Karnataka

Karnataka (Karnāṭaka) is a state in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Originally known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973. The state corresponds to the Carnatic region. The capital and largest city is Bangalore (Bengaluru).

Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, and Kerala to the south. The state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres (74,122 sq mi), or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 30 districts. Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most widely spoken and official language of the state alongside Konkani, Marathi, Tulu, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kodava and Beary. Karnataka also contains some of the only villages in India where Sanskrit is primarily spoken.[11][12][13]

The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the Bhima, Ghataprabha, Vedavathi, Malaprabha and Tungabhadra in North Karnataka Sharavathi in Shivamogga and the Kaveri and its tributaries, the Hemavati, Shimsha, Arkavati, Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini, in the south. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka eastward, reaching the sea at the Bay of Bengal.

Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the generally accepted one is that Karnataka is derived from the Kannada words karu and nādu, meaning "elevated land". Karu Nadu may also be read as karu, meaning "black" and nadu, meaning "region", as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme region of the state. The British used the word Carnatic, sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna.[14]

With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India. The philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day. Karnataka has contributed significantly to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions.

The economy of Karnataka is the third-largest state economy in India with 15.88 lakh crore (US$230 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of 174,000 (US$2,500).[3][4]

Karnataka
Mysore Palace Morning
7th - 9th century Hindu and Jain temples, Pattadakal monuments Karnataka 5
Brindavan Gardens
Hoysala emblem
Barachukki - a revelation
Hampi virupaksha temple
Anthem: "Jaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate"[1]
"(Victory To You Mother Karnataka)"
Map of Karnataka
Map of Karnataka
Coordinates (Bangalore): 12°58′N 77°30′E / 12.97°N 77.50°ECoordinates: 12°58′N 77°30′E / 12.97°N 77.50°E
Country India
Formation1 November 1956
(as Mysore State)
Capital
and largest city
Bangalore (Bengaluru)
Districts
Government
 • BodyGovernment of Karnataka
 • GovernorVajubhai Vala
 • Chief MinisterH. D. Kumaraswamy (JD (S))
 • Deputy Chief MinisterG. Parameshwara (INC)
 • LegislatureBicameral
 • Parliamentary constituencyRajya Sabha 12
Lok Sabha 28
Area
 • Total191,791 km2 (74,051 sq mi)
Area rank6th
Highest elevation
1,925 m (6,316 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (2011)[2]
 • Total61,130,704
 • Rank8th
 • Density320/km2 (830/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Kannadiga
GDP (2018–19)
 • Total15.88 lakh crore (US$230 billion)
 • Per capita178,121 (US$2,600)
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
ISO 3166 codeIN-KA
Vehicle registrationKA
Official languagesKannada[5]
HDI (2017)Increase 0.682[6] medium · 18th
Literacy (2011)75.36%[7]
Sex ratio (2011)973 /1000 [7]
Websitewww.karnataka.gov.in
Symbols of Karnataka
EmblemGandaberunda[8]
SongJaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate[9]
AnimalIndian elephant[10]
BirdIndian Roller[10]
FlowerLotus[10]
TreeSandalwood[10]

History

Karnataka's pre-history goes back to a paleolithic hand-axe culture evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, hand axes and cleavers in the region.[15] Evidence of neolithic and megalithic cultures have also been found in the state. Gold discovered in Harappa was found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to hypothesise about contacts between ancient Karnataka and the Indus Valley Civilisation ca. 3300 BCE.[16][17]

Prior to the third century BCE, most of Karnataka formed part of the Nanda Empire before coming under the Mauryan empire of Emperor Ashoka. Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed, allowing them to control large areas of Karnataka. The decline of Satavahana power led to the rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the Kadambas and the Western Gangas, marking the region's emergence as an independent political entity. The Kadamba Dynasty, founded by Mayurasharma, had its capital at Banavasi;[18][19] the Western Ganga Dynasty was formed with Talakad as its capital.[20][21]

Mallikarjuna and Kasivisvanatha temples at Pattadakal
Mallikarjuna temple and Kashi Vishwanatha temple at Pattadakal, built successively by the kings of the Chalukya Empire and Rashtrakuta Empire is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

These were also the first kingdoms to use Kannada in administration, as evidenced by the Halmidi inscription and a fifth-century copper coin discovered at Banavasi.[22][23] These dynasties were followed by imperial Kannada empires such as the Badami Chalukyas,[24][25] the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta[26][27] and the Western Chalukya Empire,[28][29] which ruled over large parts of the Deccan and had their capitals in what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style of architecture and Kannada literature which became a precursor to the Hoysala art of the 12th century.[30][31] Parts of modern-day Southern Karnataka (Gangavadi) were occupied by the Chola Empire at the turn of the 11th century.[32] The Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region in the early 12th century before it eventually came under Hoysala rule.[32]

Hoysala emblem
Sala fighting the Lion, the emblem of Hoysala Empire.
Ugranarasimha statue at Hampi dtv
Statue of Ugranarasimha at Hampi, located within the ruins of Vijayanagara, the former capital of the Vijayanagara Empire.

At the turn of the first millennium, the Hoysalas gained power in the region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the emergence of distinctive Kannada literary metres, and the construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the Vesara style of architecture.[33][34][35][36] The expansion of the Hoysala Empire brought minor parts of modern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu under its rule. In the early 14th century, Harihara and Bukka Raya established the Vijayanagara empire with its capital, Hosapattana (later named Vijayanagara), on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in the modern Bellary district. The empire rose as a bulwark against Muslim advances into South India, which it completely controlled for over two centuries.[37][38]

In 1565, Karnataka and the rest of South India experienced a major geopolitical shift when the Vijayanagara empire fell to a confederation of Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota.[39] The Bijapur Sultanate, which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan; it was defeated by the Moghuls in the late 17th century.[40][41] The Bahmani and Bijapur rulers encouraged Urdu and Persian literature and Indo-Saracenic architecture, the Gol Gumbaz being one of the high points of this style.[42] During the sixteenth century, Konkani Hindus migrated to Karnataka, mostly from Salcette, Goa,[43] while during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, Goan Catholics migrated to North Canara and South Canara, especially from Bardes, Goa, as a result of food shortages, epidemics and heavy taxation imposed by the Portuguese.[44]

In the period that followed, parts of northern Karnataka were ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Maratha Empire, the British, and other powers.[45] In the south, the Mysore Kingdom, a former vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, was briefly independent.[46] With the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II, Haidar Ali, the commander-in-chief of the Mysore army, gained control of the region. After his death, the kingdom was inherited by his son Tipu Sultan.[47] To contain European expansion in South India, Haidar Ali and later Tipu Sultan fought four significant Anglo-Mysore Wars, the last of which resulted in Tippu Sultan's death and the incorporation of Mysore into the British Raj in 1799.[48] The Kingdom of Mysore was restored to the Wodeyars and Mysore remained a princely state under the British Raj.

Karnataka declaration
Chief Minister Dr. Devaraj Urs announcing the new name of the Mysore state as 'Karnataka'

As the "doctrine of lapse" gave way to dissent and resistance from princely states across the country, Kittur Chennamma, Sangolli Rayanna and others spearheaded rebellions in Karnataka in 1830, nearly three decades before the Indian Rebellion of 1857. However, Kitturu was taken over by the British East India Company even before the doctrine was officially articulated by Lord Dalhousie in 1848.[49] Other uprisings followed, such as the ones at Supa, Bagalkot, Shorapur, Nargund and Dandeli. These rebellions — which coincided with the Indian Rebellion of 1857 – were led by Mundargi Bhimarao, Bhaskar Rao Bhave, the Halagali Bedas, Raja Venkatappa Nayaka and others. By the late 19th century, the independence movement had gained momentum; Karnad Sadashiva Rao, Aluru Venkata Raya, S. Nijalingappa, Kengal Hanumanthaiah, Nittoor Srinivasa Rau and others carried on the struggle into the early 20th century.[50]

After India's independence, the Maharaja, Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar, allowed his kingdom's accession to India. In 1950, Mysore became an Indian state of the same name; the former Maharaja served as its Rajpramukh (head of state) until 1975. Following the long-standing demand of the Ekikarana Movement, Kodagu- and Kannada-speaking regions from the adjoining states of Madras, Hyderabad and Bombay were incorporated into the Mysore state, under the States Reorganisation Act of 1956. The thus expanded state was renamed Karnataka, seventeen years later, in 1973.[51] In the early 1900s through the post-independence era, industrial visionaries such as Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya, born in Muddenahalli, Chikballapur district, played an important role in the development of Karnataka's strong manufacturing and industrial base.

Geography

Jog Falls 05092016
Jog Falls, formed by Sharavathi River, are the second-highest plunge waterfalls in India.

The state has three principal geographical zones:

  1. The coastal region of Karavali
  2. The hilly Malenadu region comprising the Western Ghats
  3. The Bayaluseeme region comprising the plains of the Deccan Plateau

The bulk of the state is in the Bayaluseeme region, the northern part of which is the second-largest arid region in India.[52] The highest point in Karnataka is the Mullayanagiri hills in Chikmagalur district which has an altitude of 1,929 metres (6,329 ft). Some of the important rivers in Karnataka are Kaveri, Tungabhadra, Krishna, Malaprabha and the Sharavathi. A large number of dams and reservoirs are constructed across these rivers which richly add to the irrigation and hydel power generation capacities of the state.

