Karlsruhe

Karlsruhe (/ˈkɑːrlzˌruːə/, also US: /-ˌrʊə/ or /ˈkɑːrls-/,[4][5][6] German: [ˈkaɐ̯lsˌʁuːə] (listen); formerly spelled Carlsruhe)[4] is the second-largest city of the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg after its capital of Stuttgart, and its 309,999 (2016) inhabitants make it the 21st largest city of Germany. On the right bank of the Rhine, the city lies near the French-German border, between the Mannheim/Ludwigshafen conurbation to the north, and the Strasbourg/Kehl conurbation to the south. It is the largest city of Baden, a region named after Hohenbaden Castle in the city of Baden-Baden. Karlsruhe is also the largest city in the South Franconian dialect area (transitional dialects between Central and Upper German), the only other larger city in that area being Heilbronn. The city is the seat of the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht), as well as of the Federal Court of Justice (Bundesgerichtshof) and the Public Prosecutor General of the Federal Court of Justice (Generalbundesanwalt beim Bundesgerichtshof).

Karlsruhe was the capital of the Margraviate of Baden-Durlach (Durlach: 1565-1718; Karlsruhe: 1718-1771), the Margraviate of Baden (1771-1803), the Electorate of Baden (1803-1806), the Grand Duchy of Baden (1806-1918), and the Republic of Baden (1918-1945). Its most remarkable building is Karlsruhe Palace, which was built in 1715. There are nine institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Karlsruher Institut für Technologie). Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport (Flughafen Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden) is the second-busiest airport of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart Airport, and the 17th-busiest airport of Germany.

Karlsruhe

Carlsruhe
Schloss Karlsruhe 2011
Schloss Karlsruhe und Fächerstadt 2
Karlsruhe, Schloßplatz - panoramio
Konzerthaus Karlsruhe bei Nacht
Badische Krone (1)
Karlsruhe Palace, view over Karlsruhe, Schlossplatz, Konzerthaus, Crown of Baden
Flag of Karlsruhe

Flag
Coat of arms of Karlsruhe

Coat of arms
Location of Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe is located in Germany
Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe is located in Baden-Württemberg
Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
Coordinates: 49°00′33″N 8°24′14″E / 49.00920970°N 8.40395140°ECoordinates: 49°00′33″N 8°24′14″E / 49.00920970°N 8.40395140°E
CountryGermany
StateBaden-Württemberg
Admin. regionKarlsruhe
DistrictUrban district
Founded1715
Subdivisions27 quarters
Government
 • Lord MayorFrank Mentrup (SPD)
Area
 • Total173.42 km2 (66.96 sq mi)
Elevation
115 m (377 ft)
Population
(2017-12-31)[3]
 • Total311,919
 • Density1,800/km2 (4,700/sq mi)
Time zoneCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
76131–76229
Dialling codes0721
Vehicle registrationKA
Websitewww.karlsruhe.de

Geography

49th Parallel Karlsruhe
The 49th parallel north in the Karlsruhe Stadtgarten

Karlsruhe lies completely to the east of the Rhine, and almost completely on the Upper Rhine Plain. It contains the Turmberg in the east, and also lies on the borders of the Kraichgau leading to the Northern Black Forest.

The Rhine, one of the world's most important shipping routes, forms the western limits of the city, beyond which lie the towns of Maximiliansau and Wörth am Rhein in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate. The city centre is about 7.5 km (4.7 mi) from the river, as measured from the Marktplatz (Market Square). Two tributaries of the Rhine, the Alb and the Pfinz, flow through the city from the Kraichgau to eventually join the Rhine.

The city lies at an altitude between 100 and 322 m (near the communications tower in the suburb of Grünwettersbach). Its geographical coordinates are 49°00′N 8°24′E / 49.000°N 8.400°E; the 49th parallel runs through the city centre, which puts it at the same latitude as much of the Canada–United States border, the cities Vancouver (Canada), Paris (France), Regensburg (Germany), and Hulunbuir (China). Its course is marked by a stone and painted line in the Stadtgarten (municipal park). The total area of the city is 173.46 km2 (66.97 sq mi), hence it is the 30th largest city in Germany measured by land area. The longest north-south distance is 16.8 km (10.4 mi) and 19.3 km (12.0 mi) in the east-west direction.

Karlsruhe is part of the urban area of Karlsruhe/Pforzheim, to which certain other towns in the district of Karlsruhe such as Bruchsal, Ettlingen, Stutensee, and Rheinstetten, as well as the city of Pforzheim, belong.

MiRO8
MiRO oil refinery

The city was planned with the palace tower (Schloss) at the center and 32 streets radiating out from it like the spokes of a wheel, or the ribs of a folding fan, so that one nickname for Karlsruhe in German is the "fan city" (Fächerstadt). Almost all of these streets survive to this day. Because of this city layout, in metric geometry, Karlsruhe metric refers to a measure of distance that assumes travel is only possible along radial streets and along circular avenues around the centre.[7]

The city centre is the oldest part of town and lies south of the palace in the quadrant defined by nine of the radial streets. The central part of the palace runs east-west, with two wings, each at a 45° angle, directed southeast and southwest (i.e., parallel with the streets marking the boundaries of the quadrant defining the city center).

The market square lies on the street running south from the palace to Ettlingen. The market square has the town hall (Rathaus) to the west, the main Lutheran church (Evangelische Stadtkirche) to the east, and the tomb of Margrave Charles III William in a pyramid in the buildings, resulting in Karlsruhe being one of only three large cities in Germany where buildings are laid out in the neoclassical style.

The area north of the palace is a park and forest. Originally the area to the east of the palace consisted of gardens and forests, some of which remain, but the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (founded in 1825), Wildparkstadion football stadium, and residential areas have been built there. The area west of the palace is now mostly residential.

