Karelia

The two flags of Karelia, the nationalist flag (left, with cross) and the official flag of the Russian Republic of Karelia (right, with bars)

KarelianNationalFlag
Flag of Karelia

The two coats of arms of Karelia, the Finnish one (left, with crown) and the Russian one (right, with bear)

Karjalan historiallisen maakunnan vaakuna
Coat of Arms of Republic of Karelia

Karelia (Karelian, Finnish, and Estonian: Karjala; Russian: Карелия, Karelija, historically Корела, Korjela; Swedish: Karelen), the land of the Karelian people, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden. It is currently divided among the northwestern Russian Federation (the federal subjects of the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast) and Finland (the regions of South Karelia and North Karelia).

Coordinates: 63°N 32°E / 63°N 32°E

Use of name

Many Karelias
Parts of Karelia, as they are divided today.
Kizhi church 1
Kizhi Pogost, one of many fine examples of wooden architecture surviving on Kizhi island.

Various subdivisions may be called Karelia. Finnish Karelia was an historical province of Finland, and is now divided between Finland and Russia, often called just Karjala in Finnish. The eastern part of this chiefly Lutheran area was ceded to Russia after the Winter War of 1939–40.

The Republic of Karelia is a Russian federal subject, including the so-called East Karelia with a chiefly Russian Orthodox population.

Within present-day Finland, Karjala refers to the regions of South and North Karelia, although parts of historical Karelia also lies within the region of Kymenlaakso (Miehikkälä and Virolahti), Northern Savonia (Kaavi, Rautavaara and Säyneinen) and Southern Savonia (Mäntyharju).

Geography

Karelia stretches from the White Sea coast to the Gulf of Finland. It contains the two largest lakes in Europe, Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega. The Karelian Isthmus is located between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga.

The border between Karelia and Ingria, the land of the closely related Ingrian people, had originally been the Neva River itself but later on it was moved northward into Karelian isthmus to follow the Sestra River (Russian: Сестра), today in the Saint Petersburg metropolitan area, but in 1812–1940 the Russo-Finnish border.

On the other side of Lake Ladoga, River Svir is usually thought of as the traditional southern border of Karelian territory, as Lake Saimaa marks the Western border while Lake Onega and the White Sea mark the Eastern border. In the North there were the nomadic Samis, but no natural border except for huge woods (taiga) and tundra.

In historical texts Karelia is sometimes divided into East Karelia and West Karelia, which are also called Russian Karelia and Finnish Karelia respectively. The area to the north of Lake Ladoga which belonged to Finland before World War II is called Ladoga Karelia, and the parishes on the old pre-war border are sometimes called Border Karelia. White Sea Karelia (sometimes the Finnish or Karelian term "Viena Karelia", or in some English-language sources, "White Karelia", is used) is the northern part of East Karelia and Olonets Karelia is the southern part.

Tver Karelia denotes the villages in the Tver Oblast that are inhabited by Tver Karelians.

Kem prokudin
View of the old town of Kem. Photo by S.M.Prokudin-Gorsky, 1916
Башня Выборгской крепости 06
Viipuri Castle at the Finnish Gulf. Viipuri was called the capital of Karelia when it was a part of Finland.

Inhabited localities

History

Karelia was bitterly fought over by Sweden and the Novgorod Republic for a period starting in the 13th-century Swedish-Novgorodian Wars. The Treaty of Nöteborg (Finnish: Pähkinäsaaren rauha) in 1323 divided Karelia between the two. Viborg (Finnish: Viipuri) became the capital of the new Swedish province. In the Treaty of Stolbovo in 1617 large parts of Russian Karelia were ceded to Sweden. Conflicts between the new Swedish rulers and the indigenous population of these areas led to an exodus: thousands of Karelians, including the ancestors of the Tver Karelians, emigrated to Russia.

Pekka Halonen - Tienraivaajia Karjalassa
Pioneers in Karelia, 1900. By Eero Järnefelt

The Treaty of Nystad (Finnish: Uudenkaupungin rauha) in 1721 between Imperial Russia and Sweden ceded most of Karelia to Russia. The Treaty of Åbo in 1743 between Sweden and Russia then ceded South Karelia to Russia. After Finland had been occupied by Russia in the Finnish War, parts of the ceded provinces (Old Finland) were incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1917, Finland became independent and the border was confirmed by the Treaty of Tartu in 1920.

