Kannada script

The Kannada script (IAST: Kannaḍa lipi) is an abugida of the Brahmic family,[2] used primarily to write the Kannada language, one of the Dravidian languages of South India especially in the state of Karnataka, Kannada script is widely used for writing Sanskrit texts in Karnataka. Several minor languages, such as Tulu, Konkani, Kodava, Sanketi and Beary, also use alphabets based on the Kannada script.[3] The Kannada and Telugu scripts share high mutual intellegibility with each other, and are often considered to be regional variants of single script. Other scripts similar to Kannada script are Sinhala script[4] (which included some elements from the Kadamba script[5]), and Old Peguan script (used in Burma).[6]

The Kannada script (ಅಕ್ಷರಮಾಲೆ akṣaramāle or ವರ್ಣಮಾಲೆ varṇamāle) is a phonemic abugida of forty-nine letters, and is written from left to right. The character set is almost identical to that of other Brahmic scripts. Consonantal letters imply an inherent vowel. Letters representing consonants are combined to form digraphs (ಒತ್ತಕ್ಷರ ottakṣara) when there is no intervening vowel. Otherwise, each letter corresponds to a syllable.

The letters are classified into three categories: ಸ್ವರ svara (vowels), ವ್ಯಂಜನ vyañjana (consonants), and ಯೋಗವಾಹಕ yōgavāhaka (semiconsonants).

The Kannada words for a letter of the script are ಅಕ್ಷರ akshara, ಅಕ್ಕರ akkara, and ವರ್ಣ varṇa. Each letter has its own form (ಆಕಾರ ākāra) and sound (ಶಬ್ದ śabda), providing the visible and audible representations, respectively. Kannada is written from left to right.[7]

Kannada script
ಕನ್ನಡ ಲಿಪಿ
Type
LanguagesKannada
Tulu
Kodava
Badaga
Beary
Sanketi
Konkani
Sanskrit
Time period
5th century–present[1]
Parent systems
Sister systems
Telugu
Sinhala
Mon
DirectionLeft-to-right
ISO 15924Knda, 345
Unicode alias
Kannada
U+0C80–U+0CFF
[a] The Semitic origin of the Brahmic scripts is not universally agreed upon.

History

The Kannada script derives from the Old Kannada script,[8] which evolved around 10th century as the continuation of the Kadamba alphabet of the fourth century.[9] This evolved from the ancient Brahmi script of the third century BCE.

Halmidi inscription translation
Halmidi Inscription Replica

This is debated as recent excavation has led to Talagunda inscription of 370 AD[10] to be the oldest available. Over the centuries some changes have been made to the Kannada script. These changes consist of:

  1. Modification of existing glyphs: In the early Kannada script, no orthographic distinction was made between the short mid [e, o] , and long mid [eː, oː] , . However, distinct signs were employed to denote the special consonants viz. the trill [r] the retroflex lateral [ɭ] and the retroflex rhotic [ɺ] found only in South Indian languages, by 5th century.
  2. Introduction of new characters: Kannada script includes characters like [ç] , [ʂ] , [rɨː] , [lɨ] , [lɨː] , [eʲ] , [oʷ] , [am] ಅಂ, [ah] ಅಃ, and mahāprāṇa characters like [kʰ] , [ɡʱ] , [tʃʰ] , [dʒʱ] , [t̪ʰ] , [d̪ʱ] , [ʈʰ] , [ɖʱ] , [pʰ] , [bʱ] . The introduction was done so that Sanskrit (and loanwords into the Kannada language from the donor language Sanskrit) could be written using the Kannada script.

These changes have facilitated the use of the Kannada script for writing many of the literary Indic languages, including Sanskrit.

Obsolete Kannada letters

Kannada-archaic-n
Historical form of representing ನ್ in Kannada script.

Kannada literary works employed the letters (transliterated '' or 'rh') and (transliterated '', 'lh' or 'zh'), whose manner of articulation most plausibly could be akin to those in present-day Malayalam and Tamil. The letters dropped out of use in the 12th and 18th centuries, respectively. Later Kannada works replaced 'rh' and 'lh' with (ra) and (la) respectively.[11]

Another letter (or unclassified vyanjana (consonant)) that has become extinct is 'nh' or 'inn'. ನ್ Likewise, this has its equivalent in Telugu, where it is called Nakaara pollu. The usage of this consonant was observed until the 1980s in Kannada works from the mostly coastal areas of Karnataka (especially the Dakshina Kannada district). Now, hardly any mainstream works use this consonant. This letter has been replaced by ನ್ (consonant n).

