Kaon

In particle physics, a kaon /ˈkeɪ.ɒn/, also called a K meson and denoted
K
,[nb 1] is any of a group of four mesons distinguished by a quantum number called strangeness. In the quark model they are understood to be bound states of a strange quark (or antiquark) and an up or down antiquark (or quark).

Kaons have proved to be a copious source of information on the nature of fundamental interactions since their discovery in cosmic rays in 1947. They were essential in establishing the foundations of the Standard Model of particle physics, such as the quark model of hadrons and the theory of quark mixing (the latter was acknowledged by a Nobel Prize in Physics in 2008). Kaons have played a distinguished role in our understanding of fundamental conservation laws: CP violation, a phenomenon generating the observed matter–antimatter asymmetry of the universe, was discovered in the kaon system in 1964 (which was acknowledged by a Nobel Prize in 1980). Moreover, direct CP violation was discovered in the kaon decays in the early 2000s by the NA48 experiment at CERN and the KTeV experiment at Fermilab.

Kaon
Composition
K+
:
u

s


K0
:
d

s
/
s

d


K
:
s

u
StatisticsBosonic
InteractionsStrong, weak, electromagnetic, gravitational
Symbol
K+
,
K0
,
K
Discovered1947
Types4
Mass
K±
: 493.677±0.013 MeV/c2

K0
: 497.648±0.022 MeV/c2
Electric charge
K±
: ±1 e

K0
: 0 e
Spin0
Strangeness
K+
: +1


K0
: ±1


K
: -1
Kaon-Decay
The decay of a kaon (
K+
) into three pions (2 
π+
, 1 
π
) is a process that involves both weak and strong interactions.

Weak interactions : The strange antiquark (
s
) of the kaon transmutes into an up antiquark (
u
) by the emission of a
W+
boson
; the
W+
boson subsequently decays into a down antiquark  (
d
) and an up quark (
u
).

Strong interactions : An up quark (
u
) emits a gluon (
g
) which decays into a down quark (
d
) and a down antiquark (
d
).

Basic properties

The four kaons are :


  1. K
    , negatively charged (containing a strange quark and an up antiquark) has mass 493.677±0.013 MeV and mean lifetime (1.2380±0.0020)×10−8 s.

  2. K+
    (antiparticle of above) positively charged (containing an up quark and a strange antiquark) must (by CPT invariance) have mass and lifetime equal to that of
    K
    . Experimentally, the mass difference is 0.032±0.090 MeV, consistent with zero; the difference in lifetimes is (0.11±0.09)×10−8 s, also consistent with zero.

  3. K0
    , neutrally charged (containing a down quark and a strange antiquark) has mass 497.648±0.022 MeV. It has mean squared charge radius of −0.076±0.01 fm2.

  4. K0
    , neutrally charged (antiparticle of above) (containing a strange quark and a down antiquark) has the same mass.

As the quark model shows, assignments that the kaons form two doublets of isospin; that is, they belong to the fundamental representation of SU(2) called the 2. One doublet of strangeness +1 contains the
K+
and the
K0
. The antiparticles form the other doublet (of strangeness −1).

Properties of kaons
Particle name Particle
symbol
Antiparticle
symbol
Quark
content
Rest mass (MeV/c2) IG JPC S C B' Mean lifetime (s) Commonly decays to
(>5% of decays)
Kaon[1] K+ K−
u

s
493.677±0.016 12 0 1 0 0 (1.2380±0.0021)×10−8
μ+
+
ν
μ
or


π+
+
π0
or


π+
+
π+
+
π
or


π0
+
e+
+
ν
e
Kaon[2] K0 K0
d

s
497.611±0.013 12 0 1 0 0 [a] [a]
K-Short[3] K0S Self [b] 497.611±0.013[c] 12 0 (*) 0 0 (8.954±0.004)×10−11
π+
+
π
or


π0
+
π0
K-Long[4] K0L Self [b] 497.611±0.013[c] 12 0 (*) 0 0 (5.116±0.021)×10−8
π±
+
e
+
ν
e
or


π±
+
μ
+
ν
μ
or


π0
+
π0
+
π0
or


π+
+
π0
+
π
Quark structure kaon plus
Quark structure of the kaon plus (K⁺).

