the building was left to itself for about two decades, until it was converted into a mosque in 1993. In the same district of Kars are two other ruined Armenian churches. A Russian church from the 1900s was converted to a mosque in the 1980s after serving as a school gymnasium.[51]

The "Taşköprü" (Stone Bridge) is a bridge over the Kars river, built in 1725. Close to the bridge are three old bath-houses, none of them operating any longer.

As a settlement at the juncture of Armenian, Turkish, Georgian, Kurdish and Russian cultures, the buildings of Kars come in a variety of architectural styles. Most Russian-era buildings in Kars are identical in architectural style to those of Gyumri in Armenia. Orhan Pamuk in the novel Snow, set in Kars, makes repeated references to "the Russian houses", built "in a Baltic style", whose like cannot be seen anywhere else in Turkey, and deplores the deteriorating condition of these houses.

  • The Mansion of Ahmet Tevfik Pasha (Ahmet Tevfik Paşa Konağı)
  • The Stone Bridge (Taşköprü)
  • The Topchuoglu Bath House (Topçuoğlu Hamamı)
  • The Ilbeoglu Bath House (İlbeyoğlu Hamamı)
  • The Mazlumaga Bath House (Mazlumağa Hamamı)
  • The House of Namık Kemal (Namık Kemal Evi)
  • The Palace of Beylerbeyi (Beylerbeyi Sarayı)
  • The Mansion of Pasha (Paşa Konağı)
  • The Cemetery of Arap Baba (Arap Baba Şehitliği)
  • The Mosque of Yusuf Pasha (Yusuf Paşa Camii)
  • The Mosque of Evliya (Evliya Camii)
  • The Tomb of Ebul Hasan-i Harakani (Ebul Hasan-i Harakani Türbesi)
  • The Mosque of Fethiye (Fethiye Camii)
  • The Mansion of Gazi Ahmet Muhtar Pasha (Gazi Ahmet Paşa Konağı)
  • The Museum of Kars (Kars Müzesi)
  • Tourism Information Office (Kars Kültür ve Turizm İl Müdürlüğü)
  • The State Hospital of Kars (Kars Devlet Hastanesi)

Notable natives

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

The municipality of Kars has developed sister city relationships with following cities at home and abroad:[52]