Karlsruhe 180 panorama
Panorama of Karlsruhe, looking south from the palace tower: The Institute of Technology is on the left, the market square in the centre, the Federal Constitutional Court on the right. Wings of the palace align with streets, all radiating out from the centre of town, i.e., the palace tower.
Karlsruher Schloss 180 degrees south panorama
A 180-degree panorama from atop the palace tower, facing north

Climate

Karlsruhe experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb) and its winter climate is milder, compared to most other German cities, except for the Rhine-Ruhr area. Summers are also hotter than elsewhere in the country and it is one of the sunniest cities in Germany, like the Rhine-Palatinate area. Precipitation is almost evenly spread throughout the year. In 2008, the weather station in Karlsruhe, which had been operating since 1876, was closed; it was replaced by a weather station in Rheinstetten, south of Karlsruhe.[8]

History

According to legend, the name Karlsruhe, which translates as "Charles’ repose" or "Charles' peace", was given to the new city after a hunting trip when Margrave Charles III William of Baden-Durlach, woke from a dream in which he dreamt of founding his new city. A variation of this story claims that he built the new palace to find peace from his wife.

Charles William founded the city on June 17, 1715, after a dispute with the citizens of his previous capital, Durlach. The founding of the city is closely linked to the construction of the palace. Karlsruhe became the capital of Baden-Durlach, and in 1771, of the united Baden until 1945. Built in 1822, the Ständehaus was the first parliament building in a German state. In the aftermath of the democratic revolution of 1848, a republican government was elected here.

Karlsruhe was visited by Thomas Jefferson during his time as the American envoy to France; when Pierre Charles L'Enfant was planning the layout of Washington, DC, Jefferson passed to him maps of 12 European towns to consult, one of which was a sketch he had made of Karlsruhe during his visit.[10]

In 1860, the first-ever international professional convention of chemists, the Karlsruhe Congress, was held in the city.[11]

Much of the central area, including the palace, was reduced to rubble by Allied bombing during World War II, but was rebuilt after the war. Located in the American zone of the postwar Allied occupation, Karlsruhe was home to an American military base, established in 1945. In 1995, the bases closed, and their facilities were turned over to the city of Karlsruhe.[12]

Demographics

The following list shows the most significant groups of foreigners residing in the city of Karlsruhe by country.

Rank Nationality Population (31 December 2016)[13]
1  Turkey 5,672
2  Romania 5,657
3  Italy 4,472
4  Poland 3,153
5  Croatia 3,013
6  China 2,579
7  France 1,893
8  Russia 1,743
9  Spain 1,491
10  Bulgaria 1,336
10  Hungary 1,190
11  Greece 1,176
12  Bosnia 1,122
13  Syria 1,115
14  Ukraine 1,104
15  India 892

Main sights

The Stadtgarten is a recreational area near the main railway station (Hauptbahnhof) and was rebuilt for the 1967 Federal Garden Show (Bundesgartenschau). It is also the site of the Karlsruhe Zoo.

The Durlacher Turmberg has a look-out tower (hence its name). It is a former keep dating back to the 13th century.

The city has two botanical gardens: the municipal Botanischer Garten Karlsruhe, which forms part of the Palace complex, and the Botanischer Garten der Universität Karlsruhe, which is maintained by the university.

Karlsruhe Orangerie garden panorama
Panorama of the courtyard of Botanischer Garten Karlsruhe.

The Marktplatz has a stone pyramid marking the grave of the city's founder. Built in 1825, it is the emblem of Karlsruhe. The city is nicknamed the "fan city" (die Fächerstadt) because of its design layout, with straight streets radiating fan-like from the Palace.

The Karlsruhe Palace (Schloss) is an interesting piece of architecture; the adjacent Schlossgarten includes the Botanical Garden with a palm, cactus and orchid house, and walking paths through the woods to the north.

The so-called Kleine Kirche (Little Church), built between 1773 and 1776, is the oldest church of Karlsruhe's city centre.

The architect Friedrich Weinbrenner designed many of the city's most important sights. Another sight is the Rondellplatz with its 'Constitution Building Columns' (1826). It is dedicated to Baden's first constitution in 1818, which was one of the most liberal of its time. The Münze (mint), erected in 1826/27, was also built by Weinbrenner.

Karlsruhe StStephan
St. Stephan parish church

The St. Stephan parish church is one of the masterpieces of neoclassical church architecture in.[14] Weinbrenner, who built this church between 1808 and 1814, orientated it to the Pantheon, Rome.

Karlsruhe Grabkapelle
Grand Ducal burial chapel

The neo-Gothic Grand Ducal Burial Chapel, built between 1889 and 1896, is a mausoleum rather than a church, and is located in the middle of the forest.

The main cemetery of Karlsruhe is the oldest park-like cemetery in Germany. The crematorium was the first to be built in the style of a church.

Karlsruhe is also home to a natural history museum (the State Museum of Natural History Karlsruhe), an opera house (the Baden State Theatre), as well as a number of independent theatres and art galleries. The State Art Gallery, built in 1846 by Heinrich Hübsch, displays paintings and sculptures from six centuries, particularly from France, Germany and Holland. Karlsruhe's newly renovated art museum is one of the most important art museums in Baden-Württemberg. Further cultural attractions are scattered throughout Karlsruhe's various incorporated suburbs. Established in 1924, the Scheffel Association is the largest literary society in Germany. Today the Prinz-Max-Palais, built between 1881 and 1884 in neoclassical style, houses the organisation and includes its museum.

Karlsruhe Moninger Jugendstil
Breweries and buildings in art nouveau style were predominant in the western city

Due to population growth in the late 19th century, Karlsruhe developed several suburban areas (Vorstadt) in the Gründerzeit and especially art nouveau styles of architecture, with many preserved examples.

Karlsruhe is also home to the Majolika-Manufaktur,[15] the only art-ceramics pottery studio in Germany. Founded in 1901, it is located in the Schlossgarten. A 'blue streak' (Blauer Strahl) consisting of 1,645 ceramic tiles, connects the studio with the Palace. It is the world's largest ceramic artwork.