Karnataka consists of four main types of geological formations[53] — the Archean complex made up of Dharwad schists and granitic gneisses, the Proterozoic non-fossiliferous sedimentary formations of the Kaladgi and Bhima series, the Deccan trappean and intertrappean deposits and the tertiary and recent laterites and alluvial deposits. Significantly, about 60% of the state is composed of the Archean complex which consist of gneisses, granites and charnockite rocks. Laterite cappings that are found in many districts over the Deccan Traps were formed after the cessation of volcanic activity in the early tertiary period. Eleven groups of soil orders are found in Karnataka, viz. Entisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Spodosols, Alfisols, Ultisols, Oxisols, Aridisols, Vertisols, Andisols and Histosols.[53] Depending on the agricultural capability of the soil, the soil types are divided into six types, viz. red, lateritic, black, alluvio-colluvial, forest and coastal soils.

Karnataka experiences four seasons. The winter in January and February is followed by summer between March and May, the monsoon season between June and September and the post-monsoon season from October till December. Meteorologically, Karnataka is divided into three zones — coastal, north interior and south interior. Of these, the coastal zone receives the heaviest rainfall with an average rainfall of about 3,638.5 mm (143 in) per annum, far in excess of the state average of 1,139 mm (45 in). Amagaon in Khanapur received 10,068 mm (396 in) of rainfall in the year 2010 followed by Cherrapunji in Meghalaya received 13,472 mm (530 in) of rainfall.[54][55] In the year 2014 Kokalli in Sirsi taluk received 8,746 mm (344 in) of rainfall, while the wettest region in the state Cherrapunji received 10,235 mm (403 in) of rainfall in that year.[56] Agumbe and Hulikal were considered as rain city or rain capital of Karnataka, being considered as one of the wettest region in the world.[57] The highest recorded temperature was 45.6 °C (114 °F) at Raichur and the lowest recorded temperature was 2.8 °C (37 °F) at Bidar.

The following table shows the places with recorded coldest temperature in Karnataka [Year:2019] Source: KSNDMC [58]

Rank District Taluk Hobli/Village Temperature in Celsius
1 Bidar district Bhalki Nittur Buzurg 4
2 Dharwad district Dharwad Garag 4.1
3 Bijapur district Singi Almel 4.1
4 Belgaum district Hukeri Hukkeri 4.1
5 Tumakuru district Tumkur Hebbur 4.1
6 Bidar district Aurad Kamalnagar 4.3
7 Hassan district Sakleshpur Balegodu 4.3
8 Bidar district Bhalki Halbarga 4.7
9 Chikmagalur district Mudigere Bankal 4.9
10 Uttara Kannada Sirsi Sampakhanda 5

[59]

About 38,724 km2 (14,951 sq mi) of Karnataka (i.e. 20% of the state's geographic area) is covered by forests. The forests are classified as reserved, protected, unclosed, village and private forests. The percentage of forested area is slightly less than the all-India average of about 23%, and significantly less than the 33% prescribed in the National Forest Policy.[60]

Rainfall in Karnataka

Agumbe and Hulikal in Shivamogga District of Western Ghat region is considered as ''Cherrapunji of South India" but still some places in Western Ghats region had resulted much more rainfall than these two villages. Amagaon in Belgaum District recorded magical number of 10,068 mm in the year 2010 , Mundrote in Kodagu district recorded 9974 mm in the year 2011.

The table below compares rainfall  between Agumbe in Thirthahalli taluk in Shimoga district, Hulikal in Hosanagara taluk in Shimoga district, Amagaon in Khanapur Taluk in Belgaum district and Talakaveri and Mundrote in Madikeri taluk in Kodagu district, Kokalli of Sirsi Taluk ,Nilkund of Siddapur Taluk, CastleRock of Supa(Joida) Taluk in Uttara Kannada District, Kollur in Udupi District to show which one can be called the "Cherrapunji of South India".

Year Hulikal Rainfall (mm) Agumbe Rainfall (mm) Amagaon Rainfall (mm) Talacauvery Rainfall (mm) [61] Kokalli Rainfall (mm) Nilkund Rainfall (mm) Castle Rock Rainfall (mm) Mundrote Rainfall (mm) Kollur Rainfall (mm)
2017 5,700 6,311 4,733 5,859 3130 4981 5560 1002 5203
2016 5,721 6,449 4,705 5,430 2682 4655 4968 1458 3496
2015 6,035 5,518 4,013 5,319 2730 4367 3667 3143 4254
2014 7,907 7,917 5,580 7,844 8746 6710 5956 5566 3308
2013 9,383 8,770 8,440 8,628 4464 7082 3667 7199 6614
2012 8,409 6,933 5,987 5,722 5036 5398 6165 3727 6715
2011 8,523 7,921 9,368 6,855 4437 6593 7083 9974 7083
2010 7,717 6,929 10,068 6,794 4002 - - 5042 7685
2009 8,357 7,982 - - - - -
2008 7,115 7,199 - - - - -
2007 9,038 8,255 - - - - -
2006 8,656 8,457 - - -[62][63] - -

The following were the top 5 places that recorded highest rainfall in statistics [2010-2017] [64][65][66][67]

Rank Hobli/Village District Taluk Year Rainfall in mm Elevation in metres
1 Amagaon Belgaum district Khanapur 2010 10,068 785
2 Mundrote Kodagu district/Coorg District Madikeri 2011 9,974 585
3 Hulikal Shimoga district Hosanagara 2013 9,383 614
4 Agumbe Shimoga district Thirthahalli 2013 8,770 643
5 Kokalli/Kakalli Uttara Kannada Sirsi 2014 8,746 780

The following places recorded highest rainfall with respect to each year [2010-2017]

Year Place Taluk District Rainfall in mm Elevation
2017 Agumbe Thirthahalli Shimoga district 6,311 634
2016 Agumbe Thirthahalli Shimoga district 6,449 634
2015 Hulikal Hosanagara Shimoga district 6,035 614
2014 Kokalli Sirsi Uttara Kannada 8,746 780
2013 Hulikal Hosanagara Shimoga district 9,383 614
2012 Hulikal Hosanagara Shimoga district 8,409 614
2011 Mundrote Madikeri Kodagu district 9,974 585
2010 Amagaon Khanapur Belgaum district 10,068 785


[62][63][64][65][66][67]

Sub-divisions

There are 30 districts in Karnataka:

Each district is governed by a district commissioner or district magistrate. The districts are further divided into sub-divisions, which are governed by sub-divisional magistrates; sub-divisions comprise blocks containing panchayats (village councils) and town municipalities.

Cities

Karnataka State Regions
Regions of Karnataka

At the 2011 census, Karnataka's ten largest cities, sorted in order of decreasing population, were Bangalore, Hubli-Dharwad, Mysuru, Gulbarga, Belgaum, Mangalore, Davangere, Bellary, Vijayapur and Shimoga.[69]

Rank City District Population (2011)
1 Bangalore (Bengaluru) Bangalore Urban 8,728,906
2 Hubli-Dharwad (Hubballi–Dharwad) Dharwad district 943,857
3 Mysore (Mysuru) Mysore district 887,446
4 Gulbarga (Kalaburagi) Gulbarga district 532,031
5 Belgaum (Belagavi) Belgaum district 488,292
6 Mangalore (Mangaluru) Dakshina Kannada district 484,785
7 Davanagere (Davangere) Davanagere district 435,128
8 Bellary (Ballari) Bellary district 409,444
9 Vijayapur (Bijapur) Vijayapur district 327,427
10 Shimoga (Shivamogga) Shimoga district 322,428

Demographics

According to the 2011 census of India,[71] the total population of Karnataka was 61,095,297 of which 30,966,657 (50.7%) were male and 30,128,640 (49.3%) were female, or 1000 males for every 973 females. This represents a 15.60% increase over the population in 2001. The population density was 319 per km2 and 38.67% of the people lived in urban areas. The literacy rate was 75.36% with 82.47% of males and 68.08% of females being literate. 84.00% of the population were Hindu, 12.92% were Muslim, 1.87% were Christian, 0.72% were Jains, 0.16% were Buddhist, 0.05% were Sikh and 0.02% were belonging to other religions and 0.27% of the population did not state their religion.[72]

In 2007 the state had a birth rate of 2.2%, a death rate of 0.7%, an infant mortality rate of 5.5% and a maternal mortality rate of 0.2%. The total fertility rate was 2.2.[73]

In the field of speciality health care, Karnataka's private sector competes with the best in the world.[74] Karnataka has also established a modicum of public health services having a better record of health care and child care than most other states of India. In spite of these advances, some parts of the state still leave much to be desired when it comes to primary health care.[75]

Government and administration

Vidhana Soudha 2012
Vidhana Soudha in Bangalore is the seat of the Legislative Assembly of Karnataka.

Karnataka has a parliamentary system of government with two democratically elected houses, the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council. The Legislative Assembly consists of 224 members who are elected for five-year terms.[76] The Legislative Council is a permanent body of 75 members with one-third (25 members) retiring every two years.[76]

The government of Karnataka is headed by the Chief Minister who is chosen by the ruling party members of the Legislative Assembly. The Chief Minister, along with the council of ministers, executes the legislative agenda and exercises most of the executive powers.[77] However, the constitutional and formal head of the state is the Governor who is appointed for a five-year term by the President of India on the advice of the Union government.[78] The people of Karnataka also elect 28 members to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian Parliament.[79] The members of the state Legislative Assembly elect 12 members to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Indian Parliament.

