Karl Ernst Ritter von Baer Edler von Huthorn (28 February [O.S. 17 February] 1792 – 28 November [O.S. 16 November] 1876) was a Baltic German scientist and explorer. Baer is also known in Russia as Karl Maksímovich Ber (Russian: Карл Макси́мович Бэр).
Baer was a naturalist, biologist, geologist, meteorologist, geographer, and a founding father of embryology. He was an explorer of European Russia and Scandinavia. He was a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, a co-founder of the Russian Geographical Society, and the first president of the Russian Entomological Society, making him a distinguished Baltic German scientist.
Karl Ernst von Baer
|Born||17 February 1792|
|Died||16 November 1876 (aged 84)|
|Alma mater||Imperial University of Dorpat|
|Fields||Biology, embryology, geology, meteorology, geography|
|Institutions||Imperial University of Dorpat, University of Königsberg, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Geographical Society|
Karl Ernst von Baer was born into the Baltic German noble Baer family (et) in the Piep Manor (et), Jerwen County, Governorate of Estonia (in present-day Lääne-Viru County, Estonia), as a knight by birthright. His family was of Westphalian origin and originated in Osnabrück. He spent his early childhood at Lasila manor, Estonia. Many of his ancestors had come from Westphalia. He was educated at the Knight and Cathedral School in Reval (Tallinn) and the Imperial University of Dorpat (Tartu), each of which he found lacking in quality education. In 1812, during his tenure at the university, he was sent to Riga to aid the city after Napoleon's armies had laid siege to it. As he attempted to help the sick and wounded, he realized that his education at Dorpat had been inadequate, and upon his graduation, he notified his father that he would need to go abroad to "finish" his education. In his autobiography, his discontent with his education at Dorpat inspired him to write a lengthy appraisal of education in general, a summary that dominated the content of the book. After leaving Tartu, he continued his education in Berlin, Vienna, and Würzburg, where Ignaz Döllinger introduced him to the new field of embryology.
In 1817, he became a professor at Königsberg University (Kaliningrad) and full professor of zoology in 1821, and of anatomy in 1826. In 1829, he taught briefly in St Petersburg, but returned to Königsberg. In 1834, Baer moved back to St Petersburg and joined the St Petersburg Academy of Sciences, first in zoology (1834–46) and then in comparative anatomy and physiology (1846–62). His interests while there were anatomy, ichthyology, ethnography, anthropology, and geography. While embryology had kept his attention in Königsberg, then in Russia von Baer engaged in a great deal of field research, including the exploration of the island Novaya Zemlya. The last years of his life (1867–76) were spent in Dorpat, where he became a leading critic of Charles Darwin.
von Baer studied the embryonic development of animals, discovering the blastula stage of development and the notochord. Together with Heinz Christian Pander and based on the work by Caspar Friedrich Wolff, he described the germ layer theory of development (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) as a principle in a variety of species, laying the foundation for comparative embryology in the book Über Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere (1828). In 1826, Baer discovered the mammalian ovum. The human ovum was first described by Edgar Allen in 1928. In 1827, he completed research Ovi Mammalium et Hominis genesi for St Petersburg's Academy of Science (published at Leipzig). In 1827 von Baer became the first person to observe human ova. Only in 1876 did Oscar Hertwig prove that fertilization is due to fusion of an egg and sperm cell.
von Baer formulated what became known as Baer's laws of embryology:
From his studies of comparative embryology, Baer had believed in the transmutation of species but rejected later in his career the theory of natural selection proposed by Charles Darwin. He produced an early phylogenetic tree revealing the ontogeny and phylogeny of vertebrate embryos.
In the fifth edition of On the Origin of Species published in 1869, Charles Darwin added a Historical Sketch giving due credit to naturalists who had preceded him in publishing the opinion that species undergo modification, and that the existing forms of life have descended by true generation from pre-existing forms. According to Darwin:
The term Baer's law is also applied to the unconfirmed proposition that in the Northern Hemisphere, erosion occurs mostly on the right banks of rivers, and in the Southern Hemisphere on the left banks. In its more thorough formulation, which Baer never formulated himself, the erosion of rivers depends on the direction of flow, as well. For example, in the Northern Hemisphere, a section of river flowing in a North-South direction, according to the theory, erodes on its right bank due to the coriolis effect, while in an East-West section there is no preference.
Baer was interested in the northern part of Russia, and explored Novaya Zemlya in 1837, collecting biological specimens. Other travels led him to the Caspian Sea, the North Cape, and Lapland. He was one of the founders of the Russian Geographical Society.