Finnish partisans were involved in attempts to overthrow the Bolshevists in Russian Karelia (East Karelia) in 1918–20, such as in the failed Aunus expedition. They also wanted to incorporate the rest of Karelia into Finland, and cooperated with the short-lived Republic of Uhtua. These mainly private expeditions ended after the peace treaty of Tartu. After the end of the Russian Civil War and the establishment of the Soviet Union in 1922, the Russian part of Karelia became the Karelian Autonomous republic of the Soviet Union (ASSR) in 1923.

In 1939, The Soviet Union attacked Finland, thus starting the Winter War. The Moscow Peace Treaty of 1940 handed most of Finnish Karelia to the Soviet Union. About 400,000 people, virtually the whole population, had to be relocated within Finland. In 1941, Karelia was liberated for three years during the Continuation War of 1941 to 1944 when East Karelia was occupied by the Finns. The Winter War and the resulting Soviet expansion caused considerable bitterness in Finland, which lost its second biggest city, Viipuri, its industrial heartland along the river Vuoksi, the Saimaa canal that connected central Finland to the Gulf of Finland, access to the fishing waters of Lake Ladoga (Finnish: Laatokka), and made an eighth of her citizens refugees without chance of return. (From the areas ceded to the Soviet Union, the whole population was evacuated and resettled in other parts of Finland. The present inhabitants of the former Finnish Karelian parts of Russia, such as the city of Vyborg/Viipuri and the Karelian Isthmus, are post-war immigrants and their descendants.)

Karelia today
Map showing the Republic of Karelia and the two Finnish regions.

As a consequence of the peace treaty, the Karelian ASSR was incorporated with the Karelo-Finnish SSR 1941–1956, after which it became an ASSR again. Karelia was the only Soviet republic that was "demoted" from an SSR to an ASSR within the Russian SFSR. Unlike administrative republics, Soviet republics (in theory) had the constitutional right to secede. The possible fear of secession, as well as the Russian ethnic minority in Karelia may have resulted in its "demotion." In 1991 the Republic of Karelia was created out of the ASSR.

The collapse of the Soviet Union brought an economic collapse. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the area has experienced massive urban decay. The hastily and poorly constructed buildings from the Soviet era, as well as older houses remaining from the Finnish era, are being abandoned.[1]

Politics

Petrozavodsk 06-2017 img71 Karelian Parliament building
Seat of the Legislative Assembly of Karelia

Karelia is politically divided between Finland and Russia. The Republic of Karelia is a federal subject of Russia, which was formed in 1991 from the Karelian ASSR. The Karelian Isthmus belongs to the Leningrad Oblast. The Finnish side consists of parts of the regions (maakunta) of South Karelia, North Karelia and Kymenlaakso.

There are some small but enthusiastic groups of Finns campaigning for closer ties between Finland and Karelia. The political expression of these irredentist hopes is called the Karelian question and is about Finland's re-acquisition of the ceded Finnish Karelia. These hopes live on, for instance, in the Karjalan Liitto and ProKarelia. However, ambitions for closer ties with East Karelia do not include territorial demands.

Demographics

The Russian side is mostly Russian-speaking. However, there are minorities speaking Finnish or closely related Finnic languages. Finnish has had varying recognition in Russian Karelia throughout history. The closely related Karelian language is spoken in the Republic of Karelia and in the Karelian villages of the Tver Region of Northwest Russia. The more distantly related Veps language is spoken on both sides of the River Svir.