For administrative purposes, Karnataka has been divided into four revenue divisions, 49 sub-divisions, 30 districts, 175 taluks and 745 hoblies / revenue circles.[80] The administration in each district is headed by a Deputy Commissioner who belongs to the Indian Administrative Service and is assisted by a number of officers belonging to Karnataka state services. The Deputy Commissioner of Police, an officer belonging to the Indian Police Service and assisted by the officers of the Karnataka Police Service, is entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining law and order and related issues in each district. The Deputy Conservator of Forests, an officer belonging to the Indian Forest Service, is entrusted with the responsibility of managing forests, environment and wildlife of the district, he will be assisted by the officers belonging to Karnataka Forest Service and officers belonging to Karnataka Forest Subordinate Service. Sectoral development in the districts is looked after by the district head of each development department such as Public Works Department, Health, Education, Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, etc. The judiciary in the state consists of the Karnataka High Court (Attara Kacheri) in Bangalore, Dharwad, and Gulbarga, district and session courts in each district and lower courts and judges at the taluk level.

Politics in Karnataka has been dominated by three political parties, the Indian National Congress, the Janata Dal (Secular) and the Bharatiya Janata Party.[81] Politicians from Karnataka have played prominent roles in federal government of India with some of them having held the high positions of Prime Minister and Vice-President. Border disputes involving Karnataka's claim on the Kasaragod[82] and Solapur[83] districts and Maharashtra's claim on Belgaum are ongoing since the states reorganisation.[84] The official emblem of Karnataka has a Ganda Berunda in the centre. Surmounting this are four lions facing the four directions, taken from the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath. The emblem also carries two Sharabhas with the head of an elephant and the body of a lion.

Economy

Gross State Domestic Product of Karnataka (chart of yearly growth)
GSDP Growth of the Karnatakan Economy over the previous years

Karnataka had an estimated GSDP (Gross State Domestic Product) of about US$115.86 billion in the 2014–15 fiscal year.[85] The state registered a GSDP growth rate of 7% for the year 2014–2015.[86] Karnataka's contribution to India's GDP in the year 2014–15 was 7.54%.[85] With GDP growth of 17.59% and per capita GDP growth of 16.04%, Karnataka is on the 6th position among all states and union territories.[87][88] In an employment survey conducted for the year 2013–2014, the unemployment rate in Karnataka was 1.8% compared to the national rate of 4.9%.[89] A BloombergQuint article argues Karnataka to be India's most prosperous state citing many reasons.[90] In 2011–2012, Karnataka had an estimated poverty ratio of 20.91% compared to the national ratio of 21.92%.[91]

Nearly 56% of the workforce in Karnataka is engaged in agriculture and related activities.[92] A total of 12.31 million hectares of land, or 64.6% of the state's total area, is cultivated.[93] Much of the agricultural output is dependent on the southwest monsoon as only 26.5% of the sown area is irrigated.[93]

Karnataka is the manufacturing hub for some of the largest public sector industries in India, including Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, National Aerospace Laboratories, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Bharat Earth Movers Limited and HMT (formerly Hindustan Machine Tools), which are based in Bangalore. Many of India's premier science and technology research centres, such as Indian Space Research Organisation, Central Power Research Institute, Bharat Electronics Limited and the Central Food Technological Research Institute, are also headquartered in Karnataka. Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited is an oil refinery, located in Mangalore.

The state has also begun to invest heavily in solar power centred on the Pavagada Solar Park. As of December 2017, the state has installed an estimated 2.2 gigawatts of block solar panelling and in January 2018 announced a tender to generate a further 1.2 gigawatts in the coming years: Karnataka Renewable Energy Development suggests that this will be based on 24 separate systems (or 'blocks') generating 50 megawatts each.[94]

Contributions of various sectors to the economy of Karnataka (2006-07)
Contribution to economy by sector

Since the 1980s, Karnataka has emerged as the pan-Indian leader in the field of IT (information technology). In 2007, there were nearly 2,000 firms operating in Karnataka. Many of them, including two of India's biggest software firms, Infosys and Wipro, are also headquartered in the state.[95] Exports from these firms exceeded 50,000 crores ($12.5 billion) in 2006–07, accounting for nearly 38% of all IT exports from India.[95] The Nandi Hills area in the outskirts of Devanahalli is the site of the upcoming $22 billion, 50 square kilometre BIAL IT Investment Region, one of the largest infrastructure projects in the history of Karnataka.[96] All this has earned the state capital, Bangalore, the sobriquet Silicon Valley of India.[97]

Karnataka also leads the nation in biotechnology. It is home to India's largest biocluster, with 158 of the country's 320 biotechnology firms being based here.[98] The state accounts for 75% of India's floriculture, an upcoming industry which supplies flowers and ornamental plants worldwide.[99]

Seven of India's banks, Canara Bank, Syndicate Bank, Corporation Bank, Vijaya Bank, Karnataka Bank, ING Vysya Bank and the State Bank of Mysore originated in this state.[100] The coastal districts of Udupi and Dakshina Kannada have a branch for every 500 persons—the best distribution of banks in India.[101] In March 2002, Karnataka had 4767 branches of different banks with each branch serving 11,000 persons, which is lower than the national average of 16,000.[102]

A majority of the silk industry in India is headquartered in Karnataka, much of it in Doddaballapura, and the state government intends to invest 70 crore in a "Silk City" at Muddenahalli, near Bangalore International Airport.[103][104]

Transport

Air transport in Karnataka, as in the rest of the country, is still a fledgling but fast expanding sector. Karnataka has airports at Bangalore, Mangalore, Belgaum, Hubli, Hampi, Bellary and Mysore with international operations from Bangalore and Mangalore airports.[105]

Karnataka has a railway network with a total length of approximately 3,089 kilometres (1,919 mi). Until the creation of the South Western Zone headquartered at Hubli in 2003, the railway network in the state was in the Southern and Western railway zones. Several parts of the state now come under the South Western Zone, with the remainder under the Southern Railways. Coastal Karnataka is covered under the Konkan railway network which was considered India's biggest railway project of the century.[106] Bangalore is well-connected with inter-state destinations, while other towns in the state are not.[107]

Norwegian Star - Mangalore
Norwegian Star, a Cruise ship docked at the New Mangalore Port.

Karnataka has 11 ports, including the New Mangalore Port, a major port and ten minor ports, of which three were operational in 2012.[108] The New Mangalore port was incorporated as the ninth major port in India on 4 May 1974.[109] This port handled 32.04 million tonnes of traffic in the fiscal year 2006–07 with 17.92 million tonnes of imports and 14.12 million tonnes of exports. The port also handled 1015 vessels including 18 cruise vessels during the year 2006–07. Foreigners can enter Mangalore through the New Mangalore Port with the help of Electronic visa (e-visa).[110] Cruise ships from Europe, North America and UAE arrive at New Mangalore Port to visit the tourist places across Coastal Karnataka.[111][112]

The total lengths of National Highways and state highways in Karnataka are 3,973 and 9,829 kilometres (2,469 and 6,107 mi), respectively. The KSRTC, the state public transport corporation, transports an average of 2.2 million passengers daily and employs about 25,000 people.[113] In the late nineties, KSRTC was split into four corporations, viz., The Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation, The North-East Karnataka Road Transport Corporation and The North-West Karnataka Road Transport Corporation with their headquarters in Bangalore, Gulbarga and Hubli respectively, and with the remnant of the KSRTC maintaining operations in the rest of the state from its headquarters in Bangalore.[113]

Culture

Karnataka Flag
A State flag for Karnataka was unilaterally adopted by the Government of Karnataka in 2018
Flag of Karnataka
The Kannada flag is widely used in Karnataka, though it is not officially recognised

The diverse linguistic and religious ethnicities that are native to Karnataka, combined with their long histories, have contributed immensely to the varied cultural heritage of the state. Apart from Kannadigas, Karnataka is home to Tuluvas, Kodavas and Konkanis. Minor populations of Tibetan Buddhists and tribes like the Soligas, Yeravas, Todas and Siddhis also live in Karnataka. The traditional folk arts cover the entire gamut of music, dance, drama, storytelling by itinerant troupes, etc. Yakshagana of Malnad and coastal Karnataka, a classical dance drama, is one of the major theatrical forms of Karnataka. Contemporary theatre culture in Karnataka remains vibrant with organisations like Ninasam, Ranga Shankara, Rangayana and Prabhat Kalavidaru continuing to build on the foundations laid by Gubbi Veeranna, T. P. Kailasam, B. V. Karanth, K V Subbanna, Prasanna and others.[114] Veeragase, Kamsale, Kolata and Dollu Kunitha are popular dance forms. The Mysore style of Bharatanatya, nurtured and popularised by the likes of the legendary Jatti Tayamma, continues to hold sway in Karnataka, and Bangalore also enjoys an eminent place as one of the foremost centres of Bharatanatya.[115]

Kondadakuli
A yakshagana artist

Karnataka also has a special place in the world of Indian classical music, with both Karnataka[116] (Carnatic) and Hindustani styles finding place in the state, and Karnataka has produced a number of stalwarts in both styles. The Haridasa movement of the sixteenth century contributed significantly to the development of Karnataka (Carnatic) music as a performing art form. Purandara Dasa, one of the most revered Haridasas, is known as the Karnataka Sangeeta Pitamaha ('Father of Karnataka a.k.a. Carnatic music').[117] Celebrated Hindustani musicians like Gangubai Hangal, Mallikarjun Mansur, Bhimsen Joshi, Basavaraja Rajaguru, Sawai Gandharva and several others hail from Karnataka, and some of them have been recipients of the Kalidas Samman, Padma Bhushan and Padma Vibhushan awards. Noted Carnatic musicians include Violin T. Chowdiah, Veena Sheshanna, Mysore Vasudevachar, Doreswamy Iyengar and Thitte Krishna Iyengar.