Kannada script evolution

The image below shows the evolution of Kannada script[12] from prehistoric times to the modern period. The Kannada script evolved in stages:

Proto-Kannada → Pre–Old Kannada → Old Kannada → Modern Kannada.

The Proto-Kannada script has its root in ancient Brahmi and appeared around the 3rd century BC. The Pre-Old-Kannada script appeared around the 4th century AD. Old-Kannada script can be traced to around the 10th century AD, whereas Modern-Kannada script appeared around the 17th century AD.

Vowel letters

There are thirteen vowel letters (ಸ್ವರ svara) (14, if we consider obsolete vowel ೠ).

Kanheri-brahmi
Brahmi script, Kanheri Caves
Letter Diacritic ISO notation Letter Diacritic ISO notation
N/A a ā
ಿ i ī
u ū
ṛ/r̥ (obsolete) ṝ/r̥̄
e ē
ai
o ō
au

When a vowel follows a consonant, it is written with a diacritic rather than as a separate letter.

Yōgavāha

The Yōgavāha (part-vowel, part consonant) include two letters:

  1. The anusvara: ಅಂ (aṁ)
  2. The visarga: ಅಃ (aḥ)

Another two Yōgavāha used in Sanskrit, but present in Kannada script, are known as Ardhavisarga:

  1. The Jihvamuliya:
  2. The Upadhmaniya:

Consonant letters

Two categories of consonant letters (ವ್ಯಂಜನ vyan̄jana) are defined in Kannada: the structured consonants and the unstructured consonants.

Structured consonants

The structured consonants are classified according to where the tongue touches the palate of the mouth and are classified accordingly into five structured groups. These consonants are shown here with their IAST transcriptions.

voiceless voiceless aspirate voiced voiced aspirate nasal
Velars (ka) (kha) (ga) (gha) (ṅa)
Palatals (ca) (cha) (ja) (jha) (ña)
Retroflex (ṭa) (ṭha) (ḍa) (ḍha) (ṇa)
Dentals (ta) (tha) (da) (dha) (na)
Labials (pa) (pha) (ba) (bha) (ma)

See place of articulation for more information on tongue positions.

Unstructured consonants

The unstructured consonants are consonants that do not fall into any of the above structures:

(ya), (ra), (ṟa) (obsolete), (la), (va), (śa), (ṣa), (sa), (ha), (ḷa), (ḻ) (obsolete).

Consonant conjuncts

The Kannada script is rich in conjunct consonant clusters, with most consonants having a standard subjoined form and few true ligature clusters. A table of consonant conjuncts follows, although the forms of individual conjuncts may differ according to font.

Akshara

Written Kannada is composed of akshara or kagunita, corresponding to syllables. The letters for consonants combine with diacritics for vowels. The consonant letter without any diacritic, such as ka, has the inherent vowel a . This is called ದೀರ್ಘ dīrgha. A consonant without a vowel is marked with a 'killer' stroke, such as ಕ್ k. This is known as ಹ್ರಸ್ವ hrasva.