He was a pioneer in studying biological time – the perception of time in different organisms.
In 1849, he was elected a foreign honorary of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1850. He was the president of the Estonian Naturalists' Society in 1869–1876, and was a co-founder and first president of the Russian Entomological Society. In 1875, he became a foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.
A statue honouring him can be found on Toome Hill in Tartu, as well as at Lasila manor, Estonia, and at the Zoological Museum in St Petersburg, Russia. Before the Estonian conversion to the euro, the 2-kroon bank note bore his portrait. Baer Island in the Kara Sea was named after Karl Ernst von Baer for his important contributions to the research of arctic meteorology between 1830 and 1840. A duck, Baer's pochard, was also named after him.
Three years later, the Estonian, Karl Ernst von Baer, finally found the true mammalian egg in a pet dog (von Baer, 1827).
...- dreizehn Jahre später von dem berühmten Estländer Biologen Karl Ernst von Baer...
The 2 krooni banknote (2 EEK) is a denomination of the Estonian kroon, the former currency of Estonia. Karl Ernst von Baer, who was an Estonian Baltic German anthropologist, naturalist and geographer (1792–1876), is featured with a portrait on the obverse. The 2 krooni bill is called sometimes a "kahene" meaning "a two".
A view of Tartu University which was founded in 1632 is featured on the reverse. Before the replacement of the EEK by the euro, the 2 krooni banknote was the smallest denomination most commonly used by Estonian residents on an everyday basis. It can be exchanged indefinitely at the currency museum of Eesti Pank for €0.13.Baer
Baer (or Bär, from German: bear) is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:
Alan Baer, principal tuba player for the New York Philharmonic
Arthur "Bugs" Baer (1886–1969), American journalist and humorist
Buddy Baer (1915–1986), American boxer
Byron Baer (1929–2007), American politician
Clara Gregory Baer (1863–1938), inventor of Netball, Newcomb ball and author of first rules of women's basketball
Donald Baer (1931–2002), American Developmental Psychologist
Eric Baer, polymer researcher
George Baer Jr. (1763–1834), American politician
George Frederick Baer (1842–1914), American lawyer and executive
Harold Baer Jr. (1933–2014), American judge
Jack Baer (1914–2002), American college baseball coach
Jack Baer (art dealer), British art dealer.
John Baer (actor) (1923–2006), American actor in Terry and the Pirates and other works
John Baer (journalist), American journalist at the Philadelphia Daily News
John Metz Baer, American professor of educational psychology
John Miller Baer (1886–1970), American congressman from North Dakota
John Willis Baer (1861–1931), American Presbyterian leader and college president
Julius Baer (1857–1922), Swiss banker
Karl Ernst von Baer (1792–1876), Estonian biologist
Kent Baer (born 1951), American football coach
Les Baer, founder of Les Baer Custom, Inc
Libbie C. Riley Baer (1849–1929), American poet
Max Baer (boxer) (1909–1959), American boxer
Max Baer Jr. (born 1937), American actor and director
Nicolai Reymers Baer, aka Ursus (c. 1550 – c. 1600), German mathematician
Susanne Baer (born 1964), German judge and legal scholar
Parley Baer (1914–2002), American actor
Ralph H. Baer (1922–2014), American inventor
Reinhold Baer (1902–1979), German mathematician
Richard Baer (1911–1963), German Nazi SS concentration camp commandant
Richard Baer (writer) (1928–2008), American screenwriter
Robert Baer (born 1952), former CIA officer and American writer
Steve Baer (born 1938), American inventor
Thomas M. Baer, American physicist
Will Christopher Baer (born 1966), American writer
William Jacob Baer (1860–1941), American painter
Yitzhak Baer (1888–1980), German-born Israeli historianVan BaerVan Baer (family), Middle Age noble family from the Dutch province of Gelderland
Frederik Johan van Baer (1645–1713), Dutch officer in the military service of William III of Orange
Stanny van Baer (born 1942), Dutch model and beauty queen who won Miss International 1961Baer's pochard
Baer's pochard (Aythya baeri) is a diving duck found in eastern Asia. It breeds in southeast Russia and northeast China, migrating in winter to southern China, Vietnam, Japan, and India. The name commemorates the Estonian naturalist Karl Ernst von Baer.At 41–46 cm (16–18 in), it is similar in size and stance to its close relative, the ferruginous duck (A. nyroca), although the coloration of the drakes (males) is entirely different. Baer's pochard males are similar to those of the greater scaup (A. marila), but have a dark back and upper flanks; the white lower flanks and belly are conspicuous. The females of Baer's pochard and the ferruginous duck are quite similar, but that holds true for the females of almost all Aythya species. Eclipse males resemble females, but retain the white eye.Formerly classified as a vulnerable species by the IUCN, recent research shows that its numbers are decreasing more and more rapidly. It was consequently uplisted to endangered status in 2008. In 2012, it was further uplisted to critically endangered. Between 1987 and 2007, there were only eleven reports of groups of 100+ birds in mainland China. A recent census by World Wildlife Fund (WWF) China of Hubei province found just 131 individuals on Liangzihu Lake, and only another three flocks of ten, eight, and three individuals at other sites. Hunting and wetland destruction are thought to be the causes of the decline; unconfirmed reports from eastern China suggest that as many as 3,000 individuals may be hunted every year.Baer–Babinet law