Another tourist attraction is the Centre for Art and Media (Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie, or ZKM), which is located in a converted ammunition factory.

Government

Justice

Karlsruhe is the seat of the German Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht) and the highest Court of Appeals in civil and criminal cases, the Bundesgerichtshof. The courts came to Karlsruhe after World War II, when the provinces of Baden and Württemberg were merged. Stuttgart, capital of Württemberg, became the capital of the new province (Württemberg-Baden in 1945 and Baden-Württemberg in 1952). In compensation for the state authorities relocated to Stuttgart, Karlsruhe applied to become the seat of the high court.[16]

Public health

There are four hospitals: The municipal Klinikum Karlsruhe provides the maximum level of medical services, the St. Vincentius-Kliniken and the Diakonissenkrankenhaus, connected to the Catholic and Protestant churches, respectively, offer central services, and the private Paracelsus-Klinik basic medical care, according to state hospital demand planning.

Economy

Germany's largest oil refinery is located in Karlsruhe, at the western edge of the city, directly on the river Rhine. The Technologieregion Karlsruhe is a loose confederation of the region's cities in order to promote high tech industries; today, about 20% of the region's jobs are in research and development. EnBW, one of Germany's biggest electric utility companies and a revenue of 19.2 billion € in 2012,[17] is headquartered in the city.

Internet activities

Due to the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology providing services until the late 1990, Karlsruhe became known as the internet capital of Germany.[18] The DENIC, Germany's Network Information Centre, has since moved to Frankfurt, though, where DE-CIX is located.

Two major internet service providers, WEB.DE and schlund+partner/1&1, now both owned by United Internet AG, are located at Karlsruhe.

The library of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology developed the Karlsruher Virtueller Katalog, the first internet site that allowed researchers worldwide (for free) to search multiple library catalogues worldwide.

In the year 2000 the regional online "newspaper" ka‑news.de was created. As a daily newspaper, it not only provides the news, but also informs readers about upcoming events in Karlsruhe and surrounding areas.

Karlsruhe Rbf Einfahrgruppe
Rail yard, bypass road Südtangente

In addition to established companies, Karlsruhe has a vivid and spreading startup community with well-known startups like STAPPZ.[19][20] Together, the local high tech industry is responsible for over 22.000 jobs.[21]

Transport

The Verkehrsbetriebe Karlsruhe (VBK) operates the city's urban public transport network, comprising seven tram routes and a network of bus routes. This network is well developed and all city areas can be reached round the clock by tram and a night bus system. The Turmbergbahn funicular railway, to the east of the city centre, is also operated by the VBK.

The VBK is also a partner, with the Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft and Deutsche Bahn, in the operation of the Karlsruhe Stadtbahn, the rail system that serves a larger area around the city. This system makes it possible to reach other towns in the region, like Ettlingen, Wörth am Rhein, Pforzheim, Bad Wildbad, Bretten, Bruchsal, Heilbronn, Baden-Baden, and even Freudenstadt in the Black Forest right from the city centre. The Stadtbahn is well known in transport circles around the world for pioneering the concept of operating trams on train tracks, to achieve a more effective and attractive public transport system, to the extent that this is often known as the Karlsruhe model tram-train system.

Karlsruhe is well-connected via road and rail, with Autobahn and InterCityExpress connections going to Frankfurt, Stuttgart/Munich and Freiburg/Basel from Karlsruhe Hauptbahnhof. Since June 2007 it has been connected to the TGV network, reducing travel time to Paris to only three hours (previously it had taken five hours).

Karlsruhe OElhafen
Oil port

Two ports on the Rhine provide transport capacity on cargo ships, especially for petroleum products.

The nearest airport is part of the Baden Airpark (officially Flughafen Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden) about 45 km (28 mi) southwest of Karlsruhe, with regular connections to airports in Germany and Europe in general. Frankfurt International Airport can be reached in about an hour and a half by car (one hour by InterCityExpress); Stuttgart Airport can be reached in about one hour (about an hour and a half by train and S‑Bahn).

Two interesting facts in transportation history are that both Karl Drais, the inventor of the bicycle, as well as Karl Benz, the inventor of the automobile were born in Karlsruhe. Benz was born in Mühlburg, which later became a borough of Karlsruhe (in 1886). Benz also studied at the Karlsruhe University. It also is interesting that Benz’s wife Bertha took the world's first long distance-drive with an automobile from Mannheim to Karlsruhe-Grötzingen and Pforzheim (see Bertha Benz Memorial Route). Their professional lives led both men to the neighboring city of Mannheim, where they first applied their most famous inventions.

Karlsruhe Leibgrenadierdenkmal
Memorial for Baden Life Grenadiers in several wars, 1803–1918, existed until 2010
Karlsruhe Durlach Karlsburg
Karlsburg Castle in Durlach

Jewish community

Jews settled in Karlsruhe soon after its founding.[22] They were attracted by the numerous privileges granted by its founder to settlers, without discrimination as to creed. Official documents attest the presence of several Jewish families at Karlsruhe in 1717.[22] A year later the city council addressed to the margrave a report in which a question was raised as to the proportion of municipal charges to be borne by the newly arrived Jews, who in that year formed an organized congregation, with Rabbi Nathan Uri Kohen of Metz at its head. A document dated 1726 gives the names of twenty-four Jews who had taken part in an election of municipal officers.

As the city grew, permission to settle there became less easily obtained by Jews, and the community developed more slowly. A 1752 Jewry ordinance stated Jews were forbidden to leave the city on Sundays and Christian holidays, or to go out of their houses during church services, but they were exempted from service by court summonses on Sabbaths. They could sell wine only in inns owned by Jews and graze their cattle, not on the commons, but on the wayside only. Nethanael Weill was a rabbi in Karlsruhe from 1750 until his death.