In popular culture

References

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. ^ Tahir Sezen, Osmanlı Yer Adları (Alfabetik Sırayla), T.C. Başbakanlık Devlet Arşivleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Yayın Nu 21, Ankara, p. 287.
  4. ^ a b c d e Arakelyan, Babken; Vardanyan, Vrezh; Khalpakhchyan, Hovhannes (1979). "Կարս [Kars]". Armenian Soviet Encyclopedia Volume 5 (in Armenian). Yerevan: Armenian Encyclopedia. pp. 342–344.
  5. ^ http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-will-not-open-armenia-border-amid-karabakh-occupation-erdogan-136892
  6. ^ Encyclopaedia of Islam. — E. J. BRILL, 1997. — Vol. IV. — P. 669—670.
  7. ^ a b Bloom, Jonathan M.; Blair, Sheila, eds. (2009). The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture, Volume 3. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 371. ISBN 978-0-19-530991-1.
  8. ^ The new encyclopædia Britannica. — 2002. — Vol. 6. — P. 751 "The seat of an independent Armenian principality during the 9th and 10th centuries, Kars was captured by the Seljuqs in the 11th century."
  9. ^ Morack, Ellinor. The Dowry of the State?: The Politics of Abandoned Property and the Population Exchange in Turkey 1921-1945. University if Bamberg Press. p. 167.
  10. ^ de Waal, Thomas. [Great Catastrophe: Armenians and Turks in the Shadow of Genocide Great Catastrophe: Armenians and Turks in the Shadow of Genocide] Check |url= value (help). Oxford University Press. p. 113.
  11. ^ Strabo. "Geography Stabo - Book XI - Chapter XIV". Retrieved 2011-05-31.
  12. ^ Ring, Trudy; Salkin, Robert M.; La Boda, Sharon (1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Southern Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 357. ISBN 1-884964-02-8.
  13. ^ Room, Adrian (2003). Placenames of the World. McFarland. p. 178. ISBN 0-7864-1814-1.
  14. ^ Bartold, Vasily-[C. J. Heywood]. "Kars." Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1997, vol. 4, p. 669.
  15. ^ (in Armenian) Harutyunyan, Varazdat M. "Ճարտարապետություն" [Architecture] in Հայ Ժողովրդի Պատմություն [History of the Armenian People], eds. Tsatur Aghayan et al. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1976, vol. 3, pp. 374–375.
  16. ^ Lordkipanidze & Hewitt 1987, p. 135.
  17. ^ Mikaberidze, Alexander Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO, 31 jul. 2011 ISBN 1598843362 p 698
  18. ^ Mikaberidze, Alexander (2015). Historical Dictionary of Georgia (2 ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. xxxi. ISBN 978-1442241466.
  19. ^ Endress, Gerhard Islam: An Historical Introduction page 194. Edinburgh University Press, 2002 ISBN 978-0748616206
  20. ^ Somel, Selcuk Aksin. (2003). Historical Dictionary of the Ottoman Empire page XXXV. Scarecrow Press, 13 feb. 2003 ISBN 978-0810866065
  21. ^ a b c d e Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Kars" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 683.
  22. ^ a b Kohn, George Childs. "Dictionary of Wars" Routledge, 2013. ISBN 978-1135954949 p 506
  23. ^ Aksan, Virginia. (2014). Ottoman Wars, 1700-1870: An Empire Besieged page 463. Routledge. ISBN 978-1317884033
  24. ^ a b Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г. Распределение населения по родному языку и уездам Российской Империи кроме губерний Европейской России (in Russian). Demoscope Weekly. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
  25. ^ Hovannisian, Richard G. (1971). The Republic of Armenia, Vol. I: The First Year, 1918–1919. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 197–227. ISBN 0-520-01984-9.
  26. ^ Hovannisian, Richard G. (1996). The Republic of Armenia, Vol. IV: Between Crescent and Sickle, Partition and Sovietization. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 182ff. ISBN 0-520-08804-2.
  27. ^ Hovannisian. Republic of Armenia, Vol. IV, pp. 253–261.
  28. ^ Krikorian, Robert O. (2011), "Kars-Ardahan and Soviet Armenian Irredentism, 1945–1946," in Armenian Kars and Ani, ed. Richard G. Hovannisian. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, pp. 393–409.
  29. ^ Panico, Christopher; Rone, Jemera (1994). Bloodshed in the Caucasus: Escalation of the Armed Conflict in Nagorno Karabakh. Human Rights Watch/Helsinki Watch. p. 74. ISBN 1-56432-142-8. Turkey cut all routes to Armenia in April 1993, after the Karabakh Armenian army - with alleged support from Russian and Armenian armies - seized Kelbajar province of Azerbaijan.