Gamaka is another classical music genre based on Carnatic music that is practised in Karnataka. Kannada Bhavageete is a genre of popular music that draws inspiration from the expressionist poetry of modern poets. The Mysore school of painting has produced painters like Sundarayya, Tanjavur Kondayya, B. Venkatappa and Keshavayya.[118] Chitrakala Parishat is an organisation in Karnataka dedicated to promoting painting, mainly in the Mysore painting style.

Saree is the traditional dress of women in Karnataka. Women in Kodagu have a distinct style of wearing the saree, different from the rest of Karnataka. Dhoti, known as Panche in Karnataka, is the traditional attire of men. Shirt, Trousers and Salwar kameez are widely worn in Urban areas. Mysore Peta is the traditional headgear of southern Karnataka, while the pagadi or pataga (similar to the Rajasthani turban) is preferred in the northern areas of the state.

Rice and Ragi form the staple food in South Karnataka, whereas Jolada rotti, Sorghum is staple to North Karnataka. Bisi bele bath, Jolada rotti, Ragi mudde, Uppittu, Benne Dose, Masala Dose and Maddur Vade are some of the popular food items in Karnataka. Among sweets, Mysore Pak, Karadantu of Gokak and Amingad, Belgaavi Kunda and Dharwad pedha are popular. Apart from this, coastal Karnataka and Kodagu have distinctive cuisines of their own. Udupi cuisine of coastal Karnataka is popular all over India.

Religion

Vishnu image inside cave number 3 in Badami
Vishnu image inside the Badami Cave Temple Complex number 3. The complex is an example of Indian rock-cut architecture.
Gomateswara
Gomateswara (982–983) at Shravanabelagola is an important centre of Jain pilgrimage.

Adi Shankaracharya (788–820) chose Sringeri in Karnataka to establish the first of his four mathas (monastery). Madhvacharya (1238–1317) was the chief proponent of Tattvavada (Philosophy of Reality), popularly known as Dvaita or Dualistic school of Hindu philosophy — one of the three most influential Vedanta philosophies. Madhvacharya was one of the important philosophers during the Bhakti movement. He was a pioneer in many ways, going against standard conventions and norms. According to tradition, Madhvacharya is believed to be the third incarnation of Vayu (Mukhyaprana), after Hanuman and Bhima. The Haridasa devotional movement is considered as one of the turning points in the cultural history of India. Over a span of nearly six centuries, several saints and mystics helped shape the culture, philosophy, and art of South India and Karnataka in particular by exerting considerable spiritual influence over the masses and kingdoms that ruled South India.

This movement was ushered in by the Haridasas (literally "servants of Lord Hari") and took shape in the 13th century – 14th century CE, period, prior to and during the early rule of the Vijayanagara empire. The main objective of this movement was to propagate the Dvaita philosophy of Madhvacharya (Madhva Siddhanta) to the masses through a literary medium known as Dasa Sahitya literature of the servants of the Lord. Purandaradasa is widely recognised as the "Pithamaha" of Carnatic Music for his immense contribution. Ramanujacharya, the leading expounder of Vishishtadvaita, spent many years in Melkote. He came to Karnataka in 1098 AD and lived here until 1122 AD. He first lived in Tondanur and then moved to Melkote where the Cheluvanarayana Swamy Temple and a well-organised matha were built. He was patronised by the Hoysala king, Vishnuvardhana.[120]

In the twelfth century, Lingayatism emerged in northern Karnataka as a protest against the rigidity of the prevailing social and caste system. Leading figures of this movement were Basava, Akka Mahadevi and Allama Prabhu, who established the Anubhava Mantapa which was the centre of all religious and philosophical thoughts and discussions pertaining to Lingayats. These three social reformers did so by the literary means of "Vachana Sahitya" which is very famous for its simple, straight forward and easily understandable Kannada language. Lingayatism preached women equality by letting women wear Ishtalinga i.e. Symbol of god around their neck. Basava shunned the sharp hierarchical divisions that existed and sought to remove all distinctions between the hierarchically superior master class and the subordinate, servile class. He also supported inter-caste marriages and Kaayaka Tatva of Basavanna. This was the basis of the Lingayat faith which today counts millions among its followers.[121]

The Jain philosophy and literature have contributed immensely to the religious and cultural landscape of Karnataka. Islam, which had an early presence on the west coast of India as early as the tenth century, gained a foothold in Karnataka with the rise of the Bahamani and Bijapur sultanates that ruled parts of Karnataka.[122] Christianity reached Karnataka in the sixteenth century with the arrival of the Portuguese and St. Francis Xavier in 1545.[123]

Buddhism was popular in Karnataka during the first millennium in places such as Gulbarga and Banavasi. A chance discovery of edicts and several Mauryan relics at Sannati in Gulbarga district in 1986 has proven that the Krishna River basin was once home to both Mahayana and Hinayana Buddhism. There are Tibetan refugee camps in Karnataka.

Festivals

Mysore Dasara is celebrated as the Nada habba (state festival) and this is marked by major festivities at Mysore. Bangalore Karaga, celebrated in the heart of Bangalore, is the second most important festival celebrated in Karnataka.[124] Ugadi (Kannada New Year), Makara Sankranti (the harvest festival), Ganesh Chaturthi, Gowri Habba, Ram Navami, Nagapanchami, Basava Jayanthi, Deepavali, and Ramzan are the other major festivals of Karnataka.

Language

Halmidi oldKannada inscription mounted
Halmidi inscription (450 CE) is the earliest attested inscription in the Kannada language.

Distribution of languages in Karnataka[125]

  Kannada (66.54%)
  Urdu (10.83%)
  Telugu (5.84%)
  Tamil (3.45%)
  Marathi (3.38%)
  Hindi (3.30%)
  Tulu (2.61%)
  Others (4.05%)

Kannada is the official language of the state of Karnataka, as the native language of 66.54% of its population as of 2011 and is one of the classical languages of India. Other linguistic minorities in the state were Urdu (10.83%), Telugu (5.84%), Tamil (3.45%), Marathi (3.38%), Hindi (3.3%), Tulu (2.61%), Konkani (1.29%), Malayalam (1.27%) and Kodava Takk (0.18%).[125][126][127]

Kannada played a crucial role in the creation of Karnataka: linguistic demographics played a major role in defining the new state in 1956. Tulu, Konkani and Kodava are other minor native languages that share a long history in the state. Urdu is spoken widely by the Muslim population. Less widely spoken languages include Beary bashe and certain languages such as Sankethi. Some of the regional languages in Karnataka are Tulu, Kodava, Konkani and Beary.[128][129][130]

Kannada features a rich and ancient body of literature including religious and secular genre, covering topics as diverse as Jainism (such as Puranas), Lingayatism (such as Vachanas), Vaishnavism (such as Haridasa Sahitya) and modern literature. Evidence from edicts during the time of Ashoka (reigned 274–232 BCE) suggest that Buddhist literature influenced the Kannada script and its literature. The Halmidi inscription, the earliest attested full-length inscription in the Kannada language and script, dates from 450 CE, while the earliest available literary work, the Kavirajamarga, has been dated to 850 CE. References made in the Kavirajamarga, however, prove that Kannada literature flourished in the native composition meters such as Chattana, Beddande and Melvadu during earlier centuries. The classic refers to several earlier greats (purvacharyar) of Kannada poetry and prose.[131]

Kuvempu, the renowned Kannada poet and writer who wrote Jaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate, the state anthem of Karnataka[132] was the first recipient of the "Karnataka Ratna" award, the highest civilian award bestowed by the Government of Karnataka. Contemporary Kannada literature has received considerable acknowledgement in the arena of Indian literature, with eight Kannada writers winning India's highest literary honour, the Jnanpith award.

Tulu is spoken mainly in the coastal districts of Udupi and Dakshina Kannada. Tulu Mahabharato, written by Arunabja in the Tigalari script, is the oldest surviving Tulu text.[133] Tigalari script was used by Brahmins to write Sanskrit language. The use of the Kannada script for writing Tulu and non-availability of print in Tigalari script contributed to the marginalisation of Tigalari script. Konkani is mostly spoken in the Uttara Kannada and Dakshina Kannada districts and in parts of Udupi, Konkani use the Kannada script for writing.[134] The Kodavas who mainly reside in the Kodagu district, speak Kodava Takk. Two regional variations of the language exist, the northern Mendale Takka and the southern Kiggaati Takka.[135] Kodava Takk use the Kannada script for writing. English is the medium of education in many schools and widely used for business communication in most private companies.

All of the state's languages are patronised and promoted by governmental and quasi-governmental bodies. The Kannada Sahitya Parishat and the Kannada Sahitya Akademi are responsible for the promotion of Kannada while the Karnataka Konkani Sahitya Akademi,[136] the Tulu Sahitya Akademi and the Kodava Sahitya Akademi promote their respective languages.

Education

Sheeju iisc
Indian Institute of Science is one of the premier institutes of India.