Diacritic Vowel letter d with vowel diacritic Pronunciation
(ಅ, a) /da/
ದ್ /d/
(ಆ, ā) ದಾ /daː/
ಿ (ಇ, i) ದಿ[note 1] /di/
(ಈ, ī) ದೀ /diː/
(ಉ, u) ದು /du/
(ಊ, ū) ದೂ /duː/
(ಋ, r̥) ದೃ /dr̥ː/
(ೠ, r̥̄) ದೄ /dr̥ː/
(ಎ, e) ದೆ /de/
(ಏ, ē) ದೇ /deː/
(ಐ, ai) ದೈ /dai/
(ಒ, o) ದೊ /do/
(ಓ, ō) ದೋ /doː/
(ಔ, au) ದೌ /dau/
(ಅಂ, aṃ) ದಂ /dã/
(ಅಃ, aḥ) ದಃ /dah/
  1. ^ This diacritic has the form ಿ when combined with other consonant letters.
ಅಂ ಅಃ
ಕಾ ಕಿ ಕೀ ಕು ಕೂ ಕೃ ಕೄ ಕೆ ಕೇ ಕೈ ಕೊ ಕೋ ಕೌ ಕಂ ಕಃ ಕ್
ಖಾ ಖಿ ಖೀ ಖು ಖೂ ಖೃ ಖೄ ಖೆ ಖೇ ಖೈ ಖೊ ಖೋ ಖೌ ಖಂ ಖಃ ಖ್
ಗಾ ಗಿ ಗೀ ಗು ಗೂ ಗೃ ಗೄ ಗೆ ಗೇ ಗೈ ಗೊ ಗೋ ಗೌ ಗಂ ಗಃ ಗ್
ಘಾ ಘಿ ಘೀ ಘು ಘೂ ಘೃ ಘೄ ಘೆ ಘೇ ಘೈ ಘೊ ಘೋ ಘೌ ಘಂ ಘಃ ಘ್
ಙಾ ಙಿ ಙೀ ಙು ಙೂ ಙೃ ಙೄ ಙೆ ಙೇ ಙೈ ಙೊ ಙೋ ಙೌ ಙಂ ಙಃ ಙ್
ಚಾ ಚಿ ಚೀ ಚು ಚೂ ಚೃ ಚೄ ಚೆ ಚೇ ಚೈ ಚೊ ಚೋ ಚೌ ಚಂ ಚಃ ಚ್
ಛಾ ಛಿ ಛೀ ಛು ಛೂ ಛೃ ಛೄ ಛೆ ಛೇ ಛೈ ಛೊ ಛೋ ಛೌ ಛಂ ಛಃ ಛ್
ಜಾ ಜಿ ಜೀ ಜು ಜೂ ಜೃ ಜೄ ಜೆ ಜೇ ಜೈ ಜೊ ಜೋ ಜೌ ಜಂ ಜಃ ಜ್
ಝಾ ಝಿ ಝೀ ಝು ಝೂ ಝೃ ಝೄ ಝೆ ಝೇ ಝೈ ಝೊ ಝೋ ಝೌ ಝಂ ಝಃ ಝ್
ಞಾ ಞಿ ಞೀ ಞು ಞೂ ಞೃ ಞೄ ಞೆ ಞೇ ಞೈ ಞೊ ಞೋ ಞೌ ಞಂ ಞಃ ಞ್
ಟಾ ಟಿ ಟೀ ಟು ಟೂ ಟೃ ಟೄ ಟೆ ಟೇ ಟೈ ಟೊ ಟೋ ಟೌ ಟಂ ಟಃ ಟ್
ಠಾ ಠಿ ಠೀ ಠು ಠೂ ಠೃ ಠೄ ಠೆ ಠೇ ಠೈ ಠೊ ಠೋ ಠೌ ಠಂ ಠಃ ಠ್
ಡಾ ಡಿ ಡೀ ಡು ಡೂ ಡೃ ಡೄ ಡೆ ಡೇ ಡೈ ಡೊ ಡೋ ಡೌ ಡಂ ಡಃ ಡ್
ಢಾ ಢಿ ಢೀ ಢು ಢೂ ಢೃ ಢೄ ಢೆ ಢೇ ಢೈ ಢೊ ಢೋ ಢೌ ಢಂ ಢಃ ಢ್
ಣಾ ಣಿ ಣೀ ಣು ಣೂ ಣೃ ಣೄ ಣೆ ಣೇ ಣೈ ಣೊ ಣೋ ಣೌ ಣಂ ಣಃ ಣ್
ತಾ ತಿ ತೀ ತು ತೂ ತೃ ತೄ ತೆ ತೇ ತೈ ತೊ ತೋ ತೌ ತಂ ತಃ ತ್