In geography, the Baer–Babinet law, sometimes called Baer's law, identifies a way in which the process of formation of rivers is influenced by the rotation of the earth. According to the hypothesis, because of the rotation of the earth, erosion occurs mostly on the right banks of rivers in the Northern Hemisphere, and in the Southern Hemisphere on the left banks.The concept was originally introduced by a French physicist Jacques Babinet in 1859 using mathematical deduction and Coriolis force. A more definitive explanation was given by an Estonian scientist Karl Ernst von Baer in 1860.Although it is possible that an aggregate measurement of all rivers would lead to a correlation with the Baer–Babinet law, the Coriolis force is orders of magnitude weaker than the local forces on the river channel from its flow. Therefore, this is unlikely to be important in any given river. Albert Einstein wrote a paper in 1926 explaining the true causes of the phenomenon (see tea leaf paradox).Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Russischen Reiches und der angrenzenden Länder Asiens
Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Russischen Reiches und der angränzenden Länder Asiens (Contributions to Knowledge of the Russian Empire and Neighboring Countries of Asia; est. 1839) was a scholarly periodical published by the Imperial Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences in Russia. Editors included Karl Ernst von Baer and Gregor von Helmersen.Biological rules
A biological rule or biological law is a generalized law, principle, or rule of thumb formulated to describe patterns observed in living organisms. Biological rules and laws are often developed as succinct, broadly applicable ways to explain complex phenomena or salient observations about the ecology and biogeographical distributions of plant and animal species around the world, though they have been proposed for or extended to all types of organisms. Many of these regularities of ecology and biogeography are named after the biologists who first described them.From the birth of their science, biologists have sought to explain apparent regularities in observational data. In his biology, Aristotle inferred rules governing differences between live-bearing tetrapods (in modern terms, terrestrial placental mammals). Among his rules were that brood size decreases with adult body mass, while lifespan increases with gestation period and with body mass, and fecundity decreases with lifespan. Thus, for example, elephants have smaller and fewer broods than mice, but longer lifespan and gestation. Rules like these concisely organized the sum of knowledge obtained by early scientific measurements of the natural world, and could be used as models to predict future observations. Among the earliest biological rules in modern times are those of Karl Ernst von Baer (from 1828 onwards) on embryonic development, and of Constantin Wilhelm Lambert Gloger on animal pigmentation, in 1833.
There is some scepticism among biogeographers about the usefulness of general rules. For example, J.C. Briggs, in his 1987 book Biogeography and Plate Tectonics, comments that while Willi Hennig's rules on cladistics "have generally been helpful", his progression rule is "suspect".E. S. Russell
Edward Stuart Russell OBE FLS (25 March 1887 – 24 August 1954) was a Scottish biologist and philosopher of biology.Russell was born near Glasgow. He studied at Greenock Academy and later at Glasgow University under Sir Graham Kerr and worked with J. Arthur Thompson after he graduated. He was influenced by his friend Patrick Geddes and in his zoological studies, sought to find holistic principles. He also believed in Lamarckian heritability. He was involved in fishery research, working on research vessels and publishing on the biology of cephalopods and quantitative methods for gathering fishery data. He also worked as Scottish Fisheries expert, Inspector of Fisheries and as an advisor to HM Government. He was an honorary lecturer on animal behaviour at the University College, London for about fifteen years. He was elected President of the Zoology section of the British Association in 1934. From 1940—42, he served as the President of the Linnean Society. He died at Hastings, East Sussex, from heart failure at the age of 67.Russell favored holism and organicism. He was a critic of the modern synthesis and presented his own evolutionary theory uniting developmental biology with heredity but opposing Mendelian inheritance. He was influenced by Karl Ernst von Baer and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.Ectoderm
Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo. The other two layers are the mesoderm (middle layer) and endoderm (most proximal layer), with the ectoderm as the most exterior (or distal) layer. It emerges and originates from the outer layer of germ cells. The word ectoderm comes from the Greek ektos meaning "outside", and derma, meaning "skin."Generally speaking, the ectoderm differentiates to form the nervous system (spine, peripheral nerves and brain), tooth enamel and the epidermis (the outer part of integument). It also forms the lining of mouth, anus, nostrils, sweat glands, hair and nails.In vertebrates, the ectoderm has three parts: external ectoderm (also known as surface ectoderm), the neural crest, and neural tube. The latter two are known as neuroectoderm.Karl August Burow
Karl Heinrich August Burow (10 November 1809 in Elbing – 15 April 1874 in Königsberg) was a German surgeon and ophthalmologist.