In 1783, by a decree issued by Margrave Charles Frederick of Baden, the Jews ceased to be serfs, and consequently could settle wherever they pleased. The same decree freed them from the Todfall tax, paid to the clergy for each Jewish burial. In commemoration of these changes special prayers were prepared by the acting rabbi Jedidiah Tiah Weill, who, succeeding his father in 1770, held the office until 1805.

In 1808 the new constitution of what at that time, during the Napoleonic era, had become the Grand Duchy of Baden granted Jews citizenship status; a subsequent edict, in 1809, constitutionally acknowledged Jews as a religious group.[23][24] The latter edict provided for a hierarchical organization of the Jewish communities of Baden, under the umbrella of a central council of Baden Jewry (Oberrat der Israeliten Badens), with its seat in Karlsruhe,[23] and the appointment of a chief rabbi of Karlsruhe, as the spiritual head of the Jews in all of Baden.[22] The first chief rabbi of Karlsruhe and Baden was Rabbi Asher Loew, who served from 1809 until his death in 1837.[25]

Complete emancipation was given in 1862, Jews were elected to city council and Baden parliament, and from 1890 were appointed judges. Jews were persecuted in the 'Hep-Hep' riots that occurred in 1819; and anti-Jewish demonstrations were held in 1843, 1848, and the 1880s. The well-known German-Israeli artist Leo Kahn studied in Karlsruhe before leaving for France and Israel in the 1920s and 1930s.

Today, there are about 900 members in the Jewish community, many of whom are recent immigrants from Russia, and an orthodox rabbi.[26]

Karlsruhe has memorialized its Jewish community and notable pre-war synagogues with a memorial park.[27]

Juedischer Friedhof Groetzingen

Jewish cemetery of Grötzingen

Karlsruhe Synagoge 1810

Karlsruhe Synagogue, built by Friedrich Weinbrenner in 1798, existed until 1871

Karlsruhe Shoa

Holocaust memorial

Karlsruhe Synagoge Luftbild

The new synagogue

Chanukka Karlsruhe-2016 Mentrup-Mendelson

Public menorah on the Marktplatz

Karlsruhe and the Holocaust

On 28 October 1938, all Jewish men of Polish extraction were expelled to the Polish border, their families joining them later and most ultimately perishing in the ghettoes and concentration camps. On “Kristallnacht” (9-10 November 1938), the Adass Jeshurun synagogue was burned to the ground, the main synagogue was damaged, and Jewish men were taken to the Dachau concentration camp after being beaten and tormented. Deportations commenced on 22 October 1940, when 893 Jews were loaded onto trains for the three-day journey to the Gurs concentration camp in France. Another 387 were deported in 1942-45 to lzbica in the Lublin district (Poland), Theresienstadt, and Auschwitz. Of the 1,280 Jews deported directly from Karlsruhe, 1,175 perished. Another 138 perished after deportation from other German cities or occupied Europe. In all, 1,421 of Karlsruhe’s Jews died during the Holocaust. A new community was formed after the war by surviving former residents, with a new synagogue erected in 1971. It numbered 359 in 1980. [28]

Historical population

Year Inhabitants
1719 2,000[29]
1750 2,500[29]
1815 >15,000[29]
1901 100,000[29]
1933 155,000[29]
1973 264,249[30]
2003 282,595
2007 288,917
2012 296,033
2014 312,174[31]

Famous people

Notable contemporary entertainment and sports figures

Education

Karlsruhe is a renowned research and study centre, with one of Germany's finest institutions of higher education.

Technology, engineering, and business

The Karlsruhe University (Universität Karlsruhe-TH), the oldest technical university in Germany, is home to the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Karlsruhe Research Center), where engineering and scientific research is performed in the areas of health, earth, and environmental sciences. The Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences (Hochschule Karlsruhe-HS) is the largest university of technology in the state of Baden-Württemberg, offering both professional and academic education in engineering sciences and business. In 2009, the University of Karlsruhe joined the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe to form the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT).

The arts

The Academy of Fine Arts, Karlsruhe is one of the smallest universities in Germany, with average 300 students, but it is known as one of the most significant academies of fine arts. The Karlsruhe University of Arts and Design (HfG) was founded to the same time as its sister institution, the Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe (Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie). The HfG teaching and research focuses on new media and media art. The Hochschule für Musik Karlsruhe is a music conservatory that offers degrees in composition, music performance, education, and radio journalism. Since 1989 it has been located in the Gottesaue Palace.

International education

The Karlshochschule International University (formerly known as Merkur Internationale Fachhochschule) was founded in 2004. As a foundation-owned, state-approved management school, Karlshochschule offers undergraduate education in both German and English, focusing on international and intercultural management, as well as service- and culture-related industries. Furthermore, an international consecutive Master of Arts in leadership studies is offered in English.

European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT)

Karlsruhe hosts one of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology's Knowledge and Innovation Communities (KICs) focusing on sustainable energy. Other co‑centres are based in Grenoble, France (CC Alps Valleys); Eindhoven, the Netherlands, and Leuven, Belgium (CC Benelux); Barcelona, Spain (CC Iberia); Kraków, Poland (CC PolandPlus); and Stockholm, Sweden (CC Sweden).[32]

University of Education

The Karlsruhe University of Education was founded in 1962. It is specialized in educational processes. The University has about 3700 students and 180 full-time researchers and lecturers. It offers a wide range of educational studies, like teaching profession for primary and secondary schools (both optional with a European Teaching Certificate profile), Bachelor programs that specializes in Early Childhood Education and in Health and Leisure Education, Master programs in Educational Science, Intercultural Education, Migration and Multilingualism. Furthermore, the University of Education Karlsruhe offers a Master program for Biodiversity and Environmental Education.[33]

see: List of schools in Germany

Culture

In 1999 the ZKM (Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie, Centre for Art and Media) was opened. Within a short time it built up a worldwide reputation as a cultural institution. Linking new media theory and practice, the ZKM is located in a former weapons factory. Among the institutes related to the ZKM are the Staatliche Hochschule für Gestaltung (State University of Design), whose president is philosopher Peter Sloterdijk and the Museum for Contemporary Art.