As per the 2011 census, Karnataka had a literacy rate of 75.36%, with 82.47% of males and 68.08% of females in the state being literate.[7] In 2001, the literacy rate of the state were 67.04%, with 76.29% of males and 57.45% of females being literate.[137] The state is home to some of the premier educational and research institutions of India such as the Indian Institute of Science, the Indian Institute of Management, the Indian Institute of Technology Dharwad the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, the National Institute of Technology Karnataka and the National Law School of India University.

In March 2006, Karnataka had 54,529 primary schools with 252,875 teachers and 8.495 million students,[138] and 9498 secondary schools with 92,287 teachers and 1.384 million students.[138] There are three kinds of schools in the state, viz., government-run, private aided (financial aid is provided by the government) and private unaided (no financial aid is provided). The primary languages of instruction in most schools are Kannada and English.

The syllabus taught in the schools is either of the CBSE, the ICSE or the state syllabus (SSLC) defined by the Department of Public Instruction of the Government of Karnataka. However, some schools follow the NIOS syllabus. The state has two sainik schools — in Kodagu Sainik School in Kodagu and in Bijapur Sainik School in Bijapur.

To maximise attendance in schools, the Karnataka Government has launched a midday meal scheme in government and aided schools in which free lunch is provided to the students.[139]

Statewide board examinations are conducted at the end of secondary education. Students who qualify are allowed to pursue a two-year pre-university course, after which they become eligible to pursue under-graduate degrees.

Karnataka stats
Literacy rates of Karnataka districts[140]

There are 481 degree colleges affiliated with one of the universities in the state, viz. Bangalore University, Gulbarga University, Karnatak University, Kuvempu University, Mangalore University and Mysore University.[141] In 1998, the engineering colleges in the state were brought under the newly formed Visvesvaraya Technological University headquartered at Belgaum, whereas the medical colleges are run under the jurisdiction of the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences. Some of these baccalaureate colleges are accredited with the status of a deemed university. There are 186 engineering, 39 medical and 41 dental colleges in the state.[142] Udupi, Sringeri, Gokarna and Melkote are well-known places of Sanskrit and Vedic learning. In 2015 the Central Government decided to establish the first Indian Institute of Technology in Karnataka at Dharwad.[143] Tulu and Konkani[144] languages are taught as an optional subject in the twin districts of South Canara and Udupi.[145]

Christ University, CMR University, Manipal Academy Of Higher Education and PES University are private universities in Karnataka.

High literacy districts

Rank District Literacy
1 Udupi 88.57%
2 Bangalore Urban 87.67%
3 Dakshina Kannada (South Canara) 86.24%
4 Uttara Kannada (North Canara) 84.06%
5 Kodagu 82.61%

High literacy taluks

Rank Taluk Literacy
1 Mangaluru (Dakshina Kannada) 92%
2 Karwar (Uttara Kannada) 90%
3 Udupi (Udupi) 89%
4 Madikeri (Kodagu) 88%
5 Sirsi (Uttara Kannada) 88%

Media

The era of Kannada newspapers started in the year 1843 when Hermann Mögling, a missionary from Basel Mission, published the first Kannada newspaper called Mangalooru Samachara in Mangalore. The first Kannada periodical, Mysuru Vrittanta Bodhini was started by Bhashyam Bhashyacharya in Mysore. Shortly after Indian independence in 1948, K. N. Guruswamy founded The Printers (Mysore) Private Limited and began publishing two newspapers, Deccan Herald and Prajavani. Presently the Times of India and Vijaya Karnataka are the largest-selling English and Kannada newspapers respectively.[146][147] A vast number of weekly, biweekly and monthly magazines are under publication in both Kannada and English. Udayavani, Kannadaprabha, Samyukta Karnataka, VarthaBharathi, Sanjevani, Eesanje, Hosa digantha, Karavali Ale are also some popular dailies published from Karnataka.

Doordarshan is the broadcaster of the Government of India and its channel DD Chandana is dedicated to Kannada. Prominent Kannada channels include Colors Kannada, Zee Kannada and Udaya TV.

Karnataka occupies a special place in the history of Indian radio. In 1935, Aakashvani, the first private radio station in India, was started by Prof. M.V. Gopalaswamy in Mysore.[148] The popular radio station was taken over by the local municipality and later by All India Radio (AIR) and moved to Bangalore in 1955. Later in 1957, AIR adopted the original name of the radio station, Aakashavani as its own. Some of the popular programs aired by AIR Bangalore included Nisarga Sampada and Sasya Sanjeevini which were programs that taught science through songs, plays, and stories. These two programs became so popular that they were translated and broadcast in 18 different languages and the entire series was recorded on cassettes by the Government of Karnataka and distributed to thousands of schools across the state.[148] Karnataka has witnessed a growth in FM radio channels, mainly in the cities of Bangalore, Mangalore and Mysore, which has become hugely popular.[149][150]

Sports

Anil Kumble
Anil Kumble, former captain of the Indian Test team and spin legend, is the highest wicket-taker for India in international cricket.

Karnataka's smallest district, Kodagu, is a major contributor to Indian field hockey, producing numerous players who have represented India at the international level.[151] The annual Kodava Hockey Festival is the largest hockey tournament in the world.[152] Bangalore has hosted a WTA tennis event and, in 1997, it hosted the fourth National Games of India.[153] The Sports Authority of India, the premier sports institute in the country, and the Nike Tennis Academy are also situated in Bangalore. Karnataka has been referred to as the cradle of Indian swimming because of its high standards in comparison to other states.

One of the most popular sports in Karnataka is cricket. The state cricket team has won the Ranji Trophy seven times, second only to Mumbai in terms of success.[154] Chinnaswamy Stadium in Bangalore regularly hosts international matches and is also the home of the National Cricket Academy, which was opened in 2000 to nurture potential international players. Many cricketers have represented India and in one international match held in the 1990s; players from Karnataka composed the majority of the national team.[155][156] The Royal Challengers Bangalore, an Indian Premier League franchise, the Bengaluru Football Club, an Indian Super League franchise, the Bengaluru Yodhas, a Pro Wrestling League franchise, the Bengaluru Blasters, a Premier Badminton League franchise and the Bengaluru Bulls, a Pro Kabaddi League franchise are based in Bangalore. The Karnataka Premier League is an inter-regional Twenty20 cricket tournament played in the state.

Notable sportsmen from Karnataka include B.S. Chandrasekhar, E. A. S. Prasanna, Anil Kumble, Javagal Srinath, Rahul Dravid, Venkatesh Prasad, Robin Uthappa, Vinay Kumar, Gundappa Vishwanath, Syed Kirmani, Stuart Binny, K. L. Rahul, Mayank Agarwal, Manish Pandey, Karun Nair, Ashwini Ponnappa, Mahesh Bhupathi, Rohan Bopanna, Prakash Padukone who won the All England Badminton Championships in 1980 and Pankaj Advani who has won three world titles in cue sports by the age of 20 including the amateur World Snooker Championship in 2003 and the World Billiards Championship in 2005.[157][158]

Bijapur district has produced some of the best-known road cyclists in the national circuit. Premalata Sureban was part of the Indian contingent at the Perlis Open '99 in Malaysia. In recognition of the talent of cyclists in the district, the state government laid down a cycling track at the B.R. Ambedkar Stadium at a cost of 40 lakh.[159]

Sports like kho kho, kabaddi, chinni daandu and goli (marbles) are played mostly in Karnataka's rural areas.

Flora and fauna

Coraciasbenghalensis
The state bird, Indian roller

Karnataka has a rich diversity of flora and fauna. It has a recorded forest area of 38,720 km2 (14,950 sq mi) which constitutes 20.19% of the total geographical area of the state. These forests support 25% of the elephant and 10% of the tiger population of India. Many regions of Karnataka are as yet unexplored, so new species of flora and fauna are found periodically. The Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot, includes the western region of Karnataka. Two sub-clusters in the Western Ghats, viz. Talacauvery and Kudremukh, both in Karnataka, are on the tentative list of World Heritage Sites of UNESCO.[160] The Bandipur and Nagarahole National Parks, which fall outside these subclusters, were included in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in 1986, a UNESCO designation.[161] The Indian roller and the Indian elephant are recognised as the state bird and animal while sandalwood and the lotus are recognised as the state tree and flower respectively. Karnataka has five national parks: Anshi, Bandipur, Bannerghatta, Kudremukh and Nagarhole.[162] It also has 27 wildlife sanctuaries of which seven are bird sanctuaries.[163]

Wild animals that are found in Karnataka include the elephant, the tiger, the leopard, the gaur, the sambar deer, the chital or spotted deer, the muntjac, the bonnet macaque, the slender loris, the common palm civet, the small Indian civet, the sloth bear, the dhole, the striped hyena and the golden jackal. Some of the birds found here are the great hornbill, the Malabar pied hornbill, the Ceylon frogmouth, herons, ducks, kites, eagles, falcons, quails, partridges, lapwings, sandpipers, pigeons, doves, parakeets, cuckoos, owls, nightjars, swifts, kingfishers, bee-eaters and munias.[162] Some species of trees found in Karnataka are Callophyllum tomentosa, Callophyllum wightianum, Garcina cambogia, Garcina morealla, Alstonia scholaris, Flacourtia montana, Artocarpus hirsutus, Artocarpus lacoocha, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Grewia tilaefolia, Santalum album, Shorea talura, Emblica officinalis, Vitex altissima and Wrightia tinctoria. Wildlife in Karnataka is threatened by poaching, habitat destruction, human-wildlife conflict and pollution.[162]

Tourism

The Chennakeshava temple at Somanathapura
Chennakesava Temple is a model example of the Hoysala architecture, later repaired in the 16th century with financial support and grants by the Vijayanagara Emperors.[164]
GolGumbaz2
Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur, has the second largest pre-modern dome in the world after the Byzantine Hagia Sophia.

