Karachi

Karachi (Urdu: کراچی‎; ALA-LC: Karācī, IPA: [kəˈraːtʃi] (listen); Sindhi: ڪراچي‎) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh. It is the most populous city in Pakistan,[12][13] and sixth-most-populous city proper in the world.[9] Ranked as a beta world city,[14][15] the city is Pakistan's premier industrial and financial centre[16] and is considered as the cultural, economic, philanthropic, educational, and political hub of the country.[17] Karachi is also Pakistan's most cosmopolitan city.[18] Situated on the Arabian Sea, Karachi serves as a transport hub, and is home to Pakistan's two largest seaports, the Port of Karachi and Port Bin Qasim, as well as the Pakistan's busiest airport, Jinnah International Airport.

Though the Karachi region has been inhabited for millennia,[19] the city was founded as the fortified village of Kolachi[20] in 1729.[21] The settlement drastically increased in importance with the arrival of British East India Company in the mid 19th century, who not only embarked on major works to transform the city into a major seaport, but also connected it with their extensive railway network.[20] By the time of the Partition of British India, the city was the largest in Sindh with an estimated population of 400,000.[18] Following the independence of Pakistan, the city's population increased dramatically with the arrival of millions of Muslim refugees from India.[22] The city experienced rapid economic growth following independence, attracting migrants from throughout Pakistan and South Asia.[23]

Karachi is one of Pakistan's most secular and socially liberal cities.[24][25][26] It is also the most linguistically, ethnically, and religiously diverse city in Pakistan.[18] Karachi’s population was enumerated at 14.9 million in the 2017 census, though the figure was immediately disputed by various factions as a severe underestimate, with some sources estimating a population of up to 30 million.[27] Karachi is one of the world's fastest growing cities,[28] and has communities representing almost every ethnic group in Pakistan. Karachi is home to over 2 million Bangladeshi immigrants, 1 million Afghan refugees, and up to 400,000 Rohingyas from Myanmar.[29][30][31]

Karachi is now Pakistan's premier industrial and financial centre. The city has a formal economy estimated to be worth $113 billion as of 2014 which is the largest in Pakistan.[32] Karachi collects over a third of Pakistan's tax revenue,[33] and generates approximately 20% of Pakistan's GDP.[34][35] Approximately 30% of Pakistani industrial output is from Karachi,[36] while Karachi's ports handle approximately 95% of Pakistan's foreign trade.[37] Approximately 90% of the multinational corporations operating in Pakistan are headquartered in Karachi.[37] Karachi is considered to be Pakistan’s fashion capital,[38][39] and has hosted the annual Karachi Fashion Week since 2009.[40][41]

Karachi

کراچی
From the top: Mazar-e-Quaid, Frere Hall, Central Business District, Karachi Port Trust Building Mohatta Palace, Port of Karachi.
Nickname(s): 
City of the Quaid,[1] Paris of Asia,[2][3] The City of Lights,[2] Bride of the Cities[4][5]
Karachi is located in Pakistan
Karachi
Karachi
Location in Pakistan
Karachi is located in Asia
Karachi
Karachi
Karachi (Asia)
Coordinates: 24°51′36″N 67°0′36″E / 24.86000°N 67.01000°ECoordinates: 24°51′36″N 67°0′36″E / 24.86000°N 67.01000°E
Country Pakistan
Province Sindh
Metropolitan Corporation2011
City CouncilCity Complex, Gulshan-e-Iqbal Town
Districts[6]
Government
 • TypeMetropolitan City
 • MayorWaseem Akhtar (MQM-P)
 • Deputy MayorArshad Vohra (PSP)
Area
 • Total3,780 km2 (1,460 sq mi)
Elevation
8 m (26 ft)
Population
 • Total14,910,352
 • Rank1st in Pakistan
 • Density3,900/km2 (10,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Karachiite
Time zoneUTC+05:00 (PST)
Postal codes
74XXX – 75XXX
Dialing code+9221-XXXX XXXX
GDP/PPP$113 billion (2014)[11]

Etymology

Karachi was reputedly founded in 1729 as the settlement of Kolachi.[21] The new settlement is said to have been named in honour of Mai Kolachi, whose son is said to have slain a man-eating crocodile in the village after his elder brothers had already been killed by it.[21]

The city's inhabitants are referred to by the demonym Karachiite in English, and Karāchīwālā in Urdu.

History

Early history

Chowkandi Tombs-17
The 15th–18th century Chaukhandi tombs are located 29 km (18 mi) east of Karachi.

Late Palaeolithic and Mesolithic sites discovered by a team from Karachi University on the Mulri Hills constitute one of the most important archaeological discoveries made in Sindh during the last 50 years. The earliest inhabitants of the Karachi region are believed to have been hunter-gatherers, with ancient flint tools discovered at several sites. A sea port called Barbarikon by the Greeks was situated in Karachi.

The Karachi region is believed to have been known to the ancient Greeks. The region may be the site of Krokola, where Alexander the Great once camped to prepare a fleet for Babylonia, as well as Morontobara which may possibly be Karachi's Manora neighbourhood.

In 711 CE, Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the Sindh and Indus Valley. The Karachi region is believed to have been known to the Arabs as Debal, from where Muhammad Bin Qasim launched his forces into South Asia in 712 C.E.[42]

Under Mirza Ghazi Beg, the Mughal administrator of Sindh, the development of coastal Sindh and the Indus delta was encouraged. Under his rule, fortifications in the region acted as a bulwark against Portuguese incursions into Sindh. The Ottoman admiral, Seydi Ali Reis, mentioned Debal and Manora Island in his book Mir'ât ül Memâlik in 1554.

Kolachi settlement

Karachi was founded in 1729 as the settlement of Kolachi under the rule of the ethnically Baloch Talpur Mirs of Sindh.[21] The founders of the settlement are said to arrived from the nearby town of Karak Bandar after the harbour there silted in 1728 after heavy rains. The settlement was fortified, and defended with cannons imported by Sindhi sailors from Muscat, Oman. The name Karachee was used for the first time in a Dutch document from 1742, in which a merchant ship de Ridderkerk is shipwrecked near the original settlement.[43][44] The city continued to be ruled by the Talpur Mirs until it was occupied by forces under the command of John Keane in February 1839.[45]

British Raj

Frere Hall Karachi. Pakistan
Some of Karachi's most recognized structures, such as Frere Hall, date from the British Raj.
KMC Headoffice day view
Karachi features several examples of colonial-era Indo-Saracenic architecture.
Old building of State Bank of Pakistan, Now its known as State Bank Museum
The former State Bank of Pakistan building was built during the colonial era.

The British East India Company captured Karachi on 3 February 1839 after HMS Wellesley opened fire and quickly destroyed the local mud fort at Manora.[46] The town was annexed to British India in 1843. Later a large part Sindh region was captured by Major General Charles James Napier after the victory in the Battle of Miani, and the city was declared capital of the newly formed Sindh province.

The city was recognized for its strategic importance, prompting the British to establish the Port of Karachi in 1854. Karachi rapidly became a transportation hub for British India owing to newly built port and rail infrastructure, as well as the increase in agricultural exports from the opening of productive tracts of newly irrigated land in Punjab and interior Sindh.[47] The British also developed the Karachi Cantonment as a military garrison in order to aid the British war effort in the First Anglo-Afghan War.[48]

During the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, the 21st Native Infantry, then stationed in Karachi, mutinied and declared allegiance to rebel forces in September 1857, though the British were able to quickly defeat the rebels and reassert control over the city. Following the Rebellion, British colonial administrators continued to develop the city. In 1864, the first telegraphic message was sent from South Asia to England from Karachi.[49] Public building works were undertaken, including the construction of Frere Hall in 1865 and the later Empress Market. In 1878, the British Raj connected Karachi with the network of British India's vast railway system.

By 1899, Karachi had become the largest wheat-exporting port in the East.[50] British development projects in Karachi resulted in an influx of economic migrants from several ethnicities and religions, including Anglo-British, Parsis, Marathis, and Goan Christians, among others. Karachi's newly arrived Jewish population established the city's first synagogue in 1893.[51] Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan, was born in Karachi's Wazir Mansion in 1876 to migrants from Gujarat. By the end of the 19th century, Karachi's population was estimated to be 105,000.[52]

Under British rule, the city's municipal government was established. Known as the Father of Modern Karachi, mayor Seth Harchandrai Vishandas led the municipal government to improve sanitary conditions in the Old City, as well as major infrastructure works in the New Town after his election in 1911.[2]

Post-independence

At the dawn of independence following the success of the Pakistan Movement in 1947, Karachi was Sindh's largest city with a population of over 400,000.[18] Despite communal violence across India and Pakistan, Karachi remained relatively peaceful compared to cities further north in Punjab.[2] The city became the focus for the resettlement of Muslim Muhajirs migrating from India, leading to a dramatic expansion of the city's population. This migration lasted until the 1960s.[53] This immigration ultimately transformed the city's demographics and economy.

Karachi was selected as the first capital of Pakistan and served as such until the capital was shifted to Rawalpindi in 1958.[54] While foreign embassies shifted away from Karachi, the city is host to numerous consulates and honorary consulates.[55] Between 1958 and 1970, Karachi's role as capital of Sindh was ceased due to the One Unit programme enacted by President Iskander Mirza.[2]

Karachi of the 1960s was regarded as an economic role model around the world, with Seoul, South Korea borrowing from the city's second "Five-Year Plan."[56][57] The 1970s saw major labour struggles in Karachi's industrial estates. The 1980s and 1990s saw an influx of thousands of Afghan refugees from the Soviet–Afghan War into Karachi; who were in turn followed in smaller numbers by refugees escaping from post-revolution Iran.[58]

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Karachi was rocked by political conflict, while crime rates drastically increased with the arrival of weaponry from the War in Afghanistan.[59] Conflict between the MQM party, and ethnic Sindhis, Pashtuns, and Punjabis was sharp.[60] The party and its vast network of supporters were targeted by Pakistani security forces as part of the controversial Operation Clean-up in 1992 – an effort to restore peace in the city that lasted until 1994.[61] Anti-Hindu riots also broke out in Karachi in 1992 in retaliation for the demolition of the Babri Mosque in India by a group of Hindu nationalists earlier that year.[62] Karachi had become widely known for its high rates of violent crime, but recorded crimes sharply decreased following a controversial crackdown operation against criminals, the MQM party, and Islamist militants initiated in 2013 by the Pakistan Rangers.[63]

Geography

Karachi ali 2010008 lrg
Satellite view of Karachi

Karachi is located on the coastline of Sindh province in southern Pakistan, along a natural harbour on the Arabian Sea. Karachi is built on a coastal plains with scattered rocky outcroppings, hills and coastal marshlands. Coastal mangrove forests grow in the brackish waters around the Karachi Harbour, and farther southeast towards the expansive Indus River Delta. West of Karachi city is the Cape Monze, locally known as Ras Muari, which is an area characterised by sea cliffs, rocky sandstone promontories and undeveloped beaches.

Within the city of Karachi are two small ranges: the Khasa Hills and Mulri Hills, which lie in the northwest and act as a barrier between North Nazimabad Town and Orangi Town.[64] Karachi's hills are barren and are part of the larger Kirthar Range, and have a maximum elevation of 528 metres (1,732 feet).

Between the hills are wide coastal plains interspersed with dry river beds and water channels. Karachi has developed around the Malir River and Lyari Rivers, with the Lyari shore being the site of the settlement for Kolachi. To the west of Karachi lies the Indus River flood plain.[65]

Climate

Karachi beach panorama
The Arabian Sea influences Karachi's climate, providing the city with more moderate temperatures compared to interior Sindh province.

Karachi has an arid climate (Köppen: BWh) dominated by a long "Summer Season" while moderated by oceanic influence from the Arabian Sea. The city has low annual average precipitation levels (approx. 250 mm (10 in) per annum), the bulk of which occurs during the July–August monsoon season. While the summers are hot and humid, cool sea breezes typically provide relief during hot summer months, though Karachi is prone to deadly heat waves,[66] though a text-message based early warning system is now in place that helped prevent any fatalities during an unusually strong heatwave in October 2017.[67] The winter climate is dry and lasts between December and February. It is dry and pleasant relative to the warm hot season, which starts in March and lasts until monsoons arrive in June. Proximity to the sea maintains humidity levels at near-constant levels year-round.

The city's highest monthly rainfall, 429.3 mm (16.90 in), occurred in July 1967.[68] The city's highest rainfall in 24 hours occurred on 7 August 1953, when about 278.1 millimetres (10.95 in) of rain lashed the city, resulting in major flooding.[69] Karachi's highest recorded temperature is 48 °C (118 °F) which was recorded on 9 May 1938,[70] and the lowest is 0 °C (32 °F) recorded on 21 January 1934.[68]

Cityscape

Karachi Chamber of Commerce
Central Karachi features several buildings dating from the colonial era.

The city first developed around the Karachi Harbour, and owes much of its growth to its role as a seaport at the end of the 18th century,[73] contrasted with Pakistan's millennia-old cities such as Lahore, Multan, and Peshawar. Karachi's Mithadar neighbourhood represents the extent of Kolachi prior to British rule.

British Karachi was divided between the "New Town" and the "Old Town," with British investments focused primarily in the New Town.[48] The Old Town was a largely unplanned neighbourhood which housed most of the city's indigenous residents, and had no access to sewerage systems, electricity, and water.[48] The New Town was subdivided into residential, commercial, and military areas.[48] Given the strategic value of the city, the British developed the Karachi Cantonment as a military garrison in the New Town to aid the British war effort in the First Anglo-Afghan War.[48]

KHIURBANSKYLINE
Karachi Clifton Skyline with many under construction towers

The city's development was largely confined to the area north of the Chinna Creek prior to independence, although the seaside area of Clifton was also developed as a posh locale under the British, and its large bungalows and estates remain some of the city's most desirable properties. The aforementioned historic areas form the oldest portions of Karachi, and contain its most important monuments and government buildings, with the I. I. Chundrigar Road being home to most of Pakistan's banks, including the Habib Bank Plaza which was Pakistan's tallest building from 1963 until the early 2000s.[2]

Karachi after rain-20160629
Much of Karachi's skyline is decentralized, with some growth in traditionally suburban areas.

Situated on a coastal plain northwest of Karachi's historic core lies the sprawling district of Orangi Town. North of the historic core is the largely middle-class district of Nazimabad, and upper-middle class North Nazimabad, which were developed in the 1950s. To the east of the historic core is the area known as Defence – an expansive upscale suburb developed and administered by the Pakistan Army. Karachi's coastal plains along the Arabian Sea south of Clifton were also developed much later as part of the greater Defence Housing Authority project.

KarachiSkyline-View from Hill Park-Panorama
Karachi Skyline-View from Hill Park

Karachi's city limits also include several islands, including Baba and Bhit Islands, Oyster Rocks, and Manora, a former island which is now connected to the mainland by a thin 12 kilometre long shoal known as Sandspit. The city has been described as one divided into sections for those able to afford to live in planned localities with access to urban amenities, and those who live in unplanned communities with inadequate access to such services.[74] Up to 60% of Karachi's residents live in such unplanned communities.[74]

Economy

IICROAD
Karachi's financial heart is centered on I. I. Chundrigar Road
Empress Market, Karachi
Karachi's colonial-era Empress Market is located in Saddar.
Katrak Bandstand (Jehangir Kothari Parade) Karachi
Clifton area with old and new architecture

Karachi is Pakistan's financial and commercial capital.[75] Since Pakistan's independence, Karachi has been the centre of the nation's economy, and remain's Pakistan's largest urban economy despite the economic stagnation caused by sociopolitical unrest during the late 1980s and 1990s. The city forms the centre of an economic corridor stretching from Karachi to nearby Hyderabad, and Thatta.[76]

With an estimated GDP of $113 billion as of 2014,[32] Karachi contributes the bulk of Sindh's gross domestic product.[77][78][79][80] and accounts for approximately 20% of the total GDP of Pakistan.[34][35] The city has a large informal economy which is not typically reflected in GDP estimates.[81] The informal economy may constitute up to 36% of Pakistan's total economy, versus 22% of India's economy, and 13% of the Chinese economy.[82] The informal sector employs up to 70% of the city's workforce.[83] In 2018 The Global Metro Monitor Report ranked Karachi's economy as the best performing metropolitan economy in Pakistan.[84]

Today along with Pakistan's continued economic expansion Karachi is now ranked third in the world for consumer expenditure growth with its market anticipated to increase by 6.6% in real terms in 2018[85] It is also ranked among the top cities in the world by anticipated increase of number of households (1.3 million households) with annual income above $20,000 dollars measured at PPP exchange rates by year 2025.[86] The Global FDI Intelligence Report 2017/2018 published by Financial Times ranks Karachi amongst the top 10 Asia pacific cities of the future for FDI strategy.[87]

Finance and banking

Most of Pakistan's public and private banks are headquartered on Karachi's I. I. Chundrigar Road, which is known as "Pakistan's Wall Street",[2] with a large percentage of the cashflow in the Pakistani economy taking place on I. I. Chundrigar Road. Most major foreign multinational corporations operating in Pakistan have their headquarters in Karachi. Karachi is also home to the Pakistan Stock Exchange, which was rated as Asia's best performing stock market in 2015 on the heels of Pakistan's upgrade to emerging-market status by MSCI.[88]

Media and technology

Karachi has been the pioneer in cable networking in Pakistan with the most sophisticated of the cable networks of any city of Pakistan,[89] and has seen an expansion of information and communications technology and electronic media. The city has become a software outsourcing hub for Pakistan. Several independent television and radio stations are based in Karachi, including Business Plus, AAJ News, Geo TV, KTN,[90] Sindh TV,[91] CNBC Pakistan, TV ONE, Express TV,[92] ARY Digital, Indus Television Network, Samaa TV, Abb Tak, BoL TV, and Dawn News, as well as several local stations.

Industry

Movenpick Karachi
Mövenpick Hotel Karachi

Industry contributes a large portion of Karachi's economy, with the city home to several of Pakistan's largest companies dealing in textiles, cement, steel, heavy machinery, chemicals, and food products.[93] The city is home to approximately 30 percent of Pakistan's manufacturing sector,[36] and produces approximately 42 percent of Pakistan's value added in large scale manufacturing.[94] At least 4500 industrial units form Karachi's formal industrial economy.[95] Karachi's informal manufacturing sector employs far more people than the formal sector, though proxy data suggest that the capital employed and value added from such informal enterprises is far smaller than that offormal sector enterprises.[96] An estimated 63% of the Karachi's workforce is employed in trade and manufacturing.[76]

Karachi Export Processing Zone, SITE, Korangi, Northern Bypass Industrial Zone, Bin Qasim and North Karachi serve as large industrial estates in Karachi.[97] The Karachi Expo Centre also complements Karachi's industrial economy by hosting regional and international exhibitions.[98]

Name of estate Location Established Area in acres
SITE Karachi SITE Town 1947 4700[99]
Korangi Industrial Area Korangi Town 1960 8500[100]
Landhi Industrial Area Landhi Town 1949 11000[101]
North Karachi Industrial Area New Karachi Town 1974 725[102]
Federal B Industrial Area Gulberg Town 1987 [103]
Korangi Creek Industrial Park Korangi Creek Cantonment 2012 250[104]
Bin Qasim Industrial Zone Bin Qasim Town 1970 25000[105]
Karachi Export Processing Zone Landhi Town 1980[106] 315[107]
Pakistan Textile City Bin Qasim Town 2004 1250[108]
West Wharf Industrial Area Keamari Town 430
SITE Super Highway Phase-I Super Highway 1983 300[109]
SITE Super Highway Phase-II Super Highway 1992 1000[109]

Revenue collection

As home to Pakistan's largest ports and a large portion of its manufacturing base, Karachi contributes a large share of Pakistan's collected tax revenue. As most of Pakistan's large multinational corporations are based in Karachi, income taxes are paid in the city even though income may be generated from other parts of the country.[110] As home to the country's two largest ports, Pakistani customs officials collect the bulk of federal duty and tariffs at Karachi's ports, even if those imports are destined for one of Pakistan's other provinces.[111] Approximately 25% of Pakistan's national revenue is generated in Karachi.[34]

According to the Federal Board of Revenue's 2006–2007 year book, tax and customs units in Karachi were responsible for 46.75% of direct taxes, 33.65% of federal excise tax, and 23.38% of domestic sales tax.[112] Karachi accounts for 75.14% of customs duty and 79% of sales tax on imports,[112] and collects 53.38% of the total collections of the Federal Board of Revenue, of which 53.33% are customs duty and sales tax on imports.[112][113]

Demographics

Karachi is the most linguistically, ethnically, and religiously diverse city in Pakistan.[18] The city is a melting pot of ethno-linguistic groups from throughout Pakistan, as well as migrants from other parts of Asia. The city's inhabitants are referred to by the demonym Karachiite. The 2017 census numerated Karachi's population to be 14,910,352, having grown 2.49% per year since the 1998 census, which had listed Karachi's population at approximately 9.3 million.[114]

Population

At the end of the 19th century, Karachi had an estimated population of 105,000.[52] By the dawn of Pakistan's independence in 1947, the city had an estimated population of 400,000.[18] The city's population grew dramatically with the arrival of hundreds of thousands of Muslim refugees from the newly independent Republic of India.[22] Rapid economic growth following independence attracted further migrants from throughout Pakistan and South Asia.[23] The 2017 census numerated Karachi's population to be 14,910,352, having grown 2.49% per year since the 1998 census, which had listed Karachi's population at approximately 9.3 million.[114]

Lower than expected population figures from the census suggest that Karachi's poor infrastructure, law and order situation, and weakened economy relative to other parts of Pakistan made the city less attractive to in-migration than previously thought.[114] The figure is disputed by all the major political parties in Sindh.[115][116][117] Karachi's population grew by 59.8% since the 1998 census to 14.9 million, while Lahore city grew 75.3%[118] – though Karachi's census district had not been altered by the provincial government since 1998, while Lahore's had been expanded by Punjab's government,[118] leading to some of Karachi's growth to have occurred outside the city's census boundaries.[114] Karachi's population had grown at a rate of 3.49% between the 1981 and 1998 census, leading many analysts to estimate Karachi's 2017 population to be approximately 18 million by extrapolating a continued annual growth rate of 3.49%. Some had expected that the city's population to be between 22 and 30 million,[114] which would require an annual growth rate accelerating to between 4.6% and 6.33%.[114]

Political parties in the province have suggested the city's population has been underestimated in a deliberate attempt to undermine the political power of the city and province.[119] Senator Taj Haider from the PPP claimed he had official documents revealing the city's population to be 25.6 million in 2013,[119] while the Sindh Bureau of Statistics, part of by the PPP-led provincial administration, estimated Karachi's 2016 population to be 19.1 million.[120]

Template:Karachi historical population

Ethnicity

The oldest portions of modern Karachi reflect the ethnic composition of the first settlement, with Balochis and Sindhis continuing to make up a large portion of the Lyari neighbourhood,[24] though many of the residents are relatively recent migrants. Following Partition, large numbers of Hindus migrant Pakistan for the newly-independent Dominion of India (later the Republic of India), while a larger percentage of Muslim migrant from India settled in Karachi. The city grew 150% during the ten period between 1941 and 1951 with the arrival of migrants from India,[121] who made up 57% of Karachi's population in 1951.[122] The city is now considered a melting pot of Pakistan, and is the country's most diverse city.[24] In 2011, an estimated 2.5 million foreign migrants lived in the city, mostly from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka.[123]

Much of Karachi's citizenry descend from Urdu-speaking migrants from North India who became known by the Arabic term for "Migrant" – Muhajir. The first Muhajirs of Karachi arrived in 1946 in the aftermath of the Great Calcutta Killings and subsequent 1946 Bihar riots.[124] The city's wealthy Hindus opposed the resettlement of refugees near their homes, and so many refugees were accommodated in the older and more congested parts of Karachi.[125] The city witnessed a large influx of Muhajirs following Partition, who were drawn to the port city and newly designated federal capital for its white-collar job opportunities.[126] Muhajirs continued to migrate to Pakistan throughout the 1950s and early 1960s,[127] with Karachi remaining the primary destination of Indian Muslim migrants throughout those decades.[53] The Muhajir Urdu-speaking community in the 2017 census forms slightly less than 45% of the city's population.[118] Muhajirs form the bulk of Karachi's middle class.[24] Muhajirs are regarded as the city's most secular community, while other minorities such as Christians and Hindus increasingly regard themselves as part of the Muhajir community.[24]

Karachi is home to a wide array of non-Urdu speaking Muslim peoples from what is now the Republic of India. The city has a sizable community of Gujarati, Marathi, Konkani-speaking refugees.[24] Karachi is also home to a several-thousand member strong community of Malabari Muslims from Kerala in South India.[128] These ethno-linguistic groups are being assimilated in the Urdu-speaking community.[129]

During the period of rapid economic growth in the 1960s, large numbers Pashtuns from the NWFP migrated to Karachi with Afghan Pashtun refugees settling in Karachi during the 80's.[130][131][132][133][134] By some estimates, Karachi is home to the world's largest urban Pashtun population,[135] with more Pashtun citizens than the FATA.[2][135][135] While generally considered to be one of Karachi's most conservative communities, Pashtuns in Karachi generally vote for the secular Awami National Party rather than religious parties.[2] Pashtuns from Afghanistan are regarded as the most conservative community.[2] Pashtuns from Pakistan's Swat Valley, in contrast, are generally seen as more liberal in social outlook.[2] The Pashtun community forms the bulk of manual labourers and transporters.[136]

Migrants from Punjab began settling in Karachi in large numbers in the 1960s, and now make up an estimated 14% of Karachi's population.[2] The community forms the bulk of the city's police force,[2] and also form a large portion of Karachi's entrepreneurial classes and direct a larger portion of Karachi's service-sector economy.[2] The bulk of Karachi's Christian community, which makes up 2.5% of the city's population, is Punjabi.[137]

Despite being the capital of Sindh province, only 6–8% of the city is Sindhi.[2] Sindhis form much of the municipal and provincial bureaucracy.[2] 4% of Karachi's population speaks Balochi as its mother tongue, though most Baloch speakers are of Sheedi heritage – a community that traces its roots to Africa.[2]

Following the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 and independence of Bangladesh, thousands of Urdu-speaking Biharis arrived in the city, preferring to remain Pakistani rather than live in the newly-independent country. Large numbers of Bengalis also migrated from Bangladesh to Karachi during periods of economic growth in the 1980s and 1990s. Karachi is now home to an estimated 2.5 to 3 million ethnic Bengalis living in Pakistan.[29][30] Rohingya refugees from Myanmar, who speak a dialect of Bengali and are sometimes regarded as Bengalis, also live in the city. Karachi is home to an estimated 400,000 Rohingya residents.[138][139] Large scale Rohingya migration to Karachi made Karachi one of the largest population centres of Rohingyas in the world outside of Myanmar.[140]

Central Asian migrants from Uzbekistan and Kyrghyzstan have also settled in the city.[141] Domestic workers from the Philippines are employed in Karachi's posh locales, while many of the city's teachers hail from Sri Lanka.[141] Expatriates from China began migrating to Karachi in the 1940s, to work as dentists, chefs and shoemakers, while many of their decedents continue to live in Pakistan.[141][142] The city is also home to a small number of British and American expatriates.[143]

During World War II, about 3,000 Polish refugees from the Soviet Union, with some Polish families who chose to remain in the city after Partition.[144][145] Post-Partition Karachi also once had a sizable refugee community from post-revolutionary Iran.[141]

Religion

Inside the Shahs Shrine
Abdullah Shah Ghazi, an 8th-century Sufi mystic, is considered to be the patron saint of Karachi.[150]
Karachi Mandir
The Swaminarayan Temple is the largest Hindu temple in Karachi.

Karachi is one of Pakistan's most religiously diverse cities.[18] Karachiites adhere to numerous sects and sub-sects of Islam, as well as Protestant Christianity, and community of Goan Catholics. The city also is home to large numbers of Hindus, and a small community of Zoroastrians.

Prior to Pakistan's independence in 1947, the population of the city was estimated to be 50% Muslim, 40% Hindu, with the remaining 10% primarily Christians (both British and native), with a small numbers of Jews. Following the independence of Pakistan, much of Karachi's Sindhi Hindu population left for India while Muslim refugees from India in turn settled in the city. The city continued to attract migrants from throughout Pakistan, who were overwhelmingly Muslim, and city's population nearly doubled again in the 1950s.[121] As a result of continued migration, over 96.5% of the city currently is estimated to be Muslim.[2]

Karachi is overwhelmingly Muslim,[2] though the city is one of Pakistan's most secular cities.[24][25][26] Approximately 65% of Karachi's Muslims are Sunnis, while 35% are Shi'ites.[151][152][153] Sunnis primarily follow the Hanafi school of jurisprudence, with Sufism influencing religious practices by encouraging reverence for Sufi saints such as Abdullah Shah Ghazi and Mewa Shah. Shi'ites are predominantly Twelver, with a significant Ismaili minority which is further subdivided into Nizaris, Mustaalis, Dawoodi Bohras, and Sulaymanis.

Approximately 2.5% of Karachi's population is Christian.[146][147][148] The city's Christian community is primarily composed of Punjabi Christians,[137] who converted from Sikhism to Christianity during the British Raj.[154] Karachi has a community of Goan Catholics who are typically better-educated and more affluent than their Punjabi co-religionists.[155] The Goan community dates from 1820 and has a population estimated to be 12,000–15,000 strong.[156]

While most of the city's Hindu population left en masse for India following Pakistan's independence, Karachi still has a large Hindu community with an estimated population of 250,000 based on 2013 data.[157] Karachi's affluent and influential Parsis have lived in the region in the 12th century, though the modern community dates from the mid 19th century when they served as military contractors and commissariat agents to the British.[158] Further waves of Parsi immigrants from Persia settled in the city in the late 19th century.[159] The population of Parsis in Karachi and throughout South Asia is in continuous decline due to low birth-rates and migration to Western countries.[160]

Language

Karachi has the largest number of Urdu speakers in Pakistan.[89] As per the 1998 census, the linguistic breakdown of Karachi Division is:

Rank Language 1998 census[161] Speakers 1981 census[162] Speakers
1 Urdu 48.52% 4,497,747 54.34% 2,830,098
2 Punjabi 13.94% 1,292,335 13.64% 710,389
3 Pashto 11.42% 1,058,650 8.71% 453,628
4 Sindhi 7.22% 669,340 6.29% 327,591
5 Balochi 4.34% 402,386 4.39% 228,636
6 Saraiki 2.11% 195,681 0.35% 18,228
7 Others 12.44% 1,153,126 12.27% 639,560
All 100% 9,269,265 100% 5,208,132

The category of "others" includes Gujarati, Dawoodi Bohra, Memon, Marwari, Dari, Brahui, Makrani, Hazara, Khowar, Gilgiti, Burushaski, Balti, Arabic, Farsi and Bengali.[163]

Transportation

Road

Karachi is served by a road network estimated to be approximately 9,500 kilometres (5,900 miles) in length,[164] serving approximately 3.1 million vehicles per day.[165]

Karachi is served by three "Signal-Free Corridors" which are designed as urban express roads to permit traffic to transverse large distances without the need to stop at intersections and stop lights.[165] The first opened in 2007 and connects Shah Faisal Town in eastern Karachi to the industrial-estates in SITE Town 10.5 kilometres (6.5 miles) away. The second corridor connects Surjani Town with Shahrah-e-Faisal over a 19 kilometre span, while the third stretch 28 kilometres (17 miles) and connects Karachi's urban centre to the Gulistan-e-Johar suburb. A fourth corridor is currently under construction that will link Karachi's centre to Karachi's Malir Town.

Karachi will be the terminus of the under construction M-9 motorway, which will connect Karachi to Hyderabad. The road is being constructed as part of a much larger motorway network under construction as part of the expansive China Pakistan Economic Corridor. From Hyderabad, motorways have been built, or are being constructed, to provide high-speed road access to the northern Pakistani cities of Peshawar and Mansehra 1,100 kilometres (680 miles) to the north of Karachi.

Karachi is also the terminus of the N-5 National Highway which connects the city to the historic medieval capital of Sindh, Thatta. It offers further connections to northern Pakistan and the Afghan border near Torkham, as well as the N-25 National Highway which connects the port city to the Afghan border near Quetta.

Within the city of Karachi, the Lyari Expressway is a controlled-access highway along the Lyari River in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. As of 8 February 2018 Lyari Expressway's north-bound and south-bound sections are both complete and open for traffic.[166] This toll highway is designed to relieve congestion in the city of Karachi. To the north of Karachi lies the Karachi Northern Bypass (M10), which starts near the junction of the M9. It then continues north for a few kilometres before turning west, where it intersects the N25.

Rail

Karachi cantt. station facade
Karachi's Cantonment railway station is one of the city's primary transport hubs.

Karachi is linked by rail to the rest of the country by Pakistan Railways. The Karachi City Station and Karachi Cantonment Railway Station are the city's two major railway stations.[2] The city has an international rail link, the Thar Express which links Karachi Cantonment Station with Bhagat Ki Kothi station in Jodhpur, India.[167]

The railway system also handles freight linking Karachi port to destinations up-country in northern Pakistan.[168] The city is the terminus for the Main Line-1 Railway which connects Karachi to Peshawar. Pakistan's rail network, including the Main Line-1 Railway is being upgraded as part of the China Pakistan Economic Corridor, allowing trains to depart Karachi and travel on Pakistani railways at an average speed of 160 kilometres per hour (99 miles per hour) versus the average 60 to 105 kilometres per hour (37 to 65 miles per hour) speed currently possible on existing track.[169]

Public transport

Karachi's public transport infrastructure is inadequate and constrained by low levels of investment.[170] Karachi is not currently served by any municipal public transit, and is instead serviced primarily by the private and informal sector.[171]

Metrobus

The Pakistani Government is developing the Karachi Metrobus project, which is a multi-line 112.9 kilometres (70.2 miles) bus rapid transit system currently under construction.[172] The Metrobus project was inaugurated by then-Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif on 25 February 2016. Sharif stated that the "project will be more beautiful than Lahore Metro Bus."[173] The projects initial launch date was February 2017, but due to the slow pace of work, it is not yet operational.

Karachi Airport Asuspine
Karachi's Jinnah International Airport is the largest and busiest airport in Pakistan.

Karachi Circular Railway

Karachi was once served by numerous trams and the Karachi Circular Railway, although both systems are no longer in operation. While the Japanese Government has expressed willingness to help fund the refurbishment of the Karachi Circular Railway,[174] the project has not been finalized.

Air

Karachi's Jinnah International Airport is the busiest airport of Pakistan with a total of 6.2 million passengers in 2015.[175] The current terminal structure was built in 1992, and is divided into international and domestic sections. Karachi's airport serves as a hub for the flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines (PIA), as well as for Air Indus, Shaheen Air, and airblue. The airport offers non-stop flights to destinations throughout East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Persian Gulf States, Europe and North America.[176][177]

Kharachi Port
The Port of Karachi is one of South Asia's largest and busiest deep-water seaports.

Sea

The largest shipping ports in Pakistan are the Port of Karachi and the nearby Port Qasim, the former being the oldest port of Pakistan. Port Qasim is located 35 kilometres (22 miles) east of the Port of Karachi on the Indus River estuary. These ports handle 95% of Pakistan's trade cargo to and from foreign ports. These seaports have modern facilities which include bulk handling, containers and oil terminals.[178]

Civic administration

Karachi Municipal Corporation (KMC) Head Office at M.A Jinnah Road - Photo By Aliraza Khatri
Karachi's civic government operates from the British-era Karachi Municipal Corporation Building.

Historical background

In response to a cholera epidemic in 1846, the Karachi Conservancy Board was organized by British administrators.[179][180] The board became the Karachi Municipal Commission in 1852, and the Karachi Municipal Committee the following year.[179] The City of Karachi Municipal Act of 1933 transformed the city administration into the Karachi Municipal Corporation with a mayor, a deputy mayor and 57 councillors.[179] In 1976, the body became the Karachi Metropolitan Corporation.[179]

During the 1900s, Karachi saw its major beautification project under the mayoralty of Harchandrai Vishandas. New roads, parks, residential, and recreational areas were developed as part of this project. In 1948, the Federal Capital Territory of Pakistan was created, comprising approximately 2,103 km2 (812 sq mi) of Karachi and surrounding areas, but this was merged into the province of West Pakistan in 1961.[181] In 1996, the metropolitan area was divided into five districts, each with its own municipal corporation.[179]

Union councils (2001–11)

In 2001, five districts of Karachi were merged to form the city district of Karachi, with a three-tier structure. The two most local tiers are composed of 18 towns, and 178 union councils.[182] Each tier focused on elected councils with some common members to provide "vertical linkage" within the federation.[183]

Naimatullah Khan was the first Nazim of Karachi during the Union Council period, while Shafiq-Ur-Rehman Paracha was the first district co-ordination officer of Karachi. Syed Mustafa Kamal was elected City Nazim of Karachi to succeed Naimatullah Khan in 2005 elections, and Nasreen Jalil was elected as the City Naib Nazim.

Each Union Council had thirteen members elected from specified electorates: four men and two women elected directly by the general population; two men and two women elected by peasants and workers; one member for minority communities; two members are elected jointly as the Union Mayor (Nazim) and Deputy Union Mayor (Naib Nazim).[184] Each council included up to three council secretaries and a number of other civil servants. The Union Council system was dismantled in 2011.

District municipal corporations

In 2011, city district government of Karachi was reverted its original constituent units known as District Municipal Corporations (DMC). The five original DMCs are: Karachi East, Karachi West, Karachi Central, Karachi South and Malir. In November 2013, a sixth DMC, "Korangi" was carved out from District East.[185][186][187][188][189]

The current city administrator is Muhammad Hussain Syed[190] and Municipal Commissioner of Karachi is Matanat Ali Khan.[191] The position of Commissioner of Karachi was created and Shoaib Ahmad Siddiqui was appointed as the Commissioner of Karachi.[192] There are six military cantonments, which are administered by the Pakistani Army, and are some of Karachi's most upscale neighbourhoods.

    Karachi South

  1. Lyari Town
  2. Saddar Town
  3. Karachi East
  4. Jamshed Town
  5. Gulshan Town
  6. Karachi Central
  7. Liaquatabad Town
  8. North Nazimabad Town
  9. Gulberg Town
  10. New Karachi Town
  11. Karachi West
  12. Kemari Town
  13. SITE Town
  14. Baldia Town
  15. Orangi Town
Karachi admin

    Malir

  1. Malir Town
  2. Bin Qasim Town
  3. Gadap Town
  4. Korangi
  5. Korangi Town
  6. Landhi Town
  7. Shah Faisal Town
Cantonments
A. Karachi Cantonment
B. Clifton Cantonment
C. Korangi Creek Cantonment
D. Faisal Cantonment
E. Malir Cantonment
F. Manora Cantonment

Municipal services

Water

76% of Karachi households have access to piped water as of 2015,[193] with private water tankers supplying much of the water required in informal settlements.[76] 18% of residents in a 2015 survey rated their water supply as "bad," or "very bad," while 44% expressed concern at the stability of water supply.[193] By 2015, an estimated 30,000 people were dying due to water-borne diseases annually.[194]

The K-IV water project is under development at a cost of $876 million, that will provide 650 million gallons daily of potable water to the city, with the first phase expected to supply 260 million gallons by June 2018.[195][196]

Sanitation

98% of Karachi's households are connected to the city's underground public sewerage system,[193] largely operated by the Karachi Water and Sewerage Board. Households in Orangi Town self-organized in order to set-up their own sewerage system under the Orangi Pilot Project,[197] a community service organization founded in 1980. 90% of Orangi streets are now connected to a sewer system built by local residents under the Orangi Pilot Project.[197] Residents of individual streets bear the cost of sewerage pipes, and provide volunteer labour to lay the pipe.[197] Residents also maintain the sewer pipes,[197] while the city municipal administration has built several primary and secondary pipes for the network.[197] As a result of OPP, 96% of Orangi residents have access to a latrine.[197]

72% reported in 2015 that Karachi's drainage system overflows or backs up,[193] – the highest percentage of all major Pakistani cities.[193] Parts of the city's drainage system overflows on average 2–7 times per month, flooding some city streets.[193]

Karachi has the highest percentage of residents in Pakistan who report that their streets are never cleaned – 42% of residents in Karachi report their streets are never cleaned, compared to 10% of residents in Lahore.[193] Only 17% of Karachi residents reporting daily street cleaning, compared to 45% in Lahore.[193] 69% of Karachi residents rely on private garbage collection services,[193] with only 15% relying on municipal garbage collection services.[193] 57% of Karachi residents in a 2015 survey reported that the state of their neighbourhood's cleanliness was either "bad" or "very bad".[193] compared to 35% in Lahore,[193] and 16% in Multan.[193]

Education

Primary and secondary

Karachi's primary education system is divided into five levels: primary (grades one through five); middle (grades six through eight); high (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate); intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School Certificate); and university programs leading to graduate and advanced degrees. Karachi has both public and private educational institutions. Most educational institutions are gender-based, from primary to university level.

Several of Karachi's schools, such as St Patrick's High School, and St Paul's English High School, are operated by Christian churches, and among Pakistan's most prestigious schools.

Higher

Anilk0018
The D. J. Sindh Government Science College is one of Karachi's second oldest university, and dates from 1887.

Karachi is home to several major public universities. Karachi's first public university's date from the British colonial era. The Sindh Madressatul Islam founded in 1885, was granted university status in 2012. Establishment of the Sindh Madressatul Islam was followed by the establishment of the D. J. Sindh Government Science College in 1887, and the institution was granted university status in 2014. The Nadirshaw Edulji Dinshaw University of Engineering and Technology (NED), was founded in 1921, and is Pakistan's oldest institution of higher learning. The Dow University of Health Sciences was established in 1945, and is now one of Pakistan's top medical research institutions.

The University of Karachi, founded in 1951, is Pakistan's largest university with a student population of 24,000. The Institute of Business Administration (IBA), founded in 1955, is the oldest business school outside of North America and Europe, and was set up with technical support from the Wharton School and the University of Southern California. The Dawood University of Engineering and Technology, which opened in 1962, offers degree programmes in petroleum, gas, chemical, and industrial engineering. The Pakistan Navy Engineering College (PNEC), operated by the Pakistan Navy, is associated with the National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) in Islamabad.

Karachi is also home to numerous private universities. The Aga Khan University, founded in 1983, is Karachi's oldest private educational institution, and is one of Pakistan's most prestigious medical schools. The Indus Valley School of Art and Architecture was founded in 1989, and offers degree programmes in arts and architectural fields. Hamdard University is the largest private university in Pakistan with faculties including Eastern Medicine, Medical, Engineering, Pharmacy, and Law. The National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences (NUCES-FAST), one of Pakistan's top universities in computer education, operates two campuses in Karachi. Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology (SSUET) offers degree programmes in biomedical, electronics, telecom and computer engineering. Karachi Institute of Economics & Technology (KIET) has two campuses in Karachi. The Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology (SZABIST), founded in 1995 by former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto, operates a campus in Karachi.

Healthcare

Karachi is a centre of research in biomedicine with at least 30 public hospitals, 80 registered private hospitals and 12 recognized medical colleges,[198] including the Indus Hospital, Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases,[199] National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases,[200] Civil Hospital,[201] Combined Military Hospital,[202] PNS Rahat,[203] PNS Shifa,[204] Aga Khan University Hospital, Liaquat National Hospital, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre,[205] Holy Family Hospital[206] and Ziauddin Hospital. In 1995, Ziauddin Hospital was the site of Pakistan's first bone marrow transplant.[207]

Karachi municipal authorities in October 2017 launched a new early warning system that alerted city residents to a forecasted heatwave. Previous heatwaves had routinely claimed lives in the city, but implementation of the warning system was credited for no reported heat-related fatalities.[67]

Entertainment, Arts and culture

Entertainment and Shopping Malls

Karachi is home to Pakistan and South Asia's largest shopping Mall, Lucky One Mall which boosts over 200 stores.[208] According to TripAdvisor the city is also home to Pakistan's favorite shopping mall, Dolmen Mall, Clifton which was also featured on CNN[209] and the country's favorite entertainment complex, Port Grand.[210] In 2019 the city is expected to add another mega mall/entertainment complex at Bahria Icon Tower Clifton, Pakistan's tallest skyscraper.[211][212]

Museums and galleries

Khi National Museum
The National Museum of Pakistan is located in Karachi.
Mohatta Palace
Built as a home for a wealthy Hindu businessman, the Mohatta Palace is now a museum open to the public.

Karachi is home to several of Pakistan's most important museums. The National Museum of Pakistan and Mohatta Palace display artwork, while the city also has several private art galleries.[213] The city is also home to the Pakistan Airforce Museum and Pakistan Maritime Museum are also located in the city. Wazir Mansion, the birthplace of Pakistan's founder Muhammad Ali Jinnah has also been preserved as a museum open to the public.

Theatre and cinema

Karachi is home to some of Pakistan's important cultural institutions. The National Academy of Performing Arts,[214] located in the former Hindu Gymkhana, offers diploma courses in performing arts that includes classical music and contemporary theatre. Karachi is home to groups such as Thespianz Theater, a professional youth-based, non-profit performing arts group, which works on theatre and arts activities in Pakistan.[215][216]

Though Lahore is considered to be home of Pakistan's film industry, Karachi is home to Kara Film Festival annually showcases independent Pakistani and international films and documentaries.[217]

Music

The All Pakistan Music Conference, linked to the 45-year-old similar institution in Lahore, has been holding its annual music festival since its inception in 2004.[218] The National Arts Council (Koocha-e-Saqafat) has musical performances and mushaira.

Tourist attractions

HawkesBay
Vast stretches of beach are found along the coast west of Karachi, such as at Hawke's Bay.

Karachi is a tourist destination for domestic and international tourists. Tourist attractions near Karachi city include:

Museums: Museums located in Karachi include the National Museum of Pakistan, Pakistan Air Force Museum, and Pakistan Maritime Museum.

Parks: Parks located in Karachi include Bagh Ibne Qasim, Boat Basin Park, Mazar-e-Quaid, Karachi Zoo, Hill Park, Safari Park, Bagh-e-Jinnah, PAF Museum Park and Maritime Museum Park.

Social issues

Crime

Sometimes stated to be amongst the world's most dangerous cities,[219] the extent of violent crime in Karachi is not as significant in magnitude as compared to other cities.[220] According to the Numbeo Crime Index 2014, Karachi was the 6th most dangerous city in the world. By the middle of 2016, Karachi's rank had dropped to 31 following the launch of anti-crime operations.[221] By 2018, Karachi's ranking has dropped to 50.[222]

The city's large population results in high numbers of homicides with a moderate homicide rate.[220] Karachi's homicide rates are lower than many Latin American cities,[220] and in 2015 was 12.5 per 100,000[223] – lower than the homicide rate of several American cities such as New Orleans and St. Louis.[224] The homicide rates in some Latin American cities such as Caracas, Venezuela and Acapulco, Mexico are in excess of 100 per 100,000 residents,[224] many times greater than Karachi's homicide rate. In 2016, the number of murders in Karachi had dropped to 471, which had dropped further to 381 in 2017.[225]

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Karachi was rocked by political conflict while crime rates drastically increased with the arrival of weaponry from the War in Afghanistan.[59] Several of Karachi's criminal mafias became powerful during a period in the 1990s described as "the rule of the mafias."[226] Major mafias active in the city included land mafia, water tanker mafia, transport mafia and a sand and gravel mafia.[227][226][228][229] Karachi's highest death rates occurred in the mid 1990s when Karachi was much smaller. In 1995, 1,742 killings were recorded,[230] when the city had over 5 million fewer residents.[231]

Karachi Operation

Karachi had become widely known for its high rates of violent crime, but rates sharply decreased following a controversial crackdown operation against criminals, the MQM party, and Islamist militants initiated in 2013 by the Pakistan Rangers.[63] In 2015, 1,040 Karachiites were killed in either acts of terror or crime – an almost 50% decrease from the 2,023 deaths in 2014,[232] and an almost 70% decrease from the 3,251 deaths recorded in 2013 – the highest ever recorded number in Karachi history.[233] Despite a sharp decrease in violent crime, street crime remains high.[234]

With 650 homicides in 2015, Karachi's homicide rate decreased by 75% compared to 2013.[235] In 2017, the number of homicides had dropped further to 381.[225] Extortion crimes decreased by 80% between 2013 and 2015, while kidnappings decreased by 90% during the same period.[235] By 2016, the city registered a total of 21 cases of kidnap for ransom.[236] Terrorist incidents dropped by 98% between 2012 and 2017, according to Pakistan's Interior Ministry.[237] As a result of the Karachi's improved security environment, real-estate prices in Karachi rose sharply in 2015,[238] with a rise in business for upmarket restaurants and cafés.[239]

Ethnic conflict

Insufficient affordable housing infrastructure to absorb growth has resulted in the city's diverse migrant populations being largely confined to ethnically homogenous neighbourhoods.[76] The 1970s saw major labour struggles in Karachi's industrial estates. Violence originated in the city's university campuses, and spread into the city.[240] Conflict was especially sharp between MQM party and ethnic Sindhis, Pashtuns, and Punjabis. The party and its vast network of supporters were targeted by Pakistani security forces as part of the controversial Operation Clean-up in 1992, as part of an effort to restore peace in the city that lasted until 1994.[61]

Poor infrastructure

Urban planning and service delivery have not kept pace with Karachi's growth, resulting in the city's low ranking on livability rankings.[76] The city has no cohesive transportation policy, and no official public transit system, though up to 1,000 new cars are added daily to the city's congested streets.[76]

Unable to provide housing to large numbers of refugees shortly after independence, Karachi's authorities first issued "slips" to refugees beginning in 1950 – which allowed refugees to settle on any vacant land.[197] Such informal settlements are known as katchi abadis, and now approximately half the city's residents live in these unplanned communities.[76]

Architecture

Khaliq Deena Hall, Karachi

Khaliq Deena Hall

Night view of Clifton, Karachi

Modern high-rises in Clifton

Karachi Chamber of Commerce, Karachi

Karachi Chamber of Commerce Building

Empress Market Saddar Karachi

A beautiful view of Empress Market Karachi

Hindu Gymkhana Karachi.jpeg
The Hindu Gymkhana Building was built by Hindus who migrated after the independence of Pakistan, though the building was repurposed to house the National Academy of Performing Arts.

Karachi has a collection of buildings and structures of varied architectural styles. The downtown districts of Saddar and Clifton contain early 20th-century architecture, ranging in style from the neo-classical KPT building to the Sindh High Court Building. Karachi acquired its first neo-Gothic or Indo-Gothic buildings when Frere Hall, Empress Market and St. Patrick's Cathedral were completed. The Mock Tudor architectural style was introduced in the Karachi Gymkhana and the Boat Club. Neo-Renaissance architecture was popular in the 19th century and was the architectural style for St. Joseph's Convent (1870) and the Sind Club (1883).[241] The classical style made a comeback in the late 19th century, as seen in Lady Dufferin Hospital (1898)[242] and the Cantt. Railway Station. While Italianate buildings remained popular, an eclectic blend termed Indo-Saracenic or Anglo-Mughal began to emerge in some locations.[243]

The local mercantile community began acquiring impressive structures. Zaibunnisa Street in the Saddar area (known as Elphinstone Street in British days) is an example where the mercantile groups adopted the Italianate and Indo-Saracenic style to demonstrate their familiarity with Western culture and their own. The Hindu Gymkhana (1925) and Mohatta Palace are examples of Mughal revival buildings.[244] The Sindh Wildlife Conservation Building, located in Saddar, served as a Freemasonic Lodge until it was taken over by the government. There are talks of it being taken away from this custody and being renovated and the Lodge being preserved with its original woodwork and ornate wooden staircase.[245]

Indus Valley School of Art and Architecture is one of the prime examples of Architectural conservation and restoration where an entire Nusserwanjee building from Kharadar area of Karachi has been relocated to Clifton for adaptive reuse in an art school. The procedure involved the careful removal of each piece of timber and stone, stacked temporarily, loaded on the trucks for transportation to the Clifton site, unloaded and re-arranged according to a given layout, stone by stone, piece by piece, and completed within three months.[246]

Architecturally distinctive, even eccentric, buildings have sprung up throughout Karachi. Notable example of contemporary architecture include the Pakistan State Oil Headquarters building. The city has examples of modern Islamic architecture, including the Aga Khan University hospital, Masjid e Tooba, Faran Mosque, Bait-ul Mukarram Mosque, Quaid's Mausoleum, and the Textile Institute of Pakistan. One of the unique cultural elements of Karachi is that the residences, which are two- or three-story townhouses, are built with the front yard protected by a high brick wall. I. I. Chundrigar Road features a range of extremely tall buildings. The most prominent examples include the Habib Bank Plaza, PRC Towers and the MCB Tower which is the tallest skyscraper in Pakistan.[247]

Sports

Sindh Cricket team match with Australia in 1935
Match between Sindh & Australia in Karachi on 22 November 1935 was report by Daily Sydney Morning Herald

When it comes to sports Karachi has a distinction, because some sources cite that it was in 1877 at Karachi in (British) India, where the first attempt was made to form a set of rules of badminton[249] and likely place is said to Frere Hall.

Cricket's history in Pakistan predates the creation of the country in 1947. The first ever international cricket match in Karachi was held on 22 November 1935 between Sindh and Australian cricket teams. The match was seen by 5,000 Karachiites.[250] Karachi is also the place that innovated tape ball, a safer and more affordable alternative to cricket.[251]

The inaugural first-class match at the National Stadium was played between Pakistan and India on 26 February 1955 and since then Pakistani national cricket team has won 20 of the 41 Test matches played at the National Stadium.[252] The first One Day International at the National Stadium was against the West Indies on 21 November 1980, with the match going to the last ball.

The national team has been less successful in such limited-overs matches at the ground, including a five-year stint between 1996 and 2001, when they failed to win any matches. The city has been host to a number of domestic cricket teams including Karachi,[253] Karachi Blues,[254] Karachi Greens,[255] and Karachi Whites.[256] The National Stadium hosted two group matches (Pakistan v. South Africa on 29 February and Pakistan v. England on 3 March), and a quarter-final match (South Africa v. West Indies on 11 March) during the 1996 Cricket World Cup.[257]

The city has hosted seven editions of the National Games of Pakistan, most recently in 2007.[258]

In 2005, the city hosted the SAFF Championship at this ground, as well as the Geo Super Football League 2007, which attracted capacity crowds during the games. The popularity of golf is increasing, with clubs in Karachi like Dreamworld Resort, Hotel & Golf Club, Arabian Sea Country Club, DA Country & Golf Club. The city has facilities for field hockey (the Hockey Club of Pakistan, UBL Hockey Ground), boxing (KPT Sports Complex), squash (Jahangir Khan Squash Complex), and polo. There are marinas and boating clubs. National Bank of Pakistan Sports Complex is First-class cricket venue and Multi-purpose sports facility in Karachi,

Professional Karachi teams
Club League Sport Venue Established
Karachi Kings Pakistan Super League Cricket Dubai International Cricket Stadium 2015
Karachi Dolphins National T20 League/National One-day Championship Cricket National Stadium 2004
Karachi Zebras National T20 League/National One-day Championship Cricket National Stadium 2004
HBL FC Pakistan Premier League Football Peoples Football Stadium 1975
K-Electric F.C. Pakistan Premier League Football Peoples Football Stadium 1913
KPT F.C. Pakistan Premier League Football KPT Football Stadium 1887
NBP F.C. Pakistan Premier League Football KPT Football Stadium N/A
PIA F.C. Pakistan Premier League Football KPT Football Stadium 1958

See also

References

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Bibliography

External links

Bin Qasim railway station

Bin Qasim railway station (Urdu: بن قاسم ریلوے اسٹیشن‎, Sindhi: بن قاسم ریلوے اسٹیشن‎) is located at Bin Qasim Town, Karachi, Pakistan.

Clifton, Karachi

Clifton (Urdu: کلفٹن‎, Sindhi: ڪليفٽن‎) is an affluent seaside municipality in Karachi, Pakistan. Clifton remains one of the most affluent parts of the city, with some of Karachi’s most expensive real estate. Clifton is home to several foreign consulates, while its commercial centres are amongst the most high-end in Pakistan, with a strong presence of international brands.

Dabheji railway station

Dabheji railway station (Urdu: داھابیجی ریلوے اسٹیشن ‎, Sindhi: داھابیجی ریلوے اسٹیشن‎) is located at Dhabeji, near Karachi, Pakistan.

List of railway stations in Pakistan

Pakistan Railways

Dawn (newspaper)

Dawn is Pakistan's oldest, leading and most widely read English-language newspaper and is the country's newspaper of record. It is one of the country's three largest English-language dailies and the flagship of the Dawn Group of Newspapers. DAWN is published by Pakistan Herald Publications, which also owns the magazine Herald, the information technology magazine Spider, and the advertising marketing and media magazine Aurora.

It was founded by Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah in Delhi, India, on 26 October 1941 as a mouthpiece for the Muslim League. The first issue was printed at Latifi Press on 12 October 1942. The newspaper has offices in Karachi (Sindh), Lahore (Punjab), and the federal capital Islamabad, and representatives abroad. As of 2010, it has a weekday circulation of over 109,000. The CEO of Dawn group is Hameed Haroon, and the current editor of Dawn is Zaffar Abbas. On 24 March 2016, it became the first newspaper to oppose the resumption of the death penalty in Pakistan.

Departure Yard railway station

Departure Yard railway station (Urdu: روانگی یارڈ ریل گاڑی سٹیشن‎) is located near Baloch Colony flyover on Sharah-e-Faisal in Karachi, Pakistan.

Districts of Pakistan

The Districts of Pakistan (Urdu: اِضلاعِ پاكِستان‎), are the third-order administrative divisions of Pakistan, below provinces and divisions, but form the first-tier of local government. In total, there are 154 districts in Pakistan including the Capital Territory, districts of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan. These districts are further divided into tehsils or talukas.

Drigh Road railway station

Drigh Road railway station (Urdu: ڈرگ روڈ ریلوے اسٹیشن ‎) is the fourth important railway station of Karachi, Pakistan. It is situated near Drigh Road Flyover on Sharah-e-Faisal. This railway station is a stop for a few "up" and all "down" Express trains. In the past it was the junction of the KCR loop line. It has facilities like a booking office, a shed, a tuck shop, a mosque, an advance reservation office and a parking lot. The station is also closest to the Jinnah International Airport.

Jinnah International Airport

Jinnah International Airport (Urdu: جناح بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈا‎; Sindhi: جناح بين الاقوامي هوائي اڏي‎) (IATA: KHI, ICAO: OPKC) is Pakistan's busiest international and domestic airport, and handled 6,697,073 passengers in 2017-2018. Located in Karachi, the largest city of Pakistan and capital of the province of Sindh, it is named after Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan.

The airport is managed by the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), and provides a hub for the national flag carrier, Pakistan International Airlines (PIA), Air Indus, Shaheen Air, Airblue and many other private airlines. The airport is equipped with aircraft engineering and overhauling facilities including the Ispahani Hangar for wide-body aircraft.

Jummah Goth railway station

Jummah Goth railway station (Urdu: جمعہ حماہتی گوٹھ ریلوے اسٹیشن‎, Sindhi: جمعہ حماہتی گوٹھ ریلوے اسٹیشن‎) is located at Jummah Goth near Korangi in Karachi, Pakistan.

Karachi Cantonment railway station

Karachi Cantonment railway station (Urdu: کراچی اردوگاه اسٹیشن‎) (often abbreviated as Karachi Cantt) is one of the principal railway stations in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is situated near Dr. Daudpota Road, Saddar.

Karachi City railway station

Karachi City Station (Urdu: کراچی شہر اسٹیشن ‎) (formerly McLeod Station) is one of two main Karachi railway terminals. The station is located on I. I. Chundrigar Road, adjacent to Habib Bank Plaza, in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. This station is headquarters of the Pakistan Railways Karachi Division. Due to the lack of space, most passenger trains have been moved to Karachi Cantonment Station.

Kolachi (port)

Kolachi (Urdu: کولاچی ‎) was also a port located at modern Karachi and the old name of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. According to legends, it was a port developed when an old fisherwoman by the name of Mai Kolachi settled near the delta of the Indus River to start a community. One of the main Flyover (overpass) in Karachi has been named after Mai Kolachi. This settlement was also known as "Kolachi jo Goth" or "the village of the Kolachi".

Kumail Nanjiani

Kumail Nanjiani (born February 21, 1978) is a Pakistani-American stand-up comedian, actor, podcast host, and writer best known for being a main cast member on HBO's Emmy Award-nominated series Silicon Valley, as well as for providing the voice of Prismo on the Emmy Award-winning animated series Adventure Time. He starred on the TNT series Franklin & Bash and the Adult Swim series Newsreaders. Nanjiani also co-hosted the Comedy Central show The Meltdown with Jonah and Kumail. In addition to his television and film work, he hosted two podcasts: The Indoor Kids and The X-Files Files. In 2018, Time named him one of the 100 most influential people in the world.In 2017, Nanjiani starred in the semi-autobiographical romantic comedy film The Big Sick, which he wrote with his wife Emily V. Gordon. They were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay at the 90th Academy Awards.

Landhi railway station

Landhi railway station (Urdu: لانڈھی ریلوے اسٹیشن ‎) is one of three major railway stations in Karachi, Pakistan. It is situated in the east end of the city near Quaidabad in Landhi and serves as a major stop along the Karachi–Peshawar Railway Line.

List of companies of Pakistan

Pakistan is a federal parliamentary republic in South Asia on crossroads of Central Asia and Western Asia. Economists estimate that Pakistan has been part of the wealthiest region of the world throughout the first millennium CE having the largest economy by GDP. This advantage was lost in the 18th century as other regions edged forward such as China and Western Europe. Pakistan is considered as a developing country and is one of the Next Eleven, the eleven countries that, along with the BRICs, have a high potential to become the world's largest economies in the 21st century. However, after decades of social instability, as of 2013, serious deficiencies in macromanagement and unbalanced macroeconomics in basic services such as train transportation and electrical energy generation had developed. The economy is considered to be semi-industrialized, with centres of growth along the Indus River. The diversified economies of Karachi and Punjab's urban centres coexist with less developed areas in other parts of the country particularly in Balochistan. According to the Economic complexity index, Pakistan is the 67th largest export economy in the world and the 106th most complex economy. During the fiscal year 2015–16, Pakistan's exports stood at US$20.81 billion and imports at US$44.76 billion, resulting in a negative trade balance of US$23.96 billion.For further information on the types of business entities in this country and their abbreviations, see "Business entities in Pakistan".

List of tallest buildings in Pakistan

This is a list of tallest buildings in Pakistan, ranked by structural height.

The current tallest building in Pakistan is the Bahria Icon Tower in Karachi. Upon its completion, it changed the skyline of Karachi, at 60 floors, and a height to its spire tip of 260 m (850 ft).

Most of Pakistan's tallest buildings can be found in its most populous city of Karachi. Habib Bank Plaza, built in 1963 in Karachi, was the first high-rise and the tallest building in Pakistan. It stands 102 m (335 ft) tall with 25 floors. It was also the tallest building in Asia from 1963 to 1968, and the tallest building in South Asia from 1963 to 1970. In 2005, MCB Tower, also in Karachi, surpassed Habib Bank Plaza at 116 m (381 ft) and 29 floors. In 2012, Ocean Towers eclipsed these at 120 m (394 ft) and 30 floors. Bahria Icon Tower surpassed them all in 2014.

Malir Cantonment railway station

Malir Cantonment railway station (Urdu: ملیر اردوگاه ریلوے اسٹیشن‎) is located at Malir Cantonment, Karachi, Pakistan.

Sindh

Sindh (; Sindhi: سنڌ‎; Urdu: سِندھ‎) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, in the southeast of the country, and the historical home of the Sindhi people. Sindh is the third largest province of Pakistan by area, and second largest province by population after Punjab. Sindh is bordered by Balochistan province to the west, and Punjab province to the north. Sindh also borders the Indian states of Gujarat and Rajasthan to the east, and Arabian Sea to the south. Sindh's landscape consists mostly of alluvial plains flanking the Indus River, the Thar desert in the eastern portion of the province closest to the border with India, and the Kirthar Mountains in the western part of Sindh.

Sindh has Pakistan's second largest economy, while its provincial capital Karachi is Pakistan's largest city and financial hub, and hosts the headquarters of several multinational banks. Sindh is home to a large portion of Pakistan's industrial sector and contains two of Pakistan's commercial seaports, Port Bin Qasim and the Karachi Port. The remainder of Sindh has an agriculture based economy, and produces fruit, food consumer items, and vegetables for the consumption other parts of the country.Sindh is known for its distinct culture which is strongly influenced by Sufism, an important marker of Sindhi identity for both Hindus (Sindh has Pakistan's highest percentage of Hindu residents) and Muslims in the province. Several important Sufi shrines are located throughout the province which attract millions of annual devotees.

Sindh's capital, Karachi, is Pakistan's most ethnically diverse city, with Muhajirs, or descendants of those who migrated to Pakistan from India after 1947 and throughout the 1950s and 1960s, making up the majority of the population. Karachi and other urban centres of Sindh have seen ethnic tensions between the native Sindhis and the Muhajirs boil over into violence on several occasions. Sindh is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites – the Historical Monuments at Makli, and the Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro.

University of Karachi

The University of Karachi (UoK) (Urdu: جامعۂ كراچى‎; Sindhi: ڪراچي يونيورسٽي‎; informally Karachi University (KU)) is a public university located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. It is one of the oldest universities in Pakistan being established as a federal university in 1951.Its chief architect was Khan Bahadur Mirza Mohsin Baig.With a student body of 24,000 full-time students and a campus size spanning over 1200 acres, Karachi University is Pakistan's largest university with a distinguished reputation for multi-disciplinary research in science and technology, medical research and social sciences. The university spans over 53 Departments and 19 world-class research institutes operating under nine faculties. There are over 800 academics and more than 2500 supporting staff working for the university.In 2009, the university was named by now defunct THE-QS World University Rankings for the top 500 universities in the world, while it is ranked by QS ranking's in 2016 as among to the top 250 in Asia and among 701st in the world, the research at the university is ranked as 'high'. The university has been affiliated with world-renowned and notable scholars have been associated and affiliated with the university as faculty, researchers, or alumni since its establishment.The university is a member of Association of Commonwealth Universities of the United Kingdom.

Climate data for Karachi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.8
(91.0)
36.1
(97.0)
41.5
(106.7)
44.4
(111.9)
47.8
(118.0)
47.0
(116.6)
42.2
(108.0)
41.7
(107.1)
42.8
(109.0)
43.3
(109.9)
38.5
(101.3)
34.5
(94.1)
47.8
(118.0)
Average high °C (°F) 25.8
(78.4)
27.7
(81.9)
31.5
(88.7)
34.3
(93.7)
35.2
(95.4)
34.8
(94.6)
33.1
(91.6)
31.7
(89.1)
32.6
(90.7)
34.7
(94.5)
31.9
(89.4)
27.4
(81.3)
31.7
(89.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 18.1
(64.6)
20.2
(68.4)
24.5
(76.1)
28.3
(82.9)
30.5
(86.9)
31.4
(88.5)
30.3
(86.5)
28.9
(84.0)
28.9
(84.0)
27.9
(82.2)
23.9
(75.0)
19.5
(67.1)
26.0
(78.8)
Average low °C (°F) 10.4
(50.7)
12.7
(54.9)
17.6
(63.7)
22.3
(72.1)
25.9
(78.6)
27.9
(82.2)
27.4
(81.3)
26.1
(79.0)
25.2
(77.4)
21.0
(69.8)
15.9
(60.6)
11.6
(52.9)
20.3
(68.5)
Record low °C (°F) 0.0
(32.0)
3.3
(37.9)
7.0
(44.6)
12.2
(54.0)
17.7
(63.9)
22.1
(71.8)
22.2
(72.0)
20.0
(68.0)
18.0
(64.4)
10.0
(50.0)
6.1
(43.0)
1.3
(34.3)
0.0
(32.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 6.0
(0.24)
9.8
(0.39)
11.7
(0.46)
4.4
(0.17)
0.0
(0.0)
5.5
(0.22)
85.5
(3.37)
67.4
(2.65)
19.9
(0.78)
1.0
(0.04)
1.8
(0.07)
4.4
(0.17)
217.4
(8.56)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 270.7 249.4 271.6 277.4 299.1 231.8 155.0 147.7 218.8 283.5 273.3 272.0 2,950.3
Source #1: NOAA[71]
Source #2: PMD (extremes)[72]

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