From 1830 he studied at the University of Königsberg, where his influences included Ludwig Wilhelm Sachs, Karl Ernst von Baer and Karl Friedrich Burdach. In 1839 he obtained his habilitation and in 1844 became an associate professor. In 1846 he opened a private medical clinic in Konigsberg, in which he specialized in ophthalmology and surgery. In 1859 he resigned his professorship and became a Sanitätsrat (medical officer). In 1866 he was a consultant physician to the army of Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel, and in 1870 performed in a similar role to the army of Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia.He was the first surgeon in East Prussia to perform Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach's surgery for strabismus. He is also credited for introducing new methods of blepharoplasty and cheiloplasty. The term "Burow's triangle" is defined as a triangle of skin and subcutaneous fat excised so that a pedicle flap can be advanced without buckling the adjacent tissue. Burow was a passionate advocate of open wound treatment.Burow's solution is a preparation of aluminium subacetate and glacial acetic acid. It has astringent and antiseptic properties and is used for various skin conditions.Lasila
Lasila is a village in Rakvere Parish, Lääne-Viru County, in northeastern Estonia.Martin Rathke
Martin Heinrich Rathke (August 25, 1793, Danzig – September 3, 1860, Königsberg) was a German embryologist and anatomist. Along with Karl Ernst von Baer and Christian Heinrich Pander, he is recognized as one of the founders of modern embryology. He was the father of chemist Bernhard Rathke (1840–1923).
He studied medicine and natural history at the University of Göttingen, later relocating to Berlin, where he received his doctorate in medicine (1818). In 1828 he was named professor of physiology, pathology and semiotics at the University of Dorpat. In 1832/33 he undertook research expeditions to Finland and to the Crimea. Rathke was a professor of zoology and anatomy at Königsberg from 1835 to 1860. In 1839, while based in Königsberg, he travelled to Scandinavia, where he conducted studies of marine organisms.He studied marine organisms and the embryonic development of sex organs. He was the first to describe the brachial clefts and gill arches in the embryos of mammals and birds. He also first described in 1839 the embryonic structure, now known as Rathke's pouch, from which the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland develops.He was the first to discover that the amphioxus was a separate taxa, and not the larvae of a mollusk, as previously thought. He was the author of several writings on crustaceans, mollusks and worms, and also the author of works on vertebrates, such as the lemming and various reptiles.Paramysis baeri
Paramysis baeri is a species of mysid crustacean from the genus Paramysis, named in honour of the prominent biologist Karl Ernst von Baer. Its body is 13–31 millimetres (0.51–1.22 in) long, and it is only found in the coastal waters of the Caspian Sea, on sandy and muddy bottoms, at depths of less than 20 m (66 ft). For over a century, it was thought to be distributed throughout the whole Ponto-Caspian basin, but recently the range was reconsidered after the rediscovery and re-establishment of the closely related species Paramysis bakuensis. Since the taxonomical status of P. baeri has been reconsidered, the distribution and ecology of the species remains poorly known. Paramysis baeri can be distinguished from P. bakuensis and other species of the subgenus Paramysis s. str. by the rather broad, almost quadrangular exopod of maxilla 2, the strongly serrated paradactylar claw-setae of pereiopod 6, and other features.Piibe
Piibe is a village in Väike-Maarja Parish, Lääne-Viru County, in northeastern Estonia.