By virtue of its varied geography and long history, Karnataka hosts numerous spots of interest for tourists. There is an array of ancient sculptured temples, modern cities, scenic hill ranges, forests and beaches. Karnataka has been ranked as the fourth most popular destination for tourism among the states of India.[165] Karnataka has the second highest number of nationally protected monuments in India, second only to Uttar Pradesh,[166] in addition to 752 monuments protected by the State Directorate of Archaeology and Museums. Another 25,000 monuments are yet to receive protection.[167][168]

The districts of the Western Ghats and the southern districts of the state have popular eco-tourism locations including Kudremukh, Madikeri and Agumbe. Karnataka has 25 wildlife sanctuaries and five national parks. Popular among them are Bandipur National Park, Bannerghatta National Park and Nagarhole National Park. The ruins of the Vijayanagara Empire at Hampi and the monuments of Pattadakal are on the list of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites. The cave temples at Badami and the rock-cut temples at Aihole representing the Badami Chalukyan style of architecture are also popular tourist destinations. The Hoysala temples at Belur and Halebidu, which were built with Chloritic schist (soapstone) are proposed UNESCO World Heritage sites.[169] The Gol Gumbaz and Ibrahim Rauza are famous examples of the Deccan Sultanate style of architecture. The monolith of Gomateshwara Bahubali at Shravanabelagola is the tallest sculpted monolith in the world, attracting tens of thousands of pilgrims during the Mahamastakabhisheka festival.[170]

Mysore palace illuminated
Mysore Palace in the evening, the official residence and seat of the Wodeyar dynasty, the rulers of Mysore of the Mysore Kingdom, the royal family of Mysore.
Mysore Painting
Mysore painting depicting Goddess Saraswati

The waterfalls of Karnataka and Kudremukh are considered by some to be among the "1001 Natural Wonders of the World".[171] Jog Falls is India's tallest single-tiered waterfall with Gokak Falls, Unchalli Falls, Magod Falls, Abbey Falls and Shivanasamudra Falls among other popular waterfalls.

Several popular beaches dot the coastline, including Murudeshwara, Gokarna, Malpe and Karwar. In addition, Karnataka is home to several places of religious importance. Several Hindu temples including the famous Udupi Sri Krishna Matha, the Marikamba Temple at Sirsi, the Kollur Mookambika Temple, the Sri Manjunatha Temple at Dharmasthala, Kukke Subramanya Temple and Sharadamba Temple at Shringeri attract pilgrims from all over India. Most of the holy sites of Lingayatism, like Kudalasangama and Basavana Bagewadi, are found in northern parts of the state. Shravanabelagola, Mudabidri and Karkala are famous for Jain history and monuments. Jainism had a stronghold in Karnataka in the early medieval period with Shravanabelagola as its most important centre. The Shettihalli Rosary Church near Shettihalli, an example of French colonial Gothic architecture, is a rare example of a Christian ruin, is a popular tourist site.

Recently Karnataka has emerged as a center of health care tourism. Karnataka has the highest number of approved health systems and alternative therapies in India. Along with some ISO certified government-owned hospitals, private institutions which provide international-quality services have caused the health care industry to grow by 30% during 2004–05. Hospitals in Karnataka treat around 8,000 health tourists every year.[172]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Protected Areas of India: State-wise break up of Wildlife Sanctuaries" (PDF). Wildlife Institute of India. Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 October 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016.
  2. ^ "Figures at a glance" (PDF). 2011 Provisional census data. Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 October 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
  3. ^ a b "Karnataka Budget 2018–19" (PDF). Karnataka Finance Dept. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  4. ^ a b "MOSPI Gross State Domestic Product". Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. 3 August 2018. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018.
  5. ^ 50th Report of the Commission for Linguistic Minorities in India (PDF). nclm.nic.in. p. 123. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016.
  6. ^ "Sub-national HDI – Area Database". Global Data Lab. Institute for Management Research, Radboud University. Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  7. ^ a b c "Census 2011 (Final Data) – Demographic details, Literate Population (Total, Rural & Urban)" (PDF). planningcommission.gov.in. Planning Commission, Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 3 October 2018.
  8. ^ Shankar, Shiva (7 February 2018). "State flag may be a tricolour with Karnataka emblem on white". The Times of India. The Times Group. Archived from the original on 17 July 2018. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  9. ^ "Poem declared 'State song'". The Hindu. The Hindu Group. 11 January 2004. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  10. ^ a b c d Huq, Iteshamul, ed. (2015). "Introduction" (PDF). A Handbook of Karnataka (Fifth ed.). Karnataka Gazetteer Department. p. 48.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 January 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ See Lord Macaulay's life of Clive and James Talboys Wheeler: Early History of British India, London (1878) p.98. The principal meaning is the western half of this area, but the rulers there controlled the Coromandel Coast as well.
  15. ^ Paddayya, K.; et al. (10 September 2002). "Recent findings on the Acheulian of the Hunsgi and Baichbal valleys, Karnataka, with special reference to the Isampur excavation and its dating". Current Science. 83 (5): 641–648.
  16. ^ S. Ranganathan. "THE Golden Heritage of Karnataka". Department of Metallurgy. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Archived from the original on 21 January 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007.
  17. ^ "Trade". The British Museum. Archived from the original on 26 May 2007. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
  18. ^ From the Talagunda inscription (Dr. B. L. Rice in Kamath (2001), p. 30.)
  19. ^ Moares (1931), p. 10.
  20. ^ Adiga and Sheik Ali in Adiga (2006), p. 89.
  21. ^ Ramesh (1984), pp. 1–2.
  22. ^ From the Halmidi inscription (Ramesh 1984, pp. 10–11.)
  23. ^ Kamath (2001), p. 10.
  24. ^ The Chalukyas hailed from present-day Karnataka (Keay (2000), p. 168.)
  25. ^ The Chalukyas were native Kannadigas (N. Laxminarayana Rao and Dr. S. C. Nandinath in Kamath (2001), p. 57.)
  26. ^ Altekar (1934), pp. 21–24.
  27. ^ Masica (1991), pp. 45–46.
  28. ^ Balagamve in Mysore territory was an early power centre (Cousens (1926), pp. 10, 105.)
  29. ^ Tailapa II, the founder king was the governor of Tardavadi in modern Bijapur district, under the Rashtrakutas (Kamath (2001), p. 101.).
  30. ^ Kamath (2001), p. 115.
  31. ^ Foekema (2003), p. 9.
  32. ^ a b Sastri (1955), p.164
  33. ^ Kamath (2001), pp. 132–134.
  34. ^ Sastri (1955), pp. 358–359, 361.
  35. ^ Foekema (1996), p. 14.
  36. ^ Kamath (2001), pp. 122–124.
  37. ^ Kamath (2001), pp. 157–160.
  38. ^ Kulke and Rothermund (2004), p. 188.
  39. ^ Kamath (2001), pp. 190–191.
  40. ^ Kamath (2001), p. 201.
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External links

Government

General information

Bangalore

Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru ([ˈbeŋɡəɭuːɾu] (listen)), is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of over ten million, making it a megacity and the third-most populous city and fifth-most populous urban agglomeration in India. It is located in southern India, on the Deccan Plateau at an elevation of over 900 m (3,000 ft) above sea level, which is the highest among India's major cities. Its multi-ethnic, multi-religious, and cosmopolitan character is reflected by its more than 1000 temples and mandirs, 400 mosques, 100 churches, 40 Jain derasars, three Sikh gurdwaras, two Buddhist viharas and one Parsi fire temple located in an area of 741 km² of the metropolis. The religious places are further represented by the proposed Chabad of the Jewish community. The numerous Bahá'ís have a society called the Bahá'í Centre.

In 1537 CE, Kempé Gowdā – a feudal ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire – established a mud fort considered to be the foundation of modern Bengaluru and its oldest areas Or Petes which exist to the present day.

After the fall of Vijayanagar empire in 16th century, the Mughals sold Bangalore to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673–1704), the then ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore for three lakh rupees. When Haider Ali seized control of the Kingdom of Mysore, the administration of Bangalore passed into his hands. It was captured by the British East India Company after victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), who returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore. The old city developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore and was made capital of the Princely State of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj.

In 1809, the British shifted their cantonment to Bangalore, outside the old city, and a town grew up around it, which was governed as part of British India. Following India's independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State, and remained capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was formed in 1956. The two urban settlements of Bangalore – city and cantonment – which had developed as independent entities merged into a single urban centre in 1949. The existing Kannada name, Bengalūru, was declared the official name of the city in 2006.

Bengaluru is sometimes referred to as the "Silicon Valley of India" (or "IT capital of India") because of its role as the nation's leading information technology (IT) exporter. Indian technological organisations ISRO, Infosys, Wipro and HAL are headquartered in the city. A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in India. Bengaluru has one of the most highly educated workforces in the world. It is home to many educational and research institutions, such as Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Indian Institute of Management (Bangalore) (IIMB), International Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore (IIITB), National Institute of Fashion Technology, Bangalore, National Institute of Design, Bangalore (NID R&D Campus), National Law School of India University (NLSIU) and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS). Numerous state-owned aerospace and defence organisations, such as Bharat Electronics, Hindustan Aeronautics and National Aerospace Laboratories are located in the city. The city also houses the Kannada film industry.