[a] ^ Strong eigenstate. No definite lifetime (see kaon notes below)
[b] ^ Weak eigenstate. Makeup is missing small CP–violating term (see notes on neutral kaons below).
[c] ^ The mass of the
K0
L
and
K0
S
are given as that of the
K0
. However, it is known that a difference between the masses of the
K0
L
and
K0
S
on the order of 3.5×10−12 MeV/c2 exists.[4]

Although the
K0
and its antiparticle
K0
are usually produced via the strong force, they decay weakly. Thus, once created the two are better thought of as superpositions of two weak eigenstates which have vastly different lifetimes:

  1. The long-lived neutral kaon is called the
    K
    L
    ("K-long"), decays primarily into three pions, and has a mean lifetime of 5.18×10−8 s.
  2. The short-lived neutral kaon is called the
    K
    S
    ("K-short"), decays primarily into two pions, and has a mean lifetime 8.958×10−11 s.
    Kaon minus
    Quark structure of the kaon minus (K⁻).
Kaon minus
Quark structure of the kaon minus (K⁻).

(See discussion of neutral kaon mixing below.)

An experimental observation made in 1964 that K-longs rarely decay into two pions was the discovery of CP violation (see below).

Main decay modes for
K+
:

Quark structure of the neutral kaon
Quark structure of the neutral kaon (K⁰).
{| class="wikitable sortable" ! Results ! Mode ! Branching ratio |- style="height: 2em;" |
μ+

ν
μ
| leptonic | 63.55±0.11% |- style="height: 2em;" |
π+

π0
| hadronic | 20.66±0.08% |- style="height: 2em;" |
π+

π+

π
| hadronic | 5.59±0.04% |- style="height: 2em;" |
π+

π0

π0
| hadronic | 1.761±0.022% |- style="height: 2em;" |
π0

e+

ν
e
| semileptonic | 5.07±0.04% |- style="height: 2em;" |
π0

μ+

ν
μ
| semileptonic | 3.353±0.034% |}
Quark structure of the neutral kaon
Quark structure of the neutral kaon (K⁰).

Decay modes for the
K
are charge conjugates of the ones above.

Strangeness

The discovery of hadrons with the internal quantum number "strangeness" marks the beginning of a most exciting epoch in particle physics that even now, fifty years later, has not yet found its conclusion ... by and large experiments have driven the development, and that major discoveries came unexpectedly or even against expectations expressed by theorists.  — I.I. Bigi and A.I. Sanda, CP violation, (ISBN 0-521-44349-0)

In 1947, G. D. Rochester and Clifford Charles Butler of the University of Manchester published two cloud chamber photographs of cosmic ray-induced events, one showing what appeared to be a neutral particle decaying into two charged pions, and one which appeared to be a charged particle decaying into a charged pion and something neutral. The estimated mass of the new particles was very rough, about half a proton's mass. More examples of these "V-particles" were slow in coming.

The first breakthrough was obtained at Caltech, where a cloud chamber was taken up Mount Wilson, for greater cosmic ray exposure. In 1950, 30 charged and 4 neutral V-particles were reported. Inspired by this, numerous mountaintop observations were made over the next several years, and by 1953, the following terminology was adopted: "L-meson" meant muon or pion. "K meson" meant a particle intermediate in mass between the pion and nucleon. "Hyperon" meant any particle heavier than a nucleon.

The decays were extremely slow; typical lifetimes are of the order of 10−10 s. However, production in pion-proton reactions proceeds much faster, with a time scale of 10−23 s. The problem of this mismatch was solved by Abraham Pais who postulated the new quantum number called "strangeness" which is conserved in strong interactions but violated by the weak interactions. Strange particles appear copiously due to "associated production" of a strange and an antistrange particle together. It was soon shown that this could not be a multiplicative quantum number, because that would allow reactions which were never seen in the new synchrotrons which were commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1953 and in the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in 1955.

Parity violation

Two different decays were found for charged strange mesons:


Θ+

π+
+
π0

τ+

π+
+
π+
+
π

The intrinsic parity of a pion is P = −1, and parity is a multiplicative quantum number. Therefore, the two final states have different parity (P = +1 and P = −1, respectively). It was thought that the initial states should also have different parities, and hence be two distinct particles. However, with increasingly precise measurements, no difference was found between the masses and lifetimes of each, respectively, indicating that they are the same particle. This was known as the τ–θ puzzle. It was resolved only by the discovery of parity violation in weak interactions. Since the mesons decay through weak interactions, parity is not conserved, and the two decays are actually decays of the same particle,[5] now called the
K+
.