On the Finnish side, the area is Finnish-speaking. The so-called Karelian dialects of Finnish language are spoken mainly in Finnish South Karelia and form the southeastern dialect group of Finnish. The dialects in Finnish North Karelia belong to the large group of Savonian dialects in Eastern and Central Finland. [1]

Ingrian Finnish dialects are spoken in Ingria, which is an area around St. Petersburg, between the Estonian border and Lake Ladoga. Ingrian Finns settled in the region in the 17th century after the Swedish conquest of the area. The settlers spoke Karelian and Savonian dialects of Finnish. The older inhabitants of the Ingria, the Ingrians, have their own language which is related to the Karelian language and the south-eastern dialects of Finnish.[2]

Karelians who evacuated from Finnish Karelia resettled all over Finland and today there are approximately one million people in Finland having their roots in the area ceded to the Soviet Union after World War II. In Finland, about 5,000 people speak Karelian.

Culture

Tourism

Karelia is one of the most famous Russian territories in international tourism for its unique architectural, cultural and historical sites such as Kizhi and Valaam.[3]

The region is worth a trip in both summer and winter, when possible activities include riding in a sled behind a dog team and running from the banya to an ice hole and back. Summer hikers can visit the Kivach waterfall or the Demon's Chair plateau.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ (in Finnish) ROMAHTANUT YHTEISKUNTA ("Collapsed Society") on Free Karelia website
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1999-10-04. Retrieved 2016-03-16.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ "Karelia Tourism Information". Karelia Tourism Portal.
  4. ^ VSEVOLOD, PULYA. "Karelia will return in your dreams". Russia Beyond the Headlines.

Sources

External links

Administrative divisions of the Republic of Karelia

Cities and towns under republic's jurisdiction:

Petrozavodsk (Петрозаводск) (Petroskoi) (capital)

Kostomuksha (Костомукша)

Sortavala (Сортавала)

Urban-type settlements under the town's jurisdiction:

Khelyulya (Хелюля)

Vyartsilya (Вяртсиля)

Districts:

Belomorsky (Беломорский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Belomorsk (Беломорск)

Kalevalsky (Калевальский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Kalevala (Калевала)

Kemsky (Кемский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Kem (Кемь)

Kondopozhsky (Кондопожский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Kondopoga (Кондопога)

Lakhdenpokhsky (Лахденпохский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Lakhdenpokhya (Лахденпохья)

Loukhsky (Лоухский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Chupa (Чупа)

Loukhi (Лоухи)

Pyaozersky (Пяозерский)

Medvezhyegorsky (Медвежьегорский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Medvezhyegorsk (Медвежьегорск)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Pindushi (Пиндуши)

Povenets (Повенец)

Muyezersky (Муезерский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Muyezersky (Муезерский)

Olonetsky (Олонецкий)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Olonets (Олонец)

Pitkyarantsky (Питкярантский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Pitkyaranta (Питкяранта)

Prionezhsky (Прионежский)

Pryazhinsky (Пряжинский)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Pryazha (Пряжа)

Pudozhsky (Пудожский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Pudozh (Пудож)

Segezhsky (Сегежский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Segezha (Сегежа)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Nadvoitsy (Надвоицы)

Suoyarvsky (Суоярвский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Suoyarvi (Суоярви)

Anthem of the Republic of Karelia

The Anthem of the Republic of Karelia is the regional anthem of the Republic of Karelia, a federal subject of Russia.

The music for the anthem was written by Alexander Beloborodov. The Russian lyrics were composed by Armas Mishin and Ivan Kostin. The Finnish text was written by Mishin alone. The lyrics of the anthem are established by law. The melody of the anthem in most parts follows the melody of the Finnish traditional song Karjalan kunnailla. Since December 2001, the Russian text is the only official one.

Continuation War

The Continuation War was a conflict fought by Finland and Nazi Germany, as co-belligerents, against the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1941 to 1944, during World War II. In Russian historiography, the war is called the Soviet–Finnish Front of the Great Patriotic War. Germany regarded its operations in the region as part of its overall war efforts on the Eastern Front and provided Finland with critical material support and military assistance.

The Continuation War began 15 months after the end of the Winter War, also fought between Finland and the USSR. There have been a number of reasons proposed for the Finnish decision to invade, with regaining territory lost during the Winter War being regarded as the most common. Other justifications for the conflict included President Ryti's vision of a Greater Finland and Commander-in-Chief Mannerheim's desire to liberate Karelia. Plans for the attack were developed jointly between the Wehrmacht and a small faction of Finnish political and military leaders with the rest of the government remaining ignorant. Despite the co-operation in this conflict, Finland never formally signed the Tripartite Pact that had established the Axis powers and justified its alliance with Germany as self-defence.