Karlsruhe Nancybrunnen
Nancy fountain

International relations

Twin towns—sister cities

Karlsruhe is twinned with:[34]

Partnerships

The city is also in a partnership relationship with:

Karlsruhe Gottesaue3
Gottesau Palace (now music college).

Legacy

Events

Every year in July there is a large open-air festival lasting three days called simply Das Fest ("The Festival").[37][38]

The Baden State Theatre has sponsored the Händel Festival since 1978.

The city hosted the 23rd and 31st European Juggling Conventions (EJC) in 2000 and 2008.

In July the African Summer Festival is held in the city's Nordstadt. Markets, drumming workshops, exhibitions, a varied children's programme, and musical performances take place during the three days festival.[39]

In the past Karlsruhe has been the host of LinuxTag (the biggest Linux event in Europe) and until 2006 hosted the annual Linux Audio Conference.[40]

Visitors and locals watched the total solar eclipse at noon on August 11, 1999. The city was not only located within the eclipse path but was one of the few within Germany not plagued by bad weather.

Sport

Football (soccer)
Karlsruher SC (KSC), DFB (3. Liga)
Basketball
PS Karlsruhe Lions, Basketball-Pro-Liga A (second division)

Karlsruhe co-hosted the FIBA EuroBasket 1985.

Tennis
TC Rueppurr (TCR), [Tennis-Bundesliga] (women's first division)
Baseball, softball
Karlsruhe Cougars, Regional League South-East (men's baseball), 1st Bundesliga South (women's softball I) and State League South (women's softball II)
American football
Badener Greifs, currently competing in the Regional League Central but formerly a member of the German Football League's 1st Bundesliga, lost to the Berlin Adler in the 1987 German Bowl (see also: German Football League)
Karlsruhe Schloss Panorama1 meph666 Okt 2006
Karlsruhe Palace

References

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  2. ^ "Alle politisch selbständigen Gemeinden mit ausgewählten Merkmalen am 31.12.2018 (4. Quartal)". DESTATIS. Archived from the original on 10 March 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
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  8. ^ "Die Wetterstationen in Karlsruhe". Wetter.im-licht-der-natur.de. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
  9. ^ "Ausgabe der Klimadaten: Monatswerte".
  10. ^ Volker C. Ihle (2011). Karlsruhe and the United States. Sonstige. pp. 35–37.
  11. ^ Ihde, Aaron J. (1961). "The Karlsruhe Congress: A Centennial Retrospective". Journal of Chemical Education. 38 (2): 83–86. Bibcode:1961JChEd..38...83I. doi:10.1021/ed038p83. (subscription required)
  12. ^ Elkins, Walter. "U.S. Army Installations - Karlsruhe". U.S. Army in Germany. Retrieved 2012-07-21.
  13. ^ "Statistisches Jahrbuch 2017" (PDF). Retrieved 25 June 2018.
  14. ^ Southern Germany
  15. ^ Staatliche Majolika Manufaktur Karlsruhe GmbH. "Majolika-Manufaktur". Majolika-karlsruhe.com. Retrieved 2011-04-07.
  16. ^ Stadt Karlsruhe Stadtarchiv (ed.): Karlsruhe. Die Stadtgeschichte. Badenia, Karlsruhe 1998, ISBN 3-7617-0353-8, p. 591–594
  17. ^ "Financial Report 2012" (PDF). EnBW. p. 3.
  18. ^ See [1], a webpage by the Federal Foreign Office
  19. ^ "Interview mit einem Gründer aus Karlsruhe". Retrieved 2015-05-08.
  20. ^ "STAPPZ App from Karlsruhe, Homepage". Retrieved 2015-05-08.
  21. ^ "Region: Mittlerer Oberrhein Informationstechnologie, IT-Anwendungen / Unternehmenssoftware". Retrieved 2015-05-08.
  22. ^ a b c "Karlsruhe (Carlsruhe)" (1906). The Jewish Encyclopedia. Ed. Isidore Singer. Vol. 7. p. 448-449.
  23. ^ a b Dubnow, Simon (1920). Die neueste Geschichte des Jüdischen Volkes (1789-1914). (in German) Translated from the Russian by Alexander Eliasberg. Vol. 1. Einleitung. Erste Abteilung: Das Zeitalter der ersten Emanzipation (1789-1815). Berlin: Jüdischer Verlag. p. 288.
  24. ^ Kober, Adolf (1942). "Mannheim." The Universal Jewish Encyclopedia. Ed. Isaac Landman. Vol. 7. New York: Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, Inc. p. 330-332; here: p. 331.
  25. ^ Oelsner, Toni (2007). "Karlsruhe." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd ed. Vol. 11. Detroit: Macmillan Reference. p. 810-811.
  26. ^ "Jewish Community Karlsruhe - Karlsruhe, Germany".
  27. ^ "images/Images%2021/ka%20syn". alemannia-judaica.de. Retrieved 2014-07-24.
  28. ^ http://db.yadvashem.org/deportation/place.html?language=en&itemId=5433380
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  30. ^ "Eingliederung ehemals selbständiger Gemeinden". Amt für Stadtentwicklung (in German). Stadt Karlsruhe. 2010-06-07. Retrieved 2011-01-05.
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  33. ^ "Karlsruhe University of Education". ph-karlsruhe.de. Retrieved 2018-03-04.
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  36. ^ "Partneri- ja kummikaupungit (Partnership and twinning cities)". Oulun kaupunki (City of Oulu) (in Finnish). Retrieved 2013-07-27.
  37. ^ "das FEST". Retrieved 2015-04-01.
  38. ^ "das FEST" (in German). Retrieved 2011-01-05.
  39. ^ "Karlsruhe Afrikamarkt & Festival 2011". Africansummerfestival.de. Retrieved 2011-04-07.
  40. ^ "http://lac.zkm.de/". lac.zkm.de. Retrieved 2014-07-24. External link in |title= (help)

External links

Baden-Württemberg

Baden-Württemberg (, German: [ˌbaːdn̩ ˈvʏɐ̯tm̩bɛɐ̯k] (listen)) is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France. It is Germany’s third-largest state, with an area of 35,751 km2 (13,804 sq mi) and 11 million inhabitants. Baden-Württemberg is a parliamentary republic and partly sovereign, federated state which was formed in 1952 by a merger of the states of Württemberg-Baden, Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern. The largest city in Baden-Württemberg is the state capital of Stuttgart, followed by Karlsruhe and Mannheim. Other cities are Freiburg im Breisgau, Heidelberg, Heilbronn, Pforzheim, Reutlingen and Ulm.