Well-known biologist and explorer, the founder of embryology Karl Ernst von Baer (1792–1876) was born in Piibe Manor and owned the complex from 1834 to 1866.Priyutnoye, Republic of Kalmykia
Priyutnoye (Russian: Прию́тное Prijutnoe; Kalmyk: Приютн Prijutn) is settlement and the administrative center of Priyutnensky District and Iki-Burulsky rural locality of the Republic of Kalmykia in the Russian Federation. It is located on the R216 highway, 58 kilometres (36 mi) southwest of the Kalmyk capital of Elista near the Nain Shara River, a tributary of the Manych River. In 2010, its population was 6,010 souls.
An 1848 imperial decree to create settled villages in ethnically Kalmyk areas led to the 1850 founding of a settlement of Russians near the lake of Amtya-Nur (Амтя-Нур, from the Kalmyk Әмтә Нур Ämtä Nur, lit. "sweet lake"). Noted scientist Karl Ernst von Baer visited the area in 1856 and tried unsuccessfully to convince the inhabitants to move from the area due to lime concentrations in the lake..Russian Entomological Society
The Russian Entomological Society is a Russian scientific society devoted to entomology.
The Society was founded in 1859 in St. Petersburg by Karl Ernst von Baer, Johann Friedrich von Brandt who was then the director of the Zoological Museum of the Russian Academy of Science, Ya. A. Kushakevich, Colonel Alexander Karlovich Manderstern, Alexander von Middendorff and Colonel of General Staff Victor Ivanovitsch Motschulsky. Another society founder was Ferdinand Morawitz.Karl v. Baer was elected the first president of the Society.Siberian sturgeon
The Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) is a species of sturgeon in the Acipenseridae family. It is most present in all of the major Siberian river basins that drain northward into the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian Seas, including the Ob, Yenisei (which drains Lake Baikal via the Angara River) Lena, and Kolyma Rivers. It is also found in Kazakhstan and China in the Irtysh River, a major tributary of the Ob.
The species epithet honors the German Russian biologist Karl Ernst von Baer.Tartu University Library
Tartu University Library is an academic library in Tartu, Estonia, belonging to the University of Tartu. It is the largest academic library in the country.
The library was founded in 1802 (with its forerunner from 1632). Holdings include approximately 3.7 million volumes. The collection is particularly rich in the field of semiotics.
The main building of the library is situated in the center of Tartu, on Struve Street 1.
Its holdings include memorial collections of Karl Ernst von Baer, Thomas Sebeok and many others.Von Baer's laws (embryology)
Von Baer's laws of embryology (or laws of development) are four rules discovered by Karl Ernst von Baer to explain the observed pattern of embryonic development in different species.Von Baer formulated the laws in the book Über Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere ("On the Developmental History of Animals"), published in 1828, while working at the University of Königsberg. He specifically intended to rebut Johann Friedrich Meckel's 1808 recapitulation theory. According to that theory, embryos pass through successive stages that represent the adult forms of less complex organisms in the course of development, and that ultimately reflects scala naturae (the great chain of being). von Baer believed that such linear development is impossible. He posited that instead of linear progression, embryos started from one or a few basic forms that are similar in different animals, and then developed in a branching pattern into increasingly different organisms. Defending his ideas, he was also opposed to Charles Darwin's 1859 theory of common ancestry and descent with modification, and particularly to Ernst Haeckel's revised recapitulation theory with its slogan "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny".Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences
The Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences is a Russian museum devoted to zoology. It is located in Saint Petersburg, on Universitetskaya Embankment. It is one of the ten largest nature history museums in the world.Peter the Great's Kunstkamera collections included zoological specimens. In 1724, the museum became a part of the Russian Academy of Sciences. A printed catalogue of the contents was published in 1742. It listed the zoology, botany, geology and anthropology specimens and contained an album of etchings of the building and plan of some of its parts.
In 1766, Peter Simon Pallas, a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, was appointed curator of Zoology. In 1832, the zoological collection was split from the Kunstkamera and, in 1896, moved nearby to its present location in the former southern warehouse of the Saint Petersburg bourse (constructed in 1826-1832). In 1931, the Zoological Institute was established within the Academy of Sciences, which included the museum.
In the front hall of the museum is a monument to Karl Ernst von Baer by the entrance, as well as skeletons of cetaceans, including the enormous 27-metre-long (89 ft) blue whale, and mounted pinnipeds. In the gallery above the front hall, the entomological collection is displayed. The second and third halls form a long passage with systematic collections and dioramas dating back to the early 20th century. The second hall hosts the collection of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and invertebrates, mounted or preserved in formalin, and their skeletons or shells. The collection of mammals, including woolly mammoths, is displayed in the third hall.
Copley Medallists (1851–1900)