In June 1941, with the start of the German invasion of the Soviet Union, the Finnish Defence Forces launched their offensive following Soviet airstrikes. By September 1941, Finland occupied East Karelia and reversed its post–Winter War concessions to the Soviet Union along the Karelian Isthmus and in Ladoga Karelia. The Finnish Army halted its offensive past the old border, around 30–32 km (19–20 mi) from the centre of Leningrad and participated in besieging the city by cutting its northern supply routes and digging in until 1944. In Lapland, joint German–Finnish forces failed to capture Murmansk or cut the Kirov (Murmansk) Railway, a transit route for lend-lease equipment to the USSR. The conflict stabilised with only minor skirmishes until the tide of the war turned against the Germans and the Soviet Union's strategic Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive in June 1944. The attack drove the Finns from most of the territories they had gained during the war, but the Finnish Army managed to halt the offensive in August 1944.

Hostilities between Finland and the USSR ended with a ceasefire, which was called on 5 September 1944, formalised by the signing of the Moscow Armistice on 19 September 1944. One of the conditions of this agreement was the expulsion, or disarming, of any German troops in Finnish territory, which led to the Lapland War between the former co-belligerents. World War II was concluded formally for Finland and the minor Axis powers with the signing of the Paris Peace Treaties in 1947. The treaties resulted in the restoration of borders per the 1940 Moscow Peace Treaty, the ceding of the municipality of Petsamo (Russian: Pechengsky raion) and the leasing of Porkkala Peninsula to the USSR. Furthermore, Finland was required to pay $300 million in war reparations to the USSR.

63,200 Finns and 23,200 Germans died or went missing during the war in addition to 158,000 and 60,400 wounded, respectively. Estimates of dead or missing Soviets range from 250,000 to 305,000 while 575,000 have been estimated to have been wounded or fallen sick.

East Karelia

East Karelia (Finnish: Itä-Karjala, Karelian: Idä-Karjala), also rendered as Eastern Karelia or Russian Karelia, is a name for the part of Karelia that since the Treaty of Stolbova in 1617 has remained Eastern Orthodox under Russian supremacy. It is separated from the western part of Karelia, called Finnish Karelia or historically Swedish Karelia (before 1808). Most of East Karelia is now part of the Republic of Karelia within the Russian Federation. It consists mainly of old historical regions of Viena and Aunus.

19th century ethnic nationalist Fennomans saw East Karelia as the ancient home of Finnic culture, "un-contaminated" by both Scandinavians and Slavs. In the sparsely populated East Karelian backwoods, mainly in White Karelia, Elias Lönnrot collected the folk tales that ultimately would become Finland's national epic, the Kalevala.

The idea of annexing East Karelia to Finland ("Greater Finland") was widely supported in newly independent Finland. It was especially popular during the Continuation War when it seemed possible through German assistance. Most of East Karelia was occupied by Finnish forces 1941–1944. The war was accompanied by hardship for the local ethnic Russian civilians, including forced labour and internment in prison camps as enemy aliens. After the Continuation War, calls for annexation of East Karelia have virtually disappeared.

After Karelia was divided between Finland and Russia in 1918, the Finnic peoples that made up most of the population of East Karelia were promised far-reaching cultural rights. However, these rights were never realised and under Stalin ethnic Finns were persecuted and an intensive Russification programme began. Since the fall of communism, there has been a revival in Finnic culture in East Karelia.

Fennoscandia

Fennoscandia (Finnish: Fennoskandia; Swedish: Fennoskandien; Norwegian: Fennoskandia; Russian: Фенноскандия Fennoskandiya) or the Fennoscandian Peninsula is the geographical peninsula comprising the Scandinavian Peninsula, Finland, Karelia, and the Kola Peninsula. It encompasses Finland, Norway and Sweden, as well as Murmansk Oblast, much of the Republic of Karelia, and parts of northern Leningrad Oblast in Russia. Its name comes from the Latin words Fennia (Finland) and Scandia (Scandinavian). The term was first used by the Finnish geologist Wilhelm Ramsay in 1898. Geologically, the area is distinct because its bedrock is Archean granite and gneiss with very little limestone, in contrast to adjacent areas in Europe.