The sobriquet Ländle ("small land" in the local Swabian and Alemannic German dialects) is sometimes used as a synonym for Baden-Württemberg.

Baden Open

The Baden Open is a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor red clay courts. It is currently part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Challenger Tour. It is held annually in Karlsruhe, Germany, since 1998 (as a club event from 1998 to 1999, as a Futures from 2000 to 2003, as a Challenger since 2005).

Bundesautobahn 8

Bundesautobahn 8 (translates from German as Federal Motorway 8, short form Autobahn 8, abbreviated as BAB 8 or A 8) is an autobahn in southern Germany that runs 497 km (309 mi) from the Luxembourg A13 motorway at Schengen via Neunkirchen, Pirmasens, Karlsruhe, Stuttgart, Ulm, Augsburg and Munich to the Austrian West Autobahn near Salzburg.

The A 8 is a significant East-West transit route. Its construction began in March 1934 during Nazi rule as a Reichsautobahn, the section between Karlsruhe and Salzburg having been completed by the time road works were discontinued in World War II. Although most parts have been modernized and extended since, significant sections remain in their original configuration from the 1930s - 2+2 lanes, no emergency lanes, steep hills and tight curves. In combination with today's traffic this makes the A 8 one of the most crowded and dangerous autobahns in Germany. Especially in the wintertime the slopes of the Black Forest, the Swabian Alb near Aichelberg, as well as the Irschenberg become bottlenecks when heavy trucks crawl uphill.

Modern sections with 3+3 lanes and more are e.g. (2016): Karlsruhe - Pforzheim-North, Pforzheim-South - Stuttgart - Mühlhausen, AK Ulm/Elchingen - Augsburg - Munich-Eschenried, and AK Munich-South - AD Inntal. Other sections in Saarland, Rhineland-Palatinate and Munich have 2+2 in modern standard.

Old standard or not completed sections are (2016): near Merzig (under construction), AK Neunkirchen - Zweibrücken (no emergency lanes yet), Enz crossing near Pforzheim (modernizing planned), Alb crossing Mühlhausen - Hohenstadt (planned), Hohenstadt - Ulm-West (under construction), Ulm-West - AK Ulm/Elchingen (planned) and AD Inntal - Salzburg (planned). At least, complete section Karlsruhe - Salzburg will be extended to 3 + 3 lanes.

German cruiser Karlsruhe

Karlsruhe was a light cruiser, the second member of the Königsberg class, and was operated between 1929 and April 1940, including service in World War II. She was operated by two German navies, the Reichsmarine and the Kriegsmarine. She had two sister ships, Königsberg and Köln. Karlsruhe was built by the Deutsche Werke shipyard in Kiel; she was laid down in July 1926, launched in August 1927, and commissioned into the Reichsmarine in November 1929. She was armed with a main battery of nine 15 cm SK C/25 guns in three triple turrets and had a top speed of 32 knots (59 km/h; 37 mph).

Like her sisters, Karlsruhe served as a training cruiser for naval cadets throughout the 1930s. During the Spanish Civil War, she joined the non-intervention patrols off the Spanish coast. She was in the process of being modernized at the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, and so she was not ready for action until April 1940, when she participated in Operation Weserübung, the invasion of Norway. She landed troops at Kristiansand, and while returning to Germany, she was attacked by the British submarine HMS Truant; two torpedoes hit the ship and caused significant damage. Unable to return to port, Karlsruhe was scuttled by one of the escorting torpedo boats.

Karl Benz

Karl Friedrich Benz (German: [bɛnts] (listen); 25 November 1844 – 4 April 1929) was a German engine designer and automobile engineer. His Benz Patent Motorcar from 1885 is considered the first practical automobile. He received a patent for the motorcar on 29 January 1886.

Karlsruhe-class cruiser

The Karlsruhe class of light cruisers was a pair of two ships built for the German Imperial Navy before the start of World War I. The ships—SMS Karlsruhe and Rostock—were very similar to the previous Magdeburg-class cruisers, mounting the same armament and similar armor protection, though they were larger and faster than the earlier ships. Both vessels were laid down in 1911, and launched one day apart, on 11 and 12 November 1912. Karlsruhe joined the fleet in January 1914, but fitting out work lasted slightly longer on her sister; Rostock was commissioned the following month.

Both of the ships had short service careers. Karlsruhe was assigned to overseas duty in the Caribbean, arriving on station in July 1914, days before the outbreak of World War I. Once the war began, she armed the passenger liner SS Kronprinz Wilhelm so it could raid British shipping. After a moderately successful commerce raiding career, during which Karlsruhe sank sixteen merchant ships and successfully evaded British cruisers, she sank after an accidental internal explosion on 4 November 1914. Most of her crew were killed in the sinking, but the survivors returned to Germany on one of Karlsruhe's attendant colliers by December.