Basava

Basavanna (ಬಸವಣ್ಣ) was a 12th-century philosopher, statesman, Kannada poet in the Shiva-focussed Bhakti movement and a social reformer during the reign of the Kalachuri-dynasty king Bijjala I in Karnataka, India.Basavanna spread social awareness through his poetry, popularly known as Vachanaas. Basavanna rejected gender or social discrimination, superstitions and rituals but introduced Ishtalinga necklace, with an image of the Shiva Liṅga, to every person regardless of his or her birth, to be a constant reminder of one's bhakti (devotion) to Shiva. As the chief minister of his kingdom, he introduced new public institutions such as the Anubhava Mantapa (or, the "hall of spiritual experience"), which welcomed men and women from all socio-economic backgrounds to discuss spiritual and mundane questions of life, in open.The traditional legends and hagiographic texts state Basava to be the founder of the Lingayats. However, modern scholarship relying on historical evidence such as the Kalachuri inscriptions state that Basava was the poet philosopher who revived, refined and energized an already existing tradition. The Basavarajadevara Ragale (13 out of 25 sections are available) by the Kannada poet Harihara (c.1180) is the earliest available account on the life of the social reformer and is considered important because the author was a near contemporary of his protagonist. A full account of Basava's life and ideas are narrated in a 13th-century sacred Telugu text, the Basava Purana by Palkuriki Somanatha.Basava literary works include the Vachana Sahitya in Kannada Language. He is also known as Bhaktibhandari (literally, the treasurer of devotion), Basavanna (elder brother Basava) or Basaveswara (Lord Basava).

Belgaum

Belgaum (also known as Belagavi) is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka located in its northern part along the Western Ghats. It is the administrative headquarters of the eponymous Belgaum division and Belgaum district. The Government of Karnataka has proposed making Belgaum the second capital of Karnataka, hence a second state administrative building Suvarna Vidhana Soudha was inaugurated on 11 October 2012.Belgaum has been selected in first phase out of 20 cities, as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.

Carnatic music

Carnatic music, Karnāṭaka saṃgīta, or Karnāṭaka saṅgītam, is a system of music commonly associated with southern India, including the modern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, as well as Sri Lanka. It is one of two main subgenres of Indian classical music that evolved from ancient Hindu traditions, the other subgenre being Hindustani music, which emerged as a distinct form because of Persian or Islamic influences from Northern India. The main emphasis in Carnatic music is on vocal music; most compositions are written to be sung, and even when played on instruments, they are meant to be performed in gāyaki (singing) style.

Although there are stylistic differences, the basic elements of śruti (the relative musical pitch), swara (the musical sound of a single note), rāga (the mode or melodic formulæ), and tala (the rhythmic cycles) form the foundation of improvisation and composition in both Carnatic and Hindustani music. Although improvisation plays an important role, Carnatic music is mainly sung through compositions, especially the kriti (or kirtanam) – a form developed between the 14th and 20th centuries by composers such as Purandara Dasa and the Trinity of Carnatic music. Carnatic music is also usually taught and learned through compositions.

Carnatic music is usually performed by a small ensemble of musicians, consisting of a principal performer (usually a vocalist), a melodic accompaniment (usually a violin), a rhythm accompaniment (usually a mridangam), and a tambura, which acts as a drone throughout the performance. Other typical instruments used in performances may include the ghatam, kanjira, morsing, venu flute, veena, and chitraveena. The greatest concentration of Carnatic musicians is to be found in the city of Chennai. Various Carnatic music festivals are held throughout India and abroad, including the Madras Music Season, which has been considered to be one of the world's largest cultural events.

Government of Karnataka

The Government of Karnataka ( ಕರ್ನಾಟಕ ಸರ್ಕಾರ ) is a democratically elected body with the governor as the constitutional head. The governor who is appointed for five years appoints the chief minister and on the advice of the chief minister appoints his council of ministers. Even though the governor remains the ceremonial head of the state, the day-to-day running of the government is taken care of by the chief minister and his council of ministers in whom a great amount of legislative powers are vested.

H. D. Deve Gowda

Haradanahalli Doddegowda Deve Gowda (born 18 May 1933) is an Indian politician who served as the 11th Prime Minister of India from 1 June 1996 to 21 April 1997. He was previously the 14th Chief Minister of Karnataka from 1994 to 1996.

He was a member of the 16th Lok Sabha, representing the Hassan constituency of Karnataka, and is the National President of the Janata Dal (Secular) party.

H. D. Kumaraswamy

Hardanahalli Devegowda Kumaraswamy (born 16 December 1959) is an Indian politician and the current Chief Minister of the State of Karnataka. He is a former president of the Karnataka State Janata Dal (Secular) and son of former Prime Minister of India H. D. Deve Gowda.

Janata Dal (Secular)

The Janata Dal (Secular) is an Indian political party led by former Prime Minister of India, H. D. Deve Gowda. The party is recognized as a State Party in the states of Karnataka and Kerala. It was formed in July 1999 by the split of Janata Dal party. It has a political presence mainly in Karnataka. In Kerala, the party is part of the Left Democratic Front.

Kannada

Kannada (; Kannada: ಕನ್ನಡ [ˈkɐnnɐɖaː]) is a Dravidian language also known as Kanarese. It is spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Kerala and abroad. The language has roughly 43.7 million native speakers, who are called Kannadigas. Kannada is also spoken as a second and third language by over 12.9 million non-Kannada speakers living in Karnataka, which adds up to 56.6 million speakers. It is one of the scheduled languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka.The Kannada language is written using the Kannada script, which evolved from the 5th-century Kadamba script. Kannada is attested epigraphically for about one and a half millennia, and literary Old Kannada flourished in the 6th-century Ganga dynasty and during the 9th-century Rashtrakuta Dynasty. Kannada has an unbroken literary history of over a thousand years. Kannada literature has been presented with 8 Jnanapith awards, the most for any Dravidian language and the second highest for any Indian language.Based on the recommendations of the Committee of Linguistic Experts, appointed by the ministry of culture, the government of India designated Kannada a classical language of India. In July 2011, a center for the study of classical Kannada was established as part of the Central Institute of Indian Languages at Mysore to facilitate research related to the language.

Kannada cinema

Kannada cinema, also known as Chandanavana or Sandalwood, is the Indian film industry based in the state of Karnataka where motion pictures are produced in the Kannada language. The Kannada film Industry is sometimes metonymously referred to as Sandalwood. As of 2017, the Kannada film industry based in the city of Bengaluru produces more than 190 films each year. Kannada films are released in more than 1250 single screen and multiplex theaters in Karnataka and most of them are also released across the country and in the United Kingdom, United States, UAE, England, Mexico, Brazil, Germany, Nederland, Holland, Russia, Kenya, South Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, China, Japan, Burma, Malaysia, Singapore, Australia and other countries.The first government institute in India to start technical courses related to films was established in 1941 named as occupational institute then called the Sri Jayachamarajendra (S J) Polytechnic in Bengaluru. In September 1996, two specialized courses, Cinematography and Sound & Television were separated and the Government Film and Television Institute was started at Hesaraghatta, under the World Bank Assisted Project for Technician Development in India. The industry is known for Kannada language literary works, being translated into motion pictures. Some of the works which received global acclaim include B. V. Karanth's Chomana Dudi (1975), Girish Karnad's Kaadu (1973), Pattabhirama Reddy's Samskara (1970) (based on a novel by U. R. Ananthamurthy), which won Bronze Leopard at Locarno International Film Festival, and Girish Kasaravalli's Ghatashraddha (1977) which won the Ducats Award at the Manneham Film Festival Germany.Films such as Bedara Kannappa (1954), School Master, Sharapanjara (1971), Vamshavruksha (1971), Bhootayyana Maga Ayyu (1974), Ghatashraddha (1977), Kaadu Kudure (1979), Bara (1979), Ranganayaki (1981), Accident (1985), Pushpaka Vimana (1987), Tabarana Kathe (1987), Kraurya (1996), Thaayi Saheba (1997), A (1998), Mane (2000), Dweepa (2002), Kariya (2003), Apthamitra (2004), Mungaru Male (2006), Super (2010), Sangolli Rayanna (2012), Dandupalya (2012), Lucia (2013), Mr. and Mrs. Ramachari (2014), RangiTaranga (2015), Uppi 2 (2015), Thithi (2016), Kirik Party (2016), Doddmane Hudga (2016), Kotigobba 2 (2016), Shivalinga (2016), Killing Veerappan (2016), Raajakumara (2017), Tagaru (2018), K.G.F: Chapter 1 (2018), Yajamana (2019), Bell Bottom (2019) are some of the landmark films in recent times.

Karnataka Legislative Assembly

The Karnataka Legislative Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral legislature of Karnataka state in southern India. Karnataka is one of the seven states in India, where the state legislature is bicameral, comprising two houses. The two houses are the Vidhan Sabha (lower house) and the Vidhan Parishad (upper house).

The members of the Vidhana Sabha are directly elected by people through adult franchise.

There are 224 members of the Vidhana Sabha or the Legislative Assembly of Karnataka state. One member is a representative of the Anglo-Indian community nominated by the Governor of Karnataka. The state of Karnataka is divided into 224 constituencies used to elect the Legislative assembly members.