ಥಾ ಥಿ ಥೀ ಥು ಥೂ ಥೃ ಥೄ ಥೆ ಥೇ ಥೈ ಥೊ ಥೋ ಥೌ ಥಂ ಥಃ ಥ್
ದಾ ದಿ ದೀ ದು ದೂ ದೃ ದೄ ದೆ ದೇ ದೈ ದೊ ದೋ ದೌ ದಂ ದಃ ದ್
ಧಾ ಧಿ ಧೀ ಧು ಧೂ ಧೃ ಧೄ ಧೆ ಧೇ ಧೈ ಧೊ ಧೋ ಧೌ ಧಂ ಧಃ ಧ್
ನಾ ನಿ ನೀ ನು ನೂ ನೃ ನೄ ನೆ ನೇ ನೈ ನೊ ನೋ ನೌ ನಂ ನಃ ನ್
ಪಾ ಪಿ ಪೀ ಪು ಪೂ ಪೃ ಪೄ ಪೆ ಪೇ ಪೈ ಪೊ ಪೋ ಪೌ ಪಂ ಪಃ ಪ್
ಫಾ ಫಿ ಫೀ ಫು ಫೂ ಫೃ ಫೄ ಫೆ ಫೇ ಫೈ ಫೊ ಫೋ ಫೌ ಫಂ ಫಃ ಫ್
ಬಾ ಬಿ ಬೀ ಬು ಬೂ ಬೃ ಬೄ ಬೆ ಬೇ ಬೈ ಬೊ ಬೋ ಬೌ ಬಂ ಬಃ ಬ್
ಭಾ ಭಿ ಭೀ ಭು ಭೂ ಭೃ ಭೄ ಭೆ ಭೇ ಭೈ ಭೊ ಭೋ ಭೌ ಭಂ ಭಃ ಭ್
ಮಾ ಮಿ ಮೀ ಮು ಮೂ ಮೃ ಮೄ ಮೆ ಮೇ ಮೈ ಮೊ ಮೋ ಮೌ ಮಂ ಮಃ ಮ್
ಯಾ ಯಿ ಯೀ ಯು ಯೂ ಯೃ ಯೄ ಯೆ ಯೇ ಯೈ ಯೊ ಯೋ ಯೌ ಯಂ ಯಃ ಯ್
ರಾ ರಿ ರೀ ರು ರೂ ರೃ ರೄ ರೆ ರೇ ರೈ ರೊ ರೋ ರೌ ರಂ ರಃ ರ್
ಱಾ ಱಿ ಱೀ ಱು ಱೂ ಱೃ ಱೄ ಱೆ ಱೇ ಱೈ ಱೊ ಱೋ ಱೌ ಱಂ ಱಃ ಱ್
ಲಾ ಲಿ ಲೀ ಲು ಲೂ ಲೃ ಲೄ ಲೆ ಲೇ ಲೈ ಲೊ ಲೋ ಲೌ ಲಂ ಲಃ ಲ್
ವಾ ವಿ ವೀ ವು ವೂ ವೃ ವೄ ವೆ ವೇ ವೈ ವೊ ವೋ ವೌ ವಂ ವಃ ವ್
ಶಾ ಶಿ ಶೀ ಶು ಶೂ ಶೃ ಶೄ ಶೆ ಶೇ ಶೈ ಶೊ ಶೋ ಶೌ ಶಂ ಶಃ ಶ್
ಷಾ ಷಿ ಷೀ ಷು ಷೂ ಷೃ ಷೄ ಷೆ ಷೇ ಷೈ ಷೊ ಷೋ ಷೌ ಷಂ ಷಃ ಷ್
ಸಾ ಸಿ ಸೀ ಸು ಸೂ ಸೃ ಸೄ ಸೆ ಸೇ ಸೈ ಸೊ ಸೋ ಸೌ ಸಂ ಸಃ ಸ್
ಹಾ ಹಿ ಹೀ ಹು ಹೂ ಹೃ ಹೄ ಹೆ ಹೇ ಹೈ ಹೊ ಹೋ ಹೌ ಹಂ ಹಃ ಹ್
ಳಾ ಳಿ ಳೀ ಳು ಳೂ ಳೃ ಳೄ ಳೆ ಳೇ ಳೈ ಳೊ ಳೋ ಳೌ ಳಂ ಳಃ ಳ್
ೞಾ ೞಿ ೞೀ ೞು ೞೂ ೞೃ ೞೄ ೞೆ ೞೇ ೞೈ ೞೊ ೞೋ ೞೌ ೞಂ ೞಃ ೞ್

The formations shown boldface above are seldom used in the normal course of the language.

Numerals

The decimal numerals in the script are:

Kannada numerals English numerals
numeral name numeral name
sonne (ಸೊನ್ನೆ) 0 zero
ondu (ಒಂದು) 1 one
eraḍu (ಎರಡು) 2