Kapu

Kapu is the ancient Hawaiian code of conduct of laws and regulations. The kapu system was universal in lifestyle, gender roles, politics and religion. An offense that was kapu was often a capital offense, but also often denoted a threat to spiritual power, or theft of mana. Kapus were strictly enforced. Breaking one, even unintentionally, often meant immediate death,[1] Koʻo kapu. The concept is related to taboo and the tapu or tabu found in other Polynesian cultures. The Hawaiian word kapu is usually translated to English as "forbidden", though it also carries the meanings of "keep out", "no trespassing", "sacred", "consecrated", or "holy".

The opposite of kapu is noa, meaning "common" or "free".

Kapuhili

The Kapuhili were restrictions placed upon contact with chiefs (kings), but these also apply to all people of known spiritual power. Kapu Kū mamao means prohibited from a place of the chief, while Kapu noho was to assemble before the chief. It was kapu when entering a chief's personal area, to come in contact with his hair or fingernail clippings, to look directly at him, and to be in sight of him with a head higher than his. Wearing red and yellow feathers (a sign of royalty) was kapu, unless an individual was of the highest rank. Places that are kapu are often symbolized by Pahu Kapu, two crossed staffs, each with a white ball atop.

ʻAi Kapu

The ʻAi kapu was the kapu system governing contact between men and women. Many aliʻi obtained their power through this system, and then would give thanks to the god of politics .[2] ʻAi means "to eat" and Kapu means sacred. Therefore, it is translated to "sacred eating". It first came about because Wākea wanted to marry his daughter, Hoʻohōkūlani. To do this, his kupuna advised him to establish the ʻAi kapu which allowed him time away from his wife to be alone with his daughter.[3] In this particular practice, men and women could not eat meals together. Furthermore, certain foods such as pork (the body form of the god Lono), most types (67 of the 70 varieties) of bananas (body form of the god Kanaloa), and coconuts (body form of the god ) were considered kapu to women. In fact, women could not even make coconut rope. Taro (body form of the god Kāne) was kapu for women to cook and prepare. Some large fish were also kapu for women to eat. Isabella Abbott, a leading ethnobotanist of Hawaii theorizes that because of the limited "noa" (free) diet for Hawaiian women, seaweeds were relied upon more heavily for Hawaiians than other Pacific islands.[4]

The kapu system was used in Hawaii until 1819, when King Kamehameha II, acting with his mother Queen Keōpūolani and his father's other queen Kaʻahumanu, abolished it by the symbolic act of sharing a meal of forbidden foods with the women of his court. Abolishing the ʻai kapu assured political power to the line of Kamehameha rulers as monarchs because it limited the power of the rulers below them. Originally, it was from this political system that the rulers throughout the island would gain rank, power, and prestige.[5]

Modern usage

The ambiguities in the Polynesian concept (from the English point of view) are reflected in the different senses of the word in different national Englishes: in modern usage in Hawaii, "KAPU" is often substituted for the phrase "No Trespassing" on private property signage. Although kapu can be taken to mean "keep out", kapu has a larger meaning to most residents of Hawaii. By contrast, in New Zealand, the comparable word "tapu" is almost always applied in English as meaning "sacred".

Terms

Some terms using Kapu:

  • ʻaha kapu: the sennit cord put across the portal of a house to signify a ban on entering the house.
  • ʻai kapu: the protocol regarding food.
  • Hei kapu: The place where priests await messages from the gods.
  • Huʻa kapu: the borders of an off-limits place.
  • Kapuhili: inherited privileges of chiefs or privileges from the gods
  • Kapu ʻili: the crime of wearing someone else’s clothing.
  • Kapu kai: the ritual purification of bathing in the sea.
  • Kapukapu: to be decorous.
  • Kapukapu kai: the ritual of lifting a ban by sprinkling sea water.
  • Kapu kū mamao: the law on commoners to be separate from the chiefs.
  • Kapu loa. To be strictly forbidden.
  • Kapu moe: protocol of prostration.
  • Kapu noho: assemblage before the chief.
  • Kapuō: the announcement that a procession is approaching.
  • Kapo ʻōhi'a ko: the ritual performed before an ohia tree can be logged.
  • Kapu puhi kanaka: the rules regarding the killing of people.
  • Kapu wohi: protocol exempting from prostration.
  • Koʻo kapu: a prohibition enforced by death.
  • Pahu Kapu: two crossed staffs, each with a white ball atop.

See also

References

  1. ^ Hawaii: Sacred Hawaii December 5, 2006
  2. ^ Realms: Wao Lani - Ku Hawai'i Alive website Retrieved on 09 November 2012.
  3. ^ Losche, Tracie. Hawaii: Center of the Pacific. 2nd ed. (Hawaii: Copely Custom Textbooks, 2008), 60-64
  4. ^ "Oral History Project - Dr. Isabella Abbott". An Oral History Project - Dr. Isabella Abbott. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  5. ^ Kāwika Tengan, Ty P. Native Men Remade: Gender and Nation in Contemporary Hawai'i (North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2008), 36
Balija

Balija is a caste of the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Kerala.

Cham Lapeh

Cham Lapeh (Persian: چم لپه‎; also known as Cham Kapū and Cham Lapū) is a village in Tayebi-ye Sarhadi-ye Sharqi Rural District, Charusa District, Kohgiluyeh County, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 245, in 51 families.

Demir-Kapu

Demir-Kapu (Ukrainian: Демір-Капу, Crimean Tatar: Demir Qapı) is the second highest mountain in Crimea. Its height stands 1540 meters above sea level.

Hawaiian religion

Hawaiian religion encompasses the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of Native Hawaiians. It is polytheistic and animistic, with a belief in many deities and spirits, including the belief that spirits are found in non-human beings and objects such as other animals, the waves, and the sky.

Hawaiian religion originated among the Tahitians and other Pacific islanders who landed in Hawaiʻi between 500 and 1300 AD. Today, Hawaiian religious practices are protected by the American Indian Religious Freedom Act. Traditional Hawaiian religion is unrelated to the modern New Age practice known as "Huna."

Hiroshima Toyo Carp

The Hiroshima Toyo Carp (広島東洋カープ, Hiroshima Tōyō Kāpu) are a professional baseball team based in Hiroshima, Japan. They compete in the Central League of Nippon Professional Baseball. The team is primarily owned by the Matsuda family, led by Hajime Matsuda (松田元, Matsuda Hajime), who is a descendant of Mazda founder Jujiro Matsuda. Mazda is the largest single shareholder (34.2%), which is less than the portion owned by the Matsuda family (about 60%). Because of that, Mazda is not considered the owner firm. However, the company connection is highlighted in the club name; until 1984, Mazda's official name was Toyo Kogyo Co., Ltd. (東洋工業株式会社, Tōyō Kōgyō Kabushiki Gaisha).

KAPU-LP

KAPU-LP (104.7 FM) is a radio station broadcasting a Hawaiian Music format. Licensed to serve Watsonville, California, United States, the station is currently owned by Ohana De Watsonville. Starting its broadcast in September 2004, KAPU-LP claims to be the only radio station on the U.S. mainland broadcasting a Hawaiian Music format 24 hours a day.

Kamehameha III

Kamehameha III (born Kauikeaouli) (March 17, 1814 – December 15, 1854) was the third king of the Kingdom of Hawaii from 1825 to 1854. His full Hawaiian name was Keaweaweʻula Kīwalaʻō Kauikeaouli Kaleiopapa and then lengthened to Keaweaweʻula Kīwalaʻō Kauikeaouli Kaleiopapa Kalani Waiakua Kalanikau Iokikilo Kīwalaʻō i ke kapu Kamehameha when he ascended the throne.

Under his reign Hawaii evolved from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy with the signing of both the 1840 Constitution, which was the first Hawaiian Language Constitution, and the 1852 Constitution. He was the longest reigning monarch in the history of the Kingdom, ruling for 29 years and 192 days, although in the early part of his reign he was under a regency by Queen Kaʻahumanu and later by Kaʻahumanu II.

His goal was the careful balancing of modernization by adopting Western ways, while keeping his nation intact.

Kapu, Estonia

Kapu is a village in Järva Parish, Järva County in northern-central Estonia.

The tallest structure in Estonia, Koeru TV Mast, is located in Kapu village.

Kapu, Iran

Kapu (Persian: كپو‎, also Romanized as Kapū) is a village in Zarrin Rural District, Kharanaq District, Ardakan County, Yazd Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 23, in 8 families.

Kapu, Karnataka

Kaup (Kapu), is a town in Udupi district of Karnataka, India. It lies on the way between Udupi and Mangalore beside National Highway 66 (previously NH-17). A road from Kaup goes to interior places like Manchakal and Shirva. It is 13 km south of Udupi (a town famous for its ancient Krishna Temple) and 40 km north of Mangalore (chief port city of Karnataka). It is famous for its lighthouse and the three Mariamma temples and a fort built by Tippu Sultan.

There is a beach on the shore of the Arabian Sea and a lighthouse. Many films have been shot at this location. Kaup has three Marigudi which attracts devotees from far away places. The sea is much more rougher and intimidating compared to the gentler Malpe beach in Udupi. It is about 15 km from the university town of Manipal and is a favorite hangout for the students. The beach also sports a shack and a bar with seating in the open sky.

Though the sea is mostly calm all year round, there have been isolated cases of drowning in this beach

Kapu (caste)

Kapu refers to a social grouping of agriculturists found primarily in the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Kapus are primarily an agrarian community, forming a heterogeneous peasant caste.

They are classified as a Forward Caste in Andhra Pradesh, where they are the dominant community in the districts of East Godavari and West Godavari. They are distinct from three other Kapu communities that were present in the state prior to its bifurcation with the creation of Telangana in 2014. The Munnuru Kapu are found primarily in Telangana, the Turpu Kapu in the areas of Srikakulam, Vizianagaram and Visakhapatnam, and the Balija in Rayalaseema. These all are classified as Kapu Sub Castes.

Kapu Kuialua

Kapu Kuʻialua; Kuʻialua; or Lua; is an ancient Hawaiian martial art based on bone breaking, joint locks, throws, pressure point manipulation, strikes, usage of various weapons, battlefield strategy, open ocean warfare as well as the usage of introduced firearms from the Europeans.

Koeru

Koeru is a small borough in Järva Parish, Järva County in northern-central Estonia. As of 2011 Census, the settlement's population was 1,178.The tallest structure in Estonia, Koeru TV Mast, is located near Koeru in Kapu village.

Krasnoperekopsk

Krasnoperekopsk (Russian: Краснопереко́пск, Ukrainian: Яни Капу, Краснопереко́пськ, Crimean Tatar: Yañı Qapı, Krasnoperekopsk) is a town of regional significance that was, following the 2014 annexation of Crimea, incorporated into Russia's Republic of Crimea, though the territory is recognised by a majority of countries as part of Ukraine within the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. It also serves as the administrative center of Krasnoperekopsk Raion, although it is not a part of the raion (district). Population: 26,268 (2014 Census).It is located on the southern part of the Perekop Isthmus, on the shore of the Stare lake, and about 124 kilometres (77 mi) from the Crimean capital, Simferopol. It lies on the Dzhankoy-Kherson railroad line (one of the two railroad lines connecting the Crimea and the rest of the continent).

Kum Kapu demonstration

The Kum Kapu demonstration occurred in the Kumkapı district of Constantinople on July 27, 1890. It ensued in skirmishing in which several demonstrators and four police officers were killed. The intent of the demonstration was "..to awaken the maltreated Armenians and to make the Sublime Porte fully aware of the miseries of the Armenians."

Latvian mythology

Latvian mythology is set of paganic beliefs of Latvian people reconstructed from written evidence and folklore materials.

Munnuru Kapu

Munnuru Kapu is a caste in Telangana, India. Prior to the establishment of Telangana as a state separate from that of Andhra Pradesh, of which previously it had been a region, there were four different Kapu communities in the various districts of Andhra Pradesh, being the Munnuru in Telangana itself, the Toorpu in the areas of Srikakulam, Vizianagaram and Visakhapatnam, the Balija in Rayalaseema and those known simply as Kapu in the Godavari districts, Guntur and Krishna. Together with the Tooru Kapus, the Munnurus were already designated an Other Backwards Class in India's system of positive discrimination.

Telaga

Telaga is a community of agriculturists (Kapus) in the Coastal Andhra Pradesh, concentrated in the West and East Godavari districts. They are also found in smaller numbers in Visakhapatnam and Srikakulam districts. Telaga is regarded as a subcaste of Kapu.In 2017, all Kapus including Telagas were categorised among backward classes by the Government of Andhra Pradesh, The classification was not accepted by the Central department of personnel and training.

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.