The similar term Fenno-Scandinavia typically refers to a cultural or political grouping of Finland with Scandinavia (Denmark, Sweden, and Norway), which is a subset of the Nordic countries.

Karelia (historical province of Finland)

Karelia (Finnish: Karjala, Swedish: Karelen) is an historical province of Finland which Finland partly ceded to Russia after the Winter War of 1939–40. The Finnish Karelians include the present-day inhabitants of North and South Karelia and the still-surviving evacuees from the ceded territories. Present-day Finnish Karelia has 315,000 inhabitants. The more than 400,000 evacuees from the ceded territories re-settled in various parts of Finland.

Finnish Karelia historically came under western influence, religiously and politically, and was separate from East Karelia, which was dominated by Novgorod and its successor states from the Middle Ages onwards.

Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

The Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Russian: Каре́льская Автоно́мная Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, tr. Karelskaya Avtonomnaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika; Finnish: Karjalan autonominen sosialistinen neuvostotasavalta), or, in short, the Karelian ASSR (Russian: Каре́льская АССР, tr. Karelskaya ASSR; Finnish: Karjalan ASNT), sometimes referred to as Soviet Karelia or simply Karelia was an autonomous republic of the Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, with the capital in Petrozavodsk.

The Karelian ASSR was formed as a part of the Russian SFSR by the Resolution of the Presidium of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTsIK) of June 27, 1923 and by the Decree of the VTsIK and the Council of People's Commissars of July 25, 1923 from the Karelian Labor Commune. In 1927, the ASSR was divided into districts, which replaced the old volosts.

On July 16, 1956, the SSR was downgraded from a Union Republic to an ASSR, and retroceded to the Russian SFSR. Beginning on August 9, 1990, the Karelian ASSR declared state sovereignty and renamed to the Karelian Soviet Socialist Republic (Russian: Каре́льская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, tr. Karelskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika; Finnish: Karjalan sosialistinen neuvostotasavalta). The Karelian SSR was renamed to the Republic of Karelia on November 13, 1991 and remains a federal subject of Russia.

Karelian question

The Karelian question or Karelian issue (Finnish: Karjala-kysymys) is a dispute in Finnish politics over whether or not to try to regain control over Finnish Karelia and other territories ceded to the Soviet Union in the Winter War and the Continuation War. Despite the name "Karelian question", the term may refer also to the return of Petsamo, ceded parts of Salla and Kuusamo, and four islands in the Gulf of Finland. Sometimes the phrase "debate on the return of the ceded territories" (luovutettujen alueiden palautuskeskustelu) is used. The Karelian question remains a matter of public debate rather than a political issue.

Karelians

Karelians (Karelian: karjalaižet) are a Baltic-Finnic ethnic group who are native to the Northern European historical region of Karelia, which is today split between Finland and Russia.

In Russia, Karelians mostly live in the Republic of Karelia where there are the designated ethnic group and in other adjacent north-western parts of the country. There are also significant Karelian enclaves in the Tver and Novgorod oblasts, as some Karelians migrated to those areas after the Russo-Swedish War of 1656-1658.

In Finland, Karelians traditionally live in the regions of Savonia and Northern and Southern Karelia. The historic homeland of the Karelians is the Karelian Isthmus, Ladoga Karelia, Olonets Karelia in Russia and the regions of North and Southern Karelia and Savonia in Finland.

Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic

The Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic (Karelo-Finnish SSR; Finnish: Karjalais-suomalainen sosialistinen neuvostotasavalta ; Russian: Каре́ло-Фи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, tr. Karelo-Finskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also called Soviet Karelia or simply known as Karelia, was a republic of the Soviet Union. It existed from 1940 until it was made part of the Russian SFSR in 1956 as the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The latter became the Republic of Karelia, a federal subject of Russia, on November 13, 1991.