  30. ^ "Kars battles for access to Armenia and beyond", Turkish Daily News, July 30th 2006.
  31. ^ Staff (11 October 2009). "Turkey, Armenia to Reopen Border". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 12 October 2009.
  32. ^ Mammadli, Sabuhi (1 May 2009). "Border Turks Want Door to Armenia Kept Shut". CRS Issue 491. Institute for War and Peace Reporting. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Note: archive not available until mid-2013.
  33. ^ "Armenia border opening out of question, says Davutoğlu". Today's Zaman. 19 July 2010. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Note: archive not available until mid-2013.
  34. ^ "Two vast and ugly blocks of stone". The Economist. 13 January 2011.
  35. ^ "Turkish, Armenian journalists want the border opened". Today's Zaman. 3 June 2012. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Note: archive not available until mid-2013.
  36. ^ Turkish Statistical Institute (2011). "The provinces with highest out-migration according to their net migration rate". Turkey in Statistics 2011 (The Summary of Turkey's Statistical Yearbook 2011) (pdf). p. 15.
  37. ^ http://www.sabah.com.tr/Yasam/2014/01/29/istanbulun-nufus-bilgileri-aciklandi
  38. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-03-13. Retrieved 2014-03-13.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  39. ^ Mirzoyan, Sonya; Badem, Candan (2013). The Construction of the Tiflis-Aleksandropol-Kars Railway (1895-1899): [English]. Institute for Historical Justice and Reconciliation. p. 7. ISBN 9789491145032. At the end of 1878, the indigenous population of the city of Kars included 2,835 Turks, 1,031 Armenians and. 378 Greeks.
  40. ^ Свод статистических данных о населении Закавказского края, извлечённых из посемейных списков 1886 года, г. Тифлис, 1893. Available online here
  41. ^ The new encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 6, p. 751
  42. ^ a b "Kars". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Pop. (2000) 78,473; (2013 est.) 78,100.
  43. ^ "İlhan Aküzüm, Başkan Nevzat Bozkuş'u Ziyaret Etti (Ilhan Aküzüm President Visits Mayor Nevzat Bozkus)". Ihlas News Agency (in Turkish). 18 September 2012. Archived from the original on 24 September 2012. Note: archive not available until mid-2013.
  44. ^ Bakırcı, Cem (7 December 2007). "'Başkanın kardeşiyim belediye elimizde' ("We Have the Mayor's Brother")". Milliyet Online (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 8 December 2007.
  45. ^ http://www.mgm.gov.tr/veridegerlendirme/il-ve-ilceler-istatistik.aspx?m=KARS
  46. ^ http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weatherall.php3?s=89071&refer=&units=metric&cityname=Kars-Turkey
  47. ^ Grigoryan, Aleksandr. В хоккей играют настоящие армяне. Noev Kovcheg (in Russian). Archived from the original on 8 April 2014.
  48. ^ "Baku-Tbilisi-Kars (BTK) railway track becomes operational to carry Chinese goods to Europe". dnd.com.pk. 30 October 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  49. ^ Railway Gazette International February 2009 p54 with map
  50. ^ "Burası cami oldu, burada ayin olmaz". Milliyet (in Turkish). 2008-06-24. Vakıflar Genel Müdürlüğü, 1993 yılında kiliseyi Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı'na devretti. Böylece kilise, yıllar yine cami olarak kullanılmaya başlandı ve adı yine Kümbet Cami olarak değiştirildi.
  51. ^ "THE CATHEDRAL OF KARS: Holy Apostles Church (Surb Arak'elots)." VirtualANI. December 7, 2000.
  52. ^ "Kars Belediyesi'nin çalışmaları" (in Turkish). Siyasal Birikim. 8 October 2007. Archived from the original on 8 April 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 68- KARDEŞ ŞEHİR: Belediyemiz Kardeş Şehir İlişkisi kurulması konusunda gerekli girişimlerde bulunarak yurt içinde Bursa ve Edirne Belediyeleri ile yurt dışında ise Azerbaycan'ın Gence Belediyesi, Almanya'nın Wesel Belediyesi, Norveç'in Kirkenes Belediyesi, Gürcistan'ın Kutaisi Belediyesi ile kardeş şehir ilişkisi kurulmuştur.
  53. ^ "Twin-cities of Azerbaijan". Azerbaijans.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09.