Each constituency elects one member of the assembly. Members are popularly known as MLAs. The assembly is elected using the simple plurality or "first past the post" electoral system. The elections are conducted by the Election Commission of India.

The normal term of the members lasts for five years. In case of death, resignation or disqualification of a member, a by-election is conducted for constituency represented by the member. The party, or coalition which has the majority becomes the ruling party.

Kaveri

Kaveri (also known as Cauvery, the anglicized name and Ponni), is an Indian river flowing through the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. It is the fourth largest after Godavari and Mahanadi River in south India and the largest in Tamil Nadu which on its course, bisects the state into North and South. Originating in the foothills of Western Ghats at Talakaveri, Kodagu in Karnataka it flows generally south and east through Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and across the southern Deccan plateau through the southeastern lowlands, emptying into the Bay of Bengal through two principal mouths in Poompuhar, Tamil Nadu. Amongst the river valleys, the Kaveri delta forms one of the most fertile regions in the country.

The Kaveri basin is estimated to be 81,155 square kilometres (31,334 sq mi) with many tributaries including Harangi, Hemavati, Kabini, Bhavani, Arkavathy, Lakshmana Tirtha, Noyyal and Arkavati. The river's basin covers three states and a Union Territory as follows: Tamil Nadu, 43,856 square kilometres (16,933 sq mi); Karnataka, 34,273 square kilometres (13,233 sq mi); Kerala, 2,866 square kilometres (1,107 sq mi), and Puducherry, 160 square kilometres (62 sq mi). Rising in southwestern Karnataka, it flows southeast some 800 kilometres (500 mi) to enter the Bay of Bengal. In Mandya district it forms the island of Shivanasamudra, on either side of which are the scenic Shivanasamudra Falls that descend about 100 metres (330 ft). The river is the source for an extensive irrigation system and for hydroelectric power. The river has supported irrigated agriculture for centuries and served as the lifeblood of the ancient kingdoms and modern cities of South India. Access to the river's waters has pitted Indian states against each other for decades.

Kodagu district

Kodagu (also known by its former name Coorg) is an administrative district in Karnataka, India. Coorg is home to the native speakers of the Kodava language.Before 1956, it was an administratively separate Coorg State, at which point it was merged into an enlarged Mysore State. In 2001 its population was 548,561, 13.74% of which resided in the district's urban centres, making it the least populous of the 30 districts in Karnataka.

List of chief ministers of Karnataka

The Chief Minister of Karnataka is the chief executive of the Indian state of Karnataka. As per the Constitution of India, the governor is a state's de jure head, but de facto executive authority rests with the chief minister. Following elections to the Karnataka Legislative Assembly, the state's governor usually invites the party (or coalition) with a majority of seats to form the government. The governor appoints the chief minister, whose council of ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly. Given that he has the confidence of the assembly, the chief minister's term is for five years and is subject to no term limits.Since 1947, twenty-two people have been Chief Minister of Mysore (as the state was known before 1 November 1973) or Karnataka. A majority of them belonged to the Indian National Congress party, including inaugural office-holder K. Chengalaraya Reddy. The longest-serving chief minister, D. Devaraj Urs, held the office for over seven years in the 1970s. The Janata Party's Ramakrishna Hegde has the second-longest tenure, while the Congress's Veerendra Patil had the largest gap between two terms (over eighteen years). One chief minister, H. D. Deve Gowda, went on to become the eleventh Prime Minister of India, while another, B. D. Jatti, served as the country's fifth Vice President. There have been six instances of president's rule in Karnataka, most recently in 2007–08.

The incumbent chief minister is the Janata Dal (Secular)'s H. D. Kumaraswamy, who was sworn in on 23 May 2018.

List of districts of Karnataka

The Indian State of Karnataka consists of 30 districts and 4 administrative divisions. The state geographically has 3 principal regions: the coastal region of Karavali, the hilly Malenadu region comprising the Western Ghats, and the Bayaluseeme region, comprising the plains of the Deccan plateau.

List of towns in India by population

The entire work of this article is based on Census of India, 2011, conducted by the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, under Ministry of Home Affairs (India), Government of India.

Mallikarjun Kharge

Mapanna Mallikarjun Kharge (born 21 July 1942) is an Indian politician and the leader of the Indian National Congress party in the 16th Lok Sabha. He is the former Minister of Railways and Minister of Labour and Employment in the Government of India. Kharge is a member of the Indian National Congress (INC) and has been a Member of Parliament for Gulbarga, Karnataka since 2009. He is a senior Karnataka politician and was the Leader of opposition in the Karnataka Legislative Assembly. He was the President of Karnataka Pradesh Congress Committee during the 2008 Karnataka State Assembly Elections.

He has won elections for a record 10 consecutive times having won the Assembly elections for an unprecedented 9 consecutive times (1972, 1979, 1983, 1985, 1989, 1994, 1999, 2004, 2008, 2009) and lost in the 2019 General Elections against Umesh Jadhav from Gulbarga. Kharge is considered a competent leader with a clean public image and well versed in the dynamics of politics, legislation and administration. Mallikarjun Kharge has been nominated as the leader of the congress party in Lok Sabha against Narendra Modi led NDA government.In the 2019 general elections he was defeated by Umesh Jadhav of BJP by a margin of 95,168 votes.

Mangalore

Mangalore, officially known as Mangaluru, is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is located about 352 km (219 mi) west of the state capital, Bangalore, between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghats mountain range. It is the second major city in Karnataka state in all aspects after the capital city Bangalore. It is the only city in Karnataka to have all modes of transport — Air, Road, Rail and Sea along with 5 other major cities in India. It is also known as the Gateway of Karnataka. It is the largest city in the Tulu Nadu region of Karnataka. Mangalore is the second best business destination in Karnataka after Bangalore & 13th best in India. The population of the urban agglomeration was 623,841, according to the provisional results of the 2011 national census of India.

Mangalore developed as a port in the Arabian Sea during ancient times and became a major port of India. This port handles 75 per cent of India's coffee and cashew exports. The port is used as a staging point for sea traffic along the Malabar Coast. This coastal city was ruled by several major powers, including the Kadambas, Alupas, Vijayanagar Empire, Keladi Nayaks and the Portuguese. The city was a source of contention between the British and the Mysore rulers, Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. Eventually annexed by the British in 1799, Mangalore remained part of the Madras Presidency until India's independence in 1947. The city was unified with the state of Mysore (now called Karnataka) in 1956.

Mangalore is the largest city and administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada district, and is one of the most multicultural non-metro cities of India. It is also the largest city in the Coastal and Malnad regions of Karnataka, besides being a commercial, industrial, educational and healthcare hub on the West Coast of India. This port city has the second largest airport in Karnataka. Mangalore city urban agglomeration extends from Ullal in the south to Surathkal in the north, covering a distance of over 30 km (19 mi). The city has extended in the eastward direction up to Vamanjoor and Padil. The city's landscape is characterised by rolling hills, coconut palms, freshwater streams and hard red-clay tiled-roof buildings. This coastal city has many skyscrapers of 30 and 40 plus floors. India's first and only 3D Planetarium is situated in the port city of Mangalore. Mangalore is also included in the Smart Cities Mission list and one among the 100 smart cities to be developed in India. The city has an average elevation of 22 m (72 ft) above mean sea level. Mangalore has a tropical monsoon climate, and is under the influence of the Southwest monsoon.

Western Ghats

Western Ghats also known as Sahyadri (Benevolent Mountains) is a mountain range that covers an area of 140,000 km² in a stretch of 1,600 km parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, traverse the States of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and Gujarat. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the eight "hottest hot-spots" of biological diversity in the world. It is sometimes called the Great Escarpment of India. It is a biodiversity hotspot that contains a large proportion of the country's flora and fauna; many of which are only found in India and nowhere else in the world. According to UNESCO, Western Ghats are older than Himalayan mountains. It also influences Indian monsoon weather patterns by

intercepting the rain-laden monsoon winds that sweep in from the south-west during late summer. The range runs north to south along the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, and separates the plateau from a narrow coastal plain, called Konkan, along the Arabian Sea. A total of thirty-nine areas including national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserve forests were designated as world heritage sites - twenty in Kerala, ten in Karnataka, five in Tamil Nadu and four in Maharashtra.The range starts near the Songadh town of Gujarat, south of the Tapti river, and runs approximately 1,600 km (990 mi) through the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu ending at Marunthuvazh Malai, at Swamithope, near the southern tip of India. These hills cover 160,000 km2 (62,000 sq mi) and form the catchment area for complex riverine drainage systems that drain almost 40% of India. The Western Ghats block southwest monsoon winds from reaching the Deccan Plateau. The average elevation is around 1,200 m (3,900 ft).The area is one of the world's ten "Hottest biodiversity hotspots" and has over 7,402 species of flowering plants, 1,814 species of non-flowering plants, 139 mammal species, 508 bird species, 179 amphibian species, 6,000 insects species and 290 freshwater fish species; it is likely that many undiscovered species live in the Western Ghats. At least 325 globally threatened species occur in the Western Ghats.

Population Growth 
CensusPop.
195119,402,000
196123,587,00021.6%
197129,299,00024.2%
198137,136,00026.7%
199144,977,00021.1%
200152,850,56217.5%
201161,095,29715.6%
Source:Census of India[70]
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