Rostock served as a torpedo boat flotilla leader with the High Seas Fleet following her commissioning; her flotilla frequently screened for the battlecruisers in the I Scouting Group, including during the Battle of Dogger Bank in January 1915 and operations off the British coast in early 1916. She saw heavy action during the Battle of Jutland on 31 May – 1 June 1916 as part of the screen for the main battle fleet. In the ferocious night fighting that occurred as the German fleet punched through the British rear-guard, Rostock was torpedoed by a British destroyer, which immobilized the ship. She was taken under tow by several torpedo boats, but early on the morning of 1 June, the cruiser HMS Dublin located the cruiser. To prevent her capture by the British, the Germans scuttled the ship after taking off her crew.

Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport

Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport (IATA: FKB, ICAO: EDSB) (German: Flughafen Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden) is the international airport of Karlsruhe, the second-largest city in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, and also serves the spa town of Baden-Baden. It is the state's second-largest airport after Stuttgart Airport, and the 18th-largest in Germany with 1,110,500 passengers as of 2016 and mostly serves low-cost and leisure flights.

The airport itself is part of Baden Airpark, a business park with numerous other tenants. It is located in Rheinmünster, 40 km (25 mi) south of Karlsruhe, 12 km (7.5 mi) west of Baden-Baden, 25 km (16 mi) east of Haguenau and 25 km (16 mi) north of Strasbourg, France.

Karlsruhe (district)

Karlsruhe is a Landkreis (district) in the northwest of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Neighboring districts are (from north clockwise) Rhein-Neckar, Heilbronn,

Enz, Calw, Rastatt, Germersheim, Rhein-Pfalz-Kreis and the district-free city Speyer. The urban district Karlsruhe (Stadtkreis Karlsruhe), which contains the City of Karlsruhe, is located in the middle of the district, and partially cuts it into a northern and a southern part.

Karlsruhe (region)

Karlsruhe is one of the four administrative regions (sing. Regierungsbezirk) of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, located in the north-west of the state. It is subdivided into the three regional associations (sing. Regionalverband): Mittlerer Oberrhein (Middle Upper Rhine), Rhein-Neckar (Rhine-Neckar) and Nordschwarzwald (Northern Black Forest).

Karlsruhe Hauptbahnhof

Karlsruhe Hauptbahnhof is a railway station in the German city of Karlsruhe. The station is classified as a Category 1 station, as it is a major hub where several railways connect.

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology

The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (German: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie) is a public research university and one of the largest research and educational institutions in Germany. KIT was created in 2009 when the University of Karlsruhe (Universität Karlsruhe), founded in 1825 as a public research university and also known as the "Fridericiana", merged with the Karlsruhe Research Center (Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe), which had originally been established in 1956 as a national nuclear research center (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, or KfK) .KIT is one of the leading universities for engineering and the natural sciences in Europe, ranking sixth overall in citation impact. KIT is a member of the TU9 German Institutes of Technology e.V. As part of the German Universities Excellence Initiative KIT was awarded an excellence status in 2006. In the 2011 performance ranking of scientific papers, Karlsruhe ranked first in Germany and among the top ten universities in Europe in engineering and natural sciences. Ranked 26th worldwide in computer science in the internationally recognized "Times Higher Education" ranking, KIT is among the leading universities worldwide in computer science.

As of 2018, six Nobel laureates are affiliated with KIT. The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology is well known for many inventors and entrepreneurs who studied or taught there, including Heinrich Hertz, Karl Friedrich Benz and the founders of SAP SE.

Karlsruhe Stadtbahn

The Karlsruhe Stadtbahn is a German tram-train system combining tram lines in the city of Karlsruhe with railway lines in the surrounding countryside, serving the entire region of the middle upper Rhine valley and creating connections to neighbouring regions. The Stadtbahn combines an efficient urban railway in the city with an S-Bahn (suburban railway), overcoming the boundary between trams/light railways and heavy railways. Its logo does not include the green and white S-Bahn symbol used in other German suburban rail systems and the symbol is only used at stops and stations outside the inner-city tram-operation area.

The idea to link tram and railway lines with one another in order to be able to offer an attractive transport system for town and outskirts was developed in Karlsruhe and implemented gradually in the 1980s and 1990s, with the system commencing operation in 1992. This idea, known as the Karlsruhe model or tram-train, has been adapted by other European cities.

The Karlsruhe Stadtbahn is operated in co-operation by Albtal-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft (Alb valley transport corporation, AVG), Verkehrsbetriebe Karlsruhe (Karlsruhe transport authority, VBK) and Deutsche Bahn (DB). The two urban transport operators, VBK and AVG, operate most services, while DB is responsible for the sections from Pforzheim and Bretten to Bietigheim-Bissingen. As of 2013, AVG quotes the size of the part of the Karlsruhe Stadtbahn system that is not operated by DB as 262.4 kilometres (163.0 mi), with 12 lines serving 190 stations.

Karlsruher SC

Karlsruher SC is a German association football club, based in Karlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg. KSC rose out of the consolidation of a number of predecessor clubs. They have played in the Bundesliga, but were relegated to the 2. Bundesliga in 1998 and in 2009. In 2012, they were relegated to the 3. Liga through play-offs, and in 2013, they were promoted back to the 2. Bundesliga and went back down again in 2017.

Mannheim–Karlsruhe–Basel railway

The Mannheim–Karlsruhe–Basel railway is a double-track electrified mainline railway in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. It runs from Mannheim via Heidelberg, Bruchsal, Karlsruhe, Rastatt, Baden-Baden, Offenburg and Freiburg to Basel, Switzerland. It is also known as the Rhine Valley Railway (German: Rheintalbahn) or the Upper Rhine Railway (Oberrheinbahn).

The line was built as part of the Baden Mainline (Badische Hauptbahn). Between Mannheim and Rastatt it runs parallel to the Baden Rhine Railway (Rheinbahn). The Karlsruhe–Basel high-speed railway, called the Ausbau- und Neubaustrecke Karlsruhe–Basel in German (literally: "Upgraded and new line Karlsruhe–Basel"), has been under construction since April 1987. This includes upgrading the current line to four-tracks in places and the construction of new line elsewhere. It was originally envisaged as being completed in 2008, but no final date for completion is now envisaged (as of 2015).