External links

Akhurian Reservoir

Akhurian Reservoir (Armenian: Ախուրյանի ջրամբար; Turkish: Arpaçay Barajı) is a reservoir on the Akhurian River between Armenia and Turkey. The reservoir has a surface area of 54 km² and a volume of 525 million cubic meters. It is one of the largest reservoirs in the Caucasus, smaller than the Mingachevir reservoir and the Shamkir reservoir in Azerbaijan.

Its water is used for irrigation in Armenia's Aragatsotn, Armavir and Shirak provinces.

Water used on Turkey for irrigation (70000 ha agricultural area) in provinces of Kars and Ardahan.

Ani

Ani (Armenian: Անի; Greek: Ἄνιον, Ánion; Latin: Abnicum; Georgian: ანი, Ani, or ანისი, Anisi; Turkish: Anı) is a ruined medieval Armenian city now situated in Turkey's province of Kars, next to the closed border with Armenia.

Between 961 and 1045, it was the capital of the Bagratid Armenian kingdom that covered much of present-day Armenia and eastern Turkey. Called the "City of 1001 Churches", Ani stood on various trade routes and its many religious buildings, palaces, and fortifications were amongst the most technically and artistically advanced structures in the world. At its height, Ani was one of the biggest cities in the world, and its population was probably on the order of 100,000.Long ago renowned for its splendor and magnificence, Ani was sacked by the Mongols in 1236 and devastated in a 1319 earthquake, after which it was reduced to a village and gradually abandoned and largely forgotten by the seventeenth century. Ani is a widely recognized cultural, religious, and national heritage symbol for Armenians. According to Razmik Panossian, Ani is one of the most visible and ‘tangible’ symbols of past Armenian greatness and hence a source of pride.

Baku–Tbilisi–Kars railway

The Baku–Tbilisi–Kars (BTK), or Baku-Tbilisi-Akhalkalaki-Kars railway (BTAK), became operational on 30 October 2017. This is a regional rail link project to directly connect Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey. The project was originally to be completed by 2010, but was delayed to 2013, 2015, 2016, and following a fifth trilateral meeting in February 2016, the three countries' foreign ministers announced that the railway would finally be completed in 2017.Following the first test run by a passenger train from Tbilisi to Akhalkalaki on 27 September 2017, the BTK was inaugurated in the ceremony hosted by the President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev in Alyat on 30 October 2017.The Baku-Tbilisi-Kars project is intended to complete a transport corridor linking Azerbaijan to Turkey (and therefore Central Asia and China to Europe) by rail. (In late 2015, a goods train took only 15 days to travel from South Korea to Istanbul via China, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, and Georgia—considerably less time than a journey by sea.) The line is intended to transport an initial annual volume of 6.5 million tonnes, rising to a long-term target of 17 million tonnes.

Battle of Kars (1745)

The Battle of Kars (August 19, 1745) was the last major engagement of the Ottoman-Persian War. The battle resulted in the complete and utter destruction of the Ottoman army. It was also the last of the great military triumphs of Nader Shah. The battle was in fact fought over a period of ten days in which the first day saw the Ottomans routed from the field, followed by a series of subsequent blockades and pursuits until the final destruction of the Ottoman army. The severity of the defeat, in conjunction with the debacle near Mosul, ended any hopes Istanbul had entertained for a military victory in the war and forced them to enter negotiations with a significantly weaker position than they would otherwise have occupied.

Battle of Sarikamish

The Battle of Sarikamish (Armenian: Սարիղամիշի ճակատամարտ (Sarighamishi chakatamart), Russian: Сражение при Сарыкамыше; Turkish: Sarıkamış Harekatı) was an engagement between the Russian and Ottoman empires during World War I. It took place from December 22, 1914, to January 17, 1915, as part of the Caucasus Campaign.

The outcome of the battle resulted in a Russian victory. The Ottomans employed a strategy which demanded that their troops be highly mobile and to arrive at specified objectives at precise times. This approach was based both on German and Napoleonic tactics. The Ottoman troops, ill-prepared for winter conditions, suffered major casualties in the Allahuekber Mountains.Afterward, Ottoman leader Enver Pasha publicly blamed his defeat on Armenians and the battle served as a prelude to the Armenian Genocide.