Law enforcement in Russia

Law enforcement in the Russian Federation is the responsibility of a variety of different agencies. The Russian police (formerly the militsiya) are the primary law enforcement agency, the Investigative Committee of Russia (the "Russian FBI") is the main investigative agency, and the Federal Security Service (formerly the KGB) is the main domestic security agency.

Music in the Republic of Karelia

Traditional music of Karelia is regarded as the purest expression of Finnish music, less influenced by Germanic and other outside elements. Like Finland, Karelia is a home for rune singing; unlike Finland and like the neighboring Ingrian music of Russia, however, Karelia is also home to musical laments. The kantele is a popular instrument in Karelia as well as throughout Finland.Karelian folk music continues to be performed by groups like the Karelian Folk Music Ensemble, who sing in Finnish, Russian and Karelian, and have toured across Europe and the United States. Bands performing in traditional styles include, among others, Burlakat and Myllärit. The popular Finnish folk group Värttinä has recorded a number of songs based on Karelian melodies.

North Karelia

North Karelia (Finnish: Pohjois-Karjala; Swedish: Norra Karelen) is a region in eastern Finland. It borders the regions of Kainuu, Northern Savonia (Pohjois-Savo), Southern Savonia (Etelä-Savo) and South Karelia, as well as Russia.

The city of Joensuu is the capital of North Karelia.

North Karelia is renowned among public health officials. In the 1960s Finland led industrialized nations in heart disease mortality rates; North Karelia had Finland's highest incidence. In 1972 a long-term project was undertaken which targeted this risk in North Karelia. The resulting improvement in public health is still considered remarkable, a model for the rest of the nation.

Olonets

Olonets (Russian: Оло́нец; Karelian: Aunus, Livvi: Anuksenlinnu; Finnish: Aunus, Aunuksenkaupunki or Aunuksenlinna) is a town and the administrative center of Olonetsky District of the Republic of Karelia, Russia, located on the Olonka River to the east of Lake Ladoga. Population: 9,056 (2010 Census); 10,240 (2002 Census); 11,888 (1989 Census).

Postage stamps and postal history of Karelia

Karelia has appeared in philately several times; first as a breakaway republic from Soviet Russia in 1922, later when Eastern Karelia was occupied by Finland during the Continuation War of 1941 to 1944, and in the post-Soviet period when provisional stamps and cinderellas were issued. Additionally, there were Zemstvo stamps used in the early 20th century on the territory of the contemporary Republic of Karelia.

Republic of Karelia

The Republic of Karelia (Russian: Респу́блика Каре́лия, tr. Respublika Kareliya, IPA: [rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə kɐˈrʲelʲɪ(j)ə]; Karelian: Karjalan tazavaldu; Finnish: Karjalan tasavalta; Veps: Karjalan Tazovaldkund) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), located in the northwest of Russia. Its capital is the city of Petrozavodsk. Its population in 2010 was 643,548.The modern Karelian Republic was founded as an autonomous republic within the Russian SFSR by the Resolution of the Presidium of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTsIK) of June 27, 1923, and by the Decree of the VTsIK and the Council of People's Commissars of July 25, 1923, from the Karelian Labor Commune.

From 1940 to 1956, it was known as the Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic, one of the union republics in the Soviet Union. In 1956, it was once again an autonomous republic and remains as a part of Russia after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Sortavala

Sortavala (till 1918 Serdobol; Russian: Сортавала; Finnish and Karelian: Sortavala; Swedish: Sordavala) is a town in the Republic of Karelia, Russia, located at the northern tip of Lake Ladoga. Population: 19,235 (2010 Census); 21,131 (2002 Census); 22,579 (1989 Census).

South Karelia

South Karelia (Finnish: Etelä-Karjala; Swedish: Södra Karelen) is a region of Finland. It borders the regions of Kymenlaakso, Southern Savonia (Etelä-Savo) and North Karelia, as well as Russia (Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast).

Sub-regions of Finland

Finland is divided into 70 sub-regional units (Finnish: seutukunta, Swedish: ekonomisk region). The sub-regions are formed by groups of municipalities within the 19 regions of Finland. The sub-regions represent a LAU 1 level of division used in conjunction with the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics.

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