The Mannheim–Basel railway is one of the most important routes in the Deutsche Bahn network.

SMS Karlsruhe (1916)

SMS Karlsruhe was a light cruiser of the Königsberg class, built for the Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy) during World War I. She was named after the earlier Karlsruhe, which had sunk in November 1914, from an accidental explosion. The new cruiser was laid down in 1914 at the Kaiserliche Werft shipyard in Kiel, launched in January 1916, and commissioned into the High Seas Fleet in November 1916. Armed with eight 15 cm SK L/45 guns, the ship had a top speed of 27.5 kn (50.9 km/h; 31.6 mph).

She saw relatively limited service during the war, due to her commissioning late in the conflict. She was present during a brief engagement with British light forces in August 1917, though she did not actively participate in the battle. She joined the large task force assigned to Operation Albion in October 1917, but did not see significant action during that operation either. She was assigned to what was to have been the final sortie of the High Seas Fleet in the closing days of the war, but a large-scale mutiny in significant parts of the fleet forced the cancellation of the plan. Karlsruhe was interned in Scapa Flow after the end of the war, and scuttled there on 21 June 1919. Unlike most of the other ships sunk there, her wreck was never raised.

Sasha Waltz

Sasha Alexandra Waltz (born 8 March 1963, Karlsruhe) is a German choreographer, dancer, leader of the dance company Sasha Waltz and Guests, and Artistic director designate of the Berlin State Ballet, alongside Johannes Ohman, effective 2019.

Wildparkstadion

Wildparkstadion is a football stadium located in Karlsruhe, Germany. It is the home of the football club Karlsruher SC.

It is located northeast of the Karlsruhe Palace (Schloss) and is part of the former deer park (Wildpark) of the Grand Dukes of Baden in the Hardtwald, hence the name. There have been football pitches at the location since 1922, and the stadium was built in 1955, with several major renovations since.

ZKM Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe

Founded in 1989, the ZKM | Center for Art and Media Karlsruhe is a cultural institution which, since 1997, has been located in a historical industrial building in Karlsruhe, Germany that formerly housed a munitions factory. The ZKM organizes special exhibitions and thematic events, carries out research projects, produces works in the field of new media and offers public as well as individualized communications and educational programs.

The ZKM houses under one roof two museums, three research institutes as well as a media center; in this way it groups research and production, exhibitions and events, archives and collections. It works on the interface of art and science, and takes up cutting-edge insights in media technologies with the objective of developing them further. Since the death of founding director Heinrich Klotz (1935-1999), the ZKM has been directed by Prof. Peter Weibel. In addition to the ZKM, the associated Karlsruhe University of Arts and Design, as well as the Städtische Galerie Karlsruhe [Municipal Gallery Karlsruhe] are likewise housed in the former munitions factory.

Zentralblatt MATH

zbMATH, formerly Zentralblatt MATH, is a major international reviewing service providing reviews and abstracts for articles in pure and applied mathematics, produced by the Berlin office of FIZ Karlsruhe – Leibniz Institute for Information Infrastructure GmbH. Editors are the European Mathematical Society (EMS), FIZ Karlsruhe, and the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences. zbMATH is distributed by Springer Science+Business Media. It uses the Mathematics Subject Classification codes for organising the reviews by topic.

Climate data for Rheinstetten, elevation: 112 m, 1981–2010 normals. extremes 1948-2013
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.5
(63.5)
22.0
(71.6)
26.7
(80.1)
29.2
(84.6)
33.3
(91.9)
37.2
(99.0)
38.5
(101.3)
40.2
(104.4)
32.8
(91.0)
29.5
(85.1)
21.8
(71.2)
19.2
(66.6)
40.2
(104.4)
Average high °C (°F) 4.7
(40.5)
6.8
(44.2)
11.7
(53.1)
16.4
(61.5)
20.9
(69.6)
24.0
(75.2)
26.6
(79.9)
26.5
(79.7)
21.6
(70.9)
15.8
(60.4)
9.1
(48.4)
5.5
(41.9)
15.8
(60.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.0
(35.6)
3.0
(37.4)
6.9
(44.4)
10.7
(51.3)
15.2
(59.4)
18.3
(64.9)
20.6
(69.1)
20.1
(68.2)
15.6
(60.1)
10.9
(51.6)
5.8
(42.4)
2.9
(37.2)
11.0
(51.8)
Average low °C (°F) −0.7
(30.7)
−0.3
(31.5)
2.7
(36.9)
5.3
(41.5)
9.6
(49.3)
12.8
(55.0)
14.9
(58.8)
14.6
(58.3)
10.9
(51.6)
7.2
(45.0)
2.9
(37.2)
0.4
(32.7)
6.7
(44.1)
Record low °C (°F) −20.0
(−4.0)
−15.0
(5.0)
−14.6
(5.7)
−5.3
(22.5)
−0.3
(31.5)
3.6
(38.5)
6.9
(44.4)
6.3
(43.3)
2.5
(36.5)
−2.8
(27.0)
−9.3
(15.3)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−20.0
(−4.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 58.0
(2.28)
55.8
(2.20)
59.0
(2.32)
52.7
(2.07)
77.6
(3.06)
76.4
(3.01)
75.3
(2.96)
58.7
(2.31)
57.9
(2.28)
73.5
(2.89)
63.3
(2.49)
75.2
(2.96)
783.4
(30.84)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 56.7 87.8 131.2 182.7 218.4 232.1 253.9 237.3 174.4 110.9 65.5 45.6 1,796.4
Source: DWD[9]
Flag of Baden-Württemberg Regions, and urban and rural districts in the state of Baden-Württemberg in Germany Flag of Germany
Regions
Urban districts
Rural districts
Cities in Germany by population
1,000,000+
500,000+
200,000+
100,000+
World Games host cities

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