Bayburt Dam

Bayburt Dam is a dam in Kars Province, Turkey, built between 1995 and 2003.

Castle of Kars

The Castle of Kars (Turkish: Kars Kalesi) is a former fortification located in Kars, Turkey. It is also known under the name Iç Kale ("Central/Inner Castle", "Citadel").

It was built in 1153 by Vizier Firuz Akay commissioned by Saltuk Sultan Malik Izzeddin Saltuk II. The outer walls surrounding the city were built in the 12th century. The castle, which was destroyed by Timur in 1386, was rebuilt again in 1579 by Lala Mustafa Pasha, who came to Kars ordered by the Ottoman Sultan Murat III.

It is said in the Ottoman sources that the castle was rebuilt with the help of one hundred thousand soldiers and workers. In 1606, the castle was destroyed by the Iranian Shah Abbas I, and in 1616 and in 1636 it was restored twice and new elements were added to it. The castle was hugely damaged after the occupation of the Russians after the Ottoman-Russian War of 1877-1878, and partially changed after 40 years of occupation. The walls of the Castle of Kars were made of basalt masonry.

Cathedral of Kars

The Cathedral of Kars, also known as the Holy Apostles Church (Armenian: Կարսի Սուրբ Առաքելոց եկեղեցի, Karsi Surb Arakelots' yekeghets'i; Turkish: Aziz Havariler Kilisesi or "Church of the Twelve Apostles" 12 Havariler Kilisesi) is a former Armenian Apostolic church in Kars, eastern Turkey. Built in the mid-10th century by the Armenian Bagratid King Abas I (r. 928–953), it was converted into a mosque in 1579. In the 19th and early 20th century it was converted into a Russian Orthodox and later Armenian cathedral. In 1993 it was again converted into a mosque and is called Kümbet Mosque (Turkish: Kümbet Camii, literally "domed mosque"). It currently comprises part of a larger Islamic complex that includes the Evliya Mosque, the biggest mosque in Kars.

Fenwick Williams

General Sir William Fenwick Williams, 1st Baronet of Kars (4 December 1800 – 26 July 1883) was a Nova Scotian and renowned military leader for the British during the Victorian era.

Williams is remembered for his gallant defence of the town of Kars during the Crimean War. He with other British officers inspired the poorly equipped Turkish soldiers to repel Russian attacks by General Murav’ev on the besieged town for three months causing 6,000 Russian casualties. They were forced to surrender due to starvation, disease and shortage of ammunition. However, they surrendered on their own terms, with the officers being allowed to retain their swords. Williams was imprisoned at Ryazan but he was treated very well and released at the end of the Crimean War in 1856. Before returning home he was introduced to Czar Alexander II.

Many other honours were bestowed upon Williams and it was particularly fitting that in 1865-7, he was appointed the first Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, where he had been born at the turn of the 19th century.

KARS-FM

KARS-FM (102.9 FM) is a commercial radio station licensed for Laramie, Wyoming and broadcasting to the Cheyenne, Wyoming and Fort Collins-Greeley, Colorado areas. KARS-FM airs a classic rock music format branded as "Rock 102.9". The station is currently owned by a divestiture trust of Townsquare Media.The station has an FM booster, KARS-FM1, licensed for Fort Collins, Colorado on 102.9 MHz; the booster has been licensed since September 2007.

Kars Eyalet

The Eyalet of Kars (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت قارص; Eyālet-i Ḳarṣ‎) was an eyalet (province) of the Ottoman Empire. Its reported area in the 19th century was 6,212 square miles (16,090 km2).The town of Kars, which had been levelled to the ground by the Timur in 1368, was rebuilt as an Ottoman fortress in 1579 (1580 according to other sources) by Lala Mustafa Pasha, and became capital of an eyalet of six sanjaks and also a place of pilgrimage. It was conquered by Shah Abbas in 1604 and rebuilt by the Turks in 1616.The size of the Kars garrison in 1640s was 1,002 Janissaries and 301 local recruits. Total 1,303 garrison.

Kars Museum

The Kars Museum was opened in 1963 in the Cathedral of Kars (now the Kümbet Mosque) of Kars, Turkey.

The structure was first built as an Armenian church (The Holy Apostles Church) under the Armenian Bagratuni Dynasty by Abbas II in 930–937. In 1579, it was converted to a mosque. Archaeological works from Kars and its surrounding region, as well as objects uncovered by the excavations of the medieval Armenian city of Ani were gathered here. After the new museum building was completed the works were moved and exhibited there.

The new museum in Kars can be found in a road which forks off the road to Ani in the northeast of the town. Finds from the Bronze Age to the present day are on display. An annex also houses an ethnography department.

Kars Oblast

Kars Oblast (Russian: Карсская область, Karsskaya Oblast) was one of the oblasts of the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire between 1878 and 1917. Its capital was the city of Kars, presently in the Republic of Turkey. The governorate bordered with the Ottoman Empire, Batum Oblast, Tiflis Governorate, Erivan Governorate, and from 1883 to 1903 the Kutais Governorate. It covered all of Turkey's present provinces of Kars and Ardahan and the northeastern part of Erzurum Province as well as a small part of Armenia.

Kars Province

Kars Province (Turkish: Kars ili, Armenian: Կարսի նահանգ) is a province of Turkey, located in the northeastern part of the country. It shares part of its closed border with the Republic of Armenia. The provincial capital is the city of Kars. The provinces of Ardahan and Iğdır were until the 1990s part of Kars Province.

Kars gravyer cheese

Kars gravyer cheese is made of high-fat cow's milk. It looks like French gruyère cheese, tastes like Swiss emmental cheese and takes a long time to produce. It usually takes 10 months to age. There are holes of 1–2 cm in the cheese, which is yellow with a darker rind. Poorer quality cheese contains irregular holes of varying size.

Khachkar

A khachkar, also known as an Armenian cross-stone (Armenian: խաչքար, pronounced [χɑtʃʰˈkʰɑɾ], խաչ xačʿ "cross" + քար kʿar "stone") is a carved, memorial stele bearing a cross, and often with additional motifs such as rosettes, interlaces, and botanical motifs. Khachkars are characteristic of Medieval Christian Armenian art.Since 2010, khachkars, their symbolism and craftsmanship are inscribed in the UNESCO list of Intangible Cultural Heritage.

Roast goose

Roast goose is a dish found in Chinese, European, and Middle Eastern cuisines. The goose is in the biological family of birds including ducks, geese, and swans, known as the family of Anatidae. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution. Roasting is a cooking method using dry heat with hot air enveloping the food, cooking it evenly on all sides. Roasting can enhance flavor. Many varieties of roast goose appear in cuisines around the world.

Treaty of Kars

The Treaty of Kars (Turkish: Kars Antlaşması, Russian: Карсский договор, tr. Karskii dogovor, Georgian: ყარსის ხელშეკრულება, Armenian: Կարսի պայմանագիր, Azerbaijani: Qars müqaviləsi) was a peace treaty that established the common borders between Turkey and the three Transcaucasian republics of the Soviet Union (today the independent republics of Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan). The treaty was signed in the city of Kars on 13 October 1921.Signatories of the Treaty of Kars included representatives from the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, which in 1923 would declare the Republic of Turkey, and from the Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian Soviet republics with the participation of the Russian SFSR. The latter four parties would become constituent parts of the Soviet Union after the victory of the Bolsheviks in the Russian Civil War and the December 1922 Union Treaty.The treaty was the successor treaty to the earlier Treaty of Moscow of March 1921. Most of the territories ceded to Turkey in the treaty were acquired by Imperial Russia from the Ottoman Empire during the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878. The only exception was the Surmali region, which had been part of the Erivan Khanate of Iran before it was annexed by Russia in the Treaty of Turkmenchay after the Russo-Persian War of 1826–28.

Turkish–Armenian War

The Turkish–Armenian war, known in Turkey as the Eastern Operation or Eastern Front (Turkish: Doğu Cephesi) of the Turkish War of Independence, refers to a conflict in the autumn of 1920 between the First Republic of Armenia and the Turkish nationalists, following the signing of the Treaty of Sèvres. After an initial Armenian occupation of what is now eastern Turkey, the army of the Turkish National Movement under Kâzım Karabekir reversed the Armenian gains and further invaded and defeated Armenia, also recapturing territory which the Ottoman Empire had lost to the Russian Empire in 1855 and 1878.The Turkish military victory was followed by Soviet union's occupation and sovietization of Armenia. The Treaty of Moscow (March 1921) between Soviet Russia and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey and the related Treaty of Kars (October 1921) confirmed the territorial gains made by Karabekir and established the modern Turkish–Armenian border.

Armenia had territorial disputes with the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans had tried to move the Armenians during the Armenian Genocide and occupied the South Caucasus during Summer 1918. Armenia resisted until the Allied forces won WWI. The Ottomans maintained their troops along their territorial gains until Spring 1919.

Climate data for Kars (1950-2015)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.4
(47.1)
12.0
(53.6)
18.8
(65.8)
25.0
(77.0)
27.0
(80.6)
31.4
(88.5)
35.4
(95.7)
35.4
(95.7)
32.6
(90.7)
26.8
(80.2)
21.9
(71.4)
13.2
(55.8)
35.4
(95.7)
Average high °C (°F) −4.7
(23.5)
−2.9
(26.8)
3.1
(37.6)
11.6
(52.9)
16.7
(62.1)
21.0
(69.8)
25.5
(77.9)
26.2
(79.2)
22.1
(71.8)
14.9
(58.8)
6.6
(43.9)
−1.5
(29.3)
11.5
(52.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −10.3
(13.5)
−8.7
(16.3)
−2.2
(28.0)
5.5
(41.9)
10.2
(50.4)
13.9
(57.0)
17.5
(63.5)
17.6
(63.7)
13.4
(56.1)
7.3
(45.1)
0.4
(32.7)
−6.5
(20.3)
4.8
(40.7)
Average low °C (°F) −16.0
(3.2)
−14.7
(5.5)
−7.8
(18.0)
−0.2
(31.6)
3.9
(39.0)
6.7
(44.1)
9.9
(49.8)
9.8
(49.6)
5.4
(41.7)
0.6
(33.1)
−4.8
(23.4)
−11.8
(10.8)
−1.6
(29.2)
Record low °C (°F) −36.7
(−34.1)
−34.9
(−30.8)
−30.2
(−22.4)
−18.4
(−1.1)
−6.8
(19.8)
−4.0
(24.8)
0.1
(32.2)
−1.9
(28.6)
−4.4
(24.1)
−15.8
(3.6)
−30.0
(−22.0)
−34.4
(−29.9)
−36.7
(−34.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 20.9
(0.82)
22.4
(0.88)
29.6
(1.17)
51.8
(2.04)
79.8
(3.14)
76.5
(3.01)
57.3
(2.26)
42.9
(1.69)
28.7
(1.13)
41.0
(1.61)
26.3
(1.04)
22.1
(0.87)
499.3
(19.66)
Average precipitation days 10.0 10.2 11.5 13.9 18.5 14.8 10.6 8.9 7.1 9.8 8.5 10.2 134
Average relative humidity (%) 83 85 78 68 65 65 63 55 57 62 73 83 70
Mean monthly sunshine hours 96.1 112 155 177 226.3 276 322.4 316.2 252 198.4 135 96.1 2,362.5
Source #1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [45]
Source #2: Weatherbase [46]
Districts

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.