CP violation in neutral meson oscillations

Initially it was thought that although parity was violated, CP (charge parity) symmetry was conserved. In order to understand the discovery of CP violation, it is necessary to understand the mixing of neutral kaons; this phenomenon does not require CP violation, but it is the context in which CP violation was first observed.

Neutral kaon mixing

Kaon-box-diagram-with-bar
Two different neutral K mesons, carrying different strangeness, can turn from one into another through the weak interactions, since these interactions do not conserve strangeness. The strange quark in the anti-
K0
turns into a down quark by successively absorbing two W-bosons of opposite charge. The down antiquark in the anti-
K0
turns into a strange antiquark by emitting them.

Since neutral kaons carry strangeness, they cannot be their own antiparticles. There must be then two different neutral kaons, differing by two units of strangeness. The question was then how to establish the presence of these two mesons. The solution used a phenomenon called neutral particle oscillations, by which these two kinds of mesons can turn from one into another through the weak interactions, which cause them to decay into pions (see the adjacent figure).

These oscillations were first investigated by Murray Gell-Mann and Abraham Pais together. They considered the CP-invariant time evolution of states with opposite strangeness. In matrix notation one can write

where ψ is a quantum state of the system specified by the amplitudes of being in each of the two basis states (which are a and b at time t = 0). The diagonal elements (M) of the Hamiltonian are due to strong interaction physics which conserves strangeness. The two diagonal elements must be equal, since the particle and antiparticle have equal masses in the absence of the weak interactions. The off-diagonal elements, which mix opposite strangeness particles, are due to weak interactions; CP symmetry requires them to be real.

The consequence of the matrix H being real is that the probabilities of the two states will forever oscillate back and forth. However, if any part of the matrix were imaginary, as is forbidden by CP symmetry, then part of the combination will diminish over time. The diminishing part can be either one component (a) or the other (b), or a mixture of the two.

Mixing

The eigenstates are obtained by diagonalizing this matrix. This gives new eigenvectors, which we can call K1 which is the sum of the two states of opposite strangeness, and K2, which is the difference. The two are eigenstates of CP with opposite eigenvalues; K1 has CP = +1, and K2 has CP = −1 Since the two-pion final state also has CP = +1, only the K1 can decay this way. The K2 must decay into three pions. Since the mass of K2 is just a little larger than the sum of the masses of three pions, this decay proceeds very slowly, about 600 times slower than the decay of K1 into two pions. These two different modes of decay were observed by Leon Lederman and his coworkers in 1956, establishing the existence of the two weak eigenstates (states with definite lifetimes under decays via the weak force) of the neutral kaons.

These two weak eigenstates are called the
K
L
(K-long) and
K
S
(K-short). CP symmetry, which was assumed at the time, implies that
K
S
 = K1 and
K
L
 = K2.

Oscillation

An initially pure beam of
K0
will turn into its antiparticle while propagating, which will turn back into the original particle, and so on. This is called particle oscillation. On observing the weak decay into leptons, it was found that a
K0
always decayed into an electron, whereas the antiparticle
K0
decayed into the positron. The earlier analysis yielded a relation between the rate of electron and positron production from sources of pure
K0
and its antiparticle
K0
. Analysis of the time dependence of this semileptonic decay showed the phenomenon of oscillation, and allowed the extraction of the mass splitting between the
K
S
and
K
L
. Since this is due to weak interactions it is very small, 10−15 times the mass of each state.

Regeneration

A beam of neutral kaons decays in flight so that the short-lived
K
S
disappears, leaving a beam of pure long-lived
K
L
. If this beam is shot into matter, then the
K0
and its antiparticle
K0
interact differently with the nuclei. The
K0
undergoes quasi-elastic scattering with nucleons, whereas its antiparticle can create hyperons. Due to the different interactions of the two components, quantum coherence between the two particles is lost. The emerging beam then contains different linear superpositions of the
K0
and
K0
. Such a superposition is a mixture of
K
L
and
K
S
; the
K
S
is regenerated by passing a neutral kaon beam through matter. Regeneration was observed by Oreste Piccioni and his collaborators at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Soon thereafter, Robert Adair and his coworkers reported excess
K
S
regeneration, thus opening a new chapter in this history.

CP violation

While trying to verify Adair's results, J. Christenson, James Cronin, Val Fitch and Rene Turlay of Princeton University found decays of
K
L
into two pions (CP = +1) in an experiment performed in 1964 at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at the Brookhaven laboratory.[6] As explained in an earlier section, this required the assumed initial and final states to have different values of CP, and hence immediately suggested CP violation. Alternative explanations such as nonlinear quantum mechanics and a new unobserved particle were soon ruled out, leaving CP violation as the only possibility. Cronin and Fitch received the Nobel Prize in Physics for this discovery in 1980.

It turns out that although the
K
L
and
K
S
are weak eigenstates (because they have definite lifetimes for decay by way of the weak force), they are not quite CP eigenstates. Instead, for small ε (and up to normalization),


K
L
= K2 + εK1

and similarly for
K
S
. Thus occasionally the
K
L
decays as a K1 with CP = +1, and likewise the
K
S
can decay with CP = −1. This is known as indirect CP violation, CP violation due to mixing of
K0
and its antiparticle. There is also a direct CP violation effect, in which the CP violation occurs during the decay itself. Both are present, because both mixing and decay arise from the same interaction with the W boson and thus have CP violation predicted by the CKM matrix. Direct CP violation was discovered in the kaon decays in the early 2000s by the NA48 and KTeV experiments at CERN and Fermilab.

See also

Notes and references

Notes
  1. ^ The positively charged kaon used to be called τ+ and θ+, as it was supposed to be two different particles until the 1960s. See the parity violation section.
References
  1. ^ J. Beringer et al. (2012): Particle listings –
    K±
  2. ^ M. Tanabashi et al. (2018): Particle listings –
    K0
  3. ^ J. Beringer et al. (2012): Particle listings –
    K0
    S
  4. ^ a b J. Beringer et al. (2012): Particle listings –
    K0
    L
  5. ^ Lee, T. D.; Yang, C. N. (1 October 1956). "Question of Parity Conservation in Weak Interactions". Physical Review. 104 (1): 254. Bibcode:1956PhRv..104..254L. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.104.254. One way out of the difficulty is to assume that parity is not strictly conserved, so that
    Θ+
    and
    τ+
    are two different decay modes of the same particle, which necessarily has a single mass value and a single lifetime.
  6. ^ Christenson, J. H.; Cronin, J. W.; Fitch, V. L.; Turlay, R. (27 July 1964). "Evidence for the 2π Decay of the K20 Meson". Physical Review Letters. 13 (4): 138–140. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.13.138.

Bibliography

Beer in Albania

Domestic production of the beer market in Albania is shared by the following breweries: Malto, Stela, Korça, T.E.A, Norga and Agna. The largest producer in the country is Birra Tirana which in 2014 controlled 52% of the domestic market, followed by Birra Stela which controlled 19% of the market, Birra Korça with 17% of the market and Birra Kaon with 11%. No data is provided for Birra Norga which in recent years has been going through financial difficulties. A new beer, Birra Elbar, entered the market in 2015. It is a proprietary of Agna Group.

Birra Kaon

Birra Kaon (English: Kaon Beer) is a beer company, founded in Vlorë, Albania in 1995. A proprietary of T.E.A Company, it is the fourth largest beer producer in the country.

Caulnes

Caulnes (Breton: Kaon, Gallo: Caunn) is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department of Brittany in northwestern France.

DAFNE

DAFNE or DAΦNE (Double Annular Φ Factory for Nice Experiments), is an electron-positron collider at the INFN Frascati National Laboratory in Frascati, Italy. Since 1999 it has been colliding electrons and positrons at a center of mass energy of 1.02 GeV to create phi mesons (φ). 85% of these decay into kaons (K), whose physics is the subject of most of the experiments at DAFNE.

There are five experiments at DAFNE:

KLOE (K LOng Experiment), which has been studying CP violation in kaon decays and rare kaon decays since 2000. This is the largest of DAFNE experiments.

FINUDA (FIsica NUcleare a DAFNE), studies the spectra and nonmesonic decays of hypernuclei containing Lambda baryons (Λ). The hypernuclei are produced by negatively charged kaons (K−) striking a thin target.

DEAR (DAFNE Exotic Atoms Research experiment), determines scattering lengths in atoms made from a kaon and a proton or deuteron.

DAFNE Light Laboratory consists of 3 lines of synchrotron radiation emitted by DAFNE, a fourth is under construction.

SIDDHARTA (SIlicon Drift Detectors for Hadronic Atom Research by Timing Application), aims to improve the precision measurements of X-ray transitions in kaon atoms studied at DEAR.

George Rochester

George Dixon Rochester, FRS (February 4, 1908 – December 26, 2001) was a British physicist known for having co-discovered, with Sir Clifford Charles Butler, a subatomic particle called the kaon.Born in Wallsend, North Tyneside in northern England, he received a Bachelor of Science degree, a Master of Science degree, and a Ph.D. from Armstrong College, Newcastle (then part of Durham University now Newcastle University). He did his postdoctoral research at the University of California, Berkeley and then joined the faculty of Manchester University eventually becoming a Reader in 1953. In 1955, he was appointed Professor of Physics and Chair of the Department at Durham University. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1958. From 1967 to 1970, he was a Pro-Vice-Chancellor of the University. He retired in 1973.

The Durham Physics Department has hosted the annual Rochester Lecture since 1975. In 1997, on the 50th anniversary of the discover of the kaon, the physics building in Durham (which he had been involved in designing) was named the Rochester Building in his honour.

Jiangnan

Jiangnan or Jiang Nan (Chinese: 江南; pinyin: Jiāngnán; Wu: Kaon平 noe去; formerly romanized Kiang-nan, literally "South of the river") is a geographic area in China referring to lands immediately to the south of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, including the southern part of its delta. The region encompasses the city of Shanghai, the southern part of Jiangsu Province, the entire Zhejiang Province, the southeastern part of Anhui Province, the northern part of Jiangxi and Fujian Provinces. The most important cities in the area are Shanghai, Anqing, Changzhou, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Ningbo, Shaoxing, Suzhou, Wuxi, Zhenjiang and Fuzhou.

Jiangnan has long been regarded as one of the most prosperous regions in China due to its wealth in natural resources and very high human development. Most People of the region speak Jiangnan Mandarin and Wu Chinese dialects as their native languages.

Kaonic hydrogen

Kaonic hydrogen is an exotic atom consisting of a negatively charged kaon orbiting a proton.

Such particles were first identified, through their X-ray spectrum, at the KEK proton synchrotron in Tsukuba, Japan in 1997.

More detailed studies have been performed at DAFNE in Frascati, Italy.

Kaonic hydrogen has been created in very low energy collisions of kaons with the protons in a gaseous hydrogen target. At DAFNE, kaons are produced by the decay of φ mesons which are in turn created in collisions between electrons and positrons. The experiments analyzed X-rays from several electronic transitions in kaonic hydrogen.

Unlike in the hydrogen atom, where the binding between electron and proton is dominated by the electromagnetic interaction, kaons and protons interact also to a large extent by the strong interaction.

In kaonic hydrogen this strong contribution was found to be repulsive, shifting the ground state energy by 283 ± 36 (statistical) ± 6 (systematic) eV, thus making the system unstable with a resonance width of 541 ± 89 (stat) ± 22 (syst) eV (decay into Λπ and Σπ).

Kaonic hydrogen is studied mainly because of its importance for the understanding of kaon-nucleon interactions and for testing quantum chromodynamics.

List of mesons

This list is of all known and predicted scalar, pseudoscalar and vector mesons. See list of particles for a more detailed list of particles found in particle physics.This article contains a list of mesons, unstable subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark. They are part of the hadron particle family – particles made of quarks. The other members of the hadron family are the baryons – subatomic particles composed of three quarks. The main difference between mesons and baryons is that mesons have integer spin (thus are bosons) while baryons are fermions (half-integer spin). Because mesons are bosons, the Pauli exclusion principle does not apply to them. Because of this, they can act as force mediating particles on short distances, and thus play a part in processes such as the nuclear interaction.

Since mesons are composed of quarks, they participate in both the weak and strong interactions. Mesons with net electric charge also participate in the electromagnetic interaction. They are classified according to their quark content, total angular momentum, parity, and various other properties such as C-parity and G-parity. While no meson is stable, those of lower mass are nonetheless more stable than the most massive mesons, and are easier to observe and study in particle accelerators or in cosmic ray experiments. They are also typically less massive than baryons, meaning that they are more easily produced in experiments, and will exhibit higher-energy phenomena sooner than baryons would. For example, the charm quark was first seen in the J/Psi meson (J/ψ) in 1974, and the bottom quark in the upsilon meson (ϒ) in 1977.Each meson has a corresponding antiparticle (antimeson) where quarks are replaced by their corresponding antiquarks and vice versa. For example, a positive pion (π+) is made of one up quark and one down antiquark; and its corresponding antiparticle, the negative pion (π−), is made of one up antiquark and one down quark. Some experiments show the evidence of tetraquarks – "exotic" mesons made of two quarks and two antiquarks, but the particle physics community as a whole does not view their existence as likely, although still possible.The symbols encountered in these lists are: I (isospin), J (total angular momentum), P (parity), C (C-parity), G (G-parity), u (up quark), d (down quark), s (strange quark), c (charm quark), b (bottom quark), Q (charge), B (baryon number), S (strangeness), C (charm), and B′ (bottomness), as well as a wide array of subatomic particles (hover for name).

List of township-level divisions of Shanghai

This is a list of township-level divisions of the municipality of Shanghai, People's Republic of China (PRC). After province, prefecture, and county-level divisions, township-level divisions constitute the formal fourth-level administrative divisions of the PRC. However, as Shanghai is a province-level municipality, the prefecture-level divisions are absent and so county-level divisions are at the second level, and township-level divisions are at the third level of administration. This list is organised by the county-level divisions of the municipality. As of 8 January 2016, there are a total of 104 subdistricts, 107 towns and 2 townships in Shanghai, excluding special township-level divisions.

NA48 experiment

The NA48 experiment was a series of particle physics experiments in the field of kaon physics being carried out at the North Area of the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN. The collaboration involved over 100 physicists mostly from Western Europe and Russia.

The construction of the NA48 experimental setup took place early 1990s. The primary physics goal – the search for direct CP violation – was inherited from the predecessor NA31 experiment. The physics data taking runs took place between 1997 and 2001. The discovery of the phenomenon of direct CP violation, one of the most important experimental results obtained at CERN, was announced by the collaboration in 1999. The publication of the final result was made in 2001. In addition the experiment made a contribution to studies of rare decays of neutral kaons.

The following stage of the experiment (NA48/1) was carried out in 2002 and was devoted to high precision study of rare decays of neutral kaons and hyperons. The next stage (NA48/2) was carried out in 2003–2004 and was dedicated to a large programme of studies of properties of charged kaons, including the search of direct CP violation, studies of rare decays of the charged kaon, and low-energy QCD using final state rescattering.

The successor of NA48 is the NA62 experiment, which started data collection in 2015 and is dedicated to further studies of rare decays of the charged kaon.

NA62 experiment

The NA62 experiment (known as P-326 at the stage of proposal) is a particle physics experiment in the North Area of the SPS accelerator at CERN. The experiment was approved in February 2007. Data taking began in 2015, and the experiment is expected to become the first in the world to probe the decays of the charged kaon with probabilities down to 10−12. The experiment's spokesperson is Augusto Ceccucci. The collaboration involves 333 individuals from 30 institutions and 13 countries around the world.

Port of Shanghai

The Port of Shanghai (Chinese: 上海港; pinyin: Shànghǎi Gǎng; Wu: Zaanhe Kaon), located in the vicinity of Shanghai, comprises a deep-sea port and a river port.

In 2010, Shanghai port overtook the Port of Singapore to become the world's busiest container port. Shanghai's port handled 29.05 million TEUs, whereas Singapore's was a half million TEU's behind.In 2016, Shanghai port set a historic record by handling over 37 million TEUs.

Potassium chloride

Potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. It is odorless and has a white or colorless vitreous crystal appearance. The solid dissolves readily in water and its solutions have a salt-like taste. KCl is used as a fertilizer, in medicine, in scientific applications, and in food processing, where it may be known as E number additive E508.

In a few states of the United States it is used to cause cardiac arrest as the third drug in the "three drug cocktail" for executions by lethal injection. It occurs naturally as the mineral sylvite, and in combination with sodium chloride as sylvinite.

Savage Laboratories

Savage Laboratories is a pharmaceutical research company based in Melville, New York. Its two main products are CroFab—the primary antivenin used to treat rattlesnake and cottonmouth envenomations in the United States—and DigiFab—a treatment for digoxin overdose, both of which are produced by BTG plc but distributed by Savage. It also produces other products such as Ethiodol (a diagnostic agent for use in hysterosalpingography and lymphography), Evac-Q-Kwik (a bowel evacuant), KAON-CL (extended release Potassium chloride), and KAON Elixir-Grape (Potassium gluconate).

Savage Laboratories is a division of Altana AG's American subsidiary, Altana Inc.

Semileptonic decay

In particle physics the semileptonic decay of a hadron is a decay caused by the weak force in which one lepton (and the corresponding neutrino) is produced in addition to one or more hadrons. An example for this can be

K0 → e− + νe + π+This is to be contrasted with purely hadronic decays, such as K0 → π+ + π−, which are also mediated by the weak force.

Semileptonic decays of neutral kaons have been used to study kaon oscillations.

Shattered Angels

Shattered Angels (京四郎と永遠の空, Kyōshirō to Towa no Sora, lit. "Kyoshiro and the Eternal Sky") is a Japanese manga created by Kaishaku which was first serialized in the Japanese shōnen manga magazine Monthly Dragon Age in May 2006. A 12-episode anime, adapted from the manga, aired in Japan from January 5 to March 23, 2007. The series refers to several of Kaishaku's past works: Kannazuki no Miko, Magical Nyan Nyan Taruto, UFO Ultramaiden Valkyrie and Steel Angel Kurumi.

TRIUMF

TRIUMF is Canada's national particle accelerator centre. It is considered Canada's premier physics laboratory, and is consistently regarded as one of the leading subatomic physics research centers on the international level. Owned and operated by a consortium of universities as a joint venture, TRIUMF is located on the south campus of one of its founding members – the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia. TRIUMF houses the world's largest cyclotron, a source of 520 MeV protons, which was named an IEEE Milestone in 2010. TRIUMF's accelerator-focused activities involve particle physics, nuclear physics, nuclear medicine, materials science, and detector and accelerator development.

There are over 500 scientists, engineers, technicians, tradespeople, administrative staff, postdoctoral fellows, and students on the TRIUMF site. The lab attracts over 1000 national and international researchers every year and has generated over $1B in economic impact activity over the last decade.

TRIUMF scientists and university-based physicists develop and implement Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council's (NSERC) long-range plan for subatomic physics. TRIUMF uses these plans to develop its own priorities. TRIUMF has over 50 international agreements for collaborative scientific research.TRIUMF's cyclotron infrastructure has enabled the laboratory's proton therapy cancer treatment centre – the only one of its kind in Canada. TRIUMF's proton therapy centre is operated in conjunction with the British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) and the University of British Columbia Department of Ophthalmology. The TRIUMF Proton Therapy Centre specializes in the treatment of ocular melanoma and uses protons from the laboratory's 520 MeV cyclotron to irradiate cancerous tumors with high precision, thus destroying the tumor while leaving the surrounding tissue unharmed.Asteroid 14959 TRIUMF is named in honour of the laboratory.

Yangshan Port

Yangshan Port (Chinese: 洋山港, p Yángshān Gǎng, Wu Yan-se Kaon), formally the Yangshan Deep-Water Port (洋山深水港, p Yángshān Shēnshuǐ Gǎng, Wu Yan-se Sen-sy Kaon), is a deep water port for container ships in Hangzhou Bay south of Shanghai. Connected to Shanghai's Pudong New Area by the Donghai Bridge and forming part of the Port of Shanghai, the islands of Greater and Lesser Yangshan are administered separately as part of Zhejiang's Shengsi County.

Built to allow the Port of Shanghai to grow despite shallow waters near the shore, it allows berths with depths of up to 15 metres (49 ft) to be built, and can handle today's largest container ships. The port is built on the islands of Greater and Lesser Yangshan, part of the Zhoushan archipelago, with fill from land reclamation.

In 2015, the port handled 36.54 million Twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU) up 3.5% over 2014. In 2013 the volume was 33.6 million TEU. In mid-2011, port officials said the port was on track to move 12.3 million TEUs during the year, up from 10.1 million TEUs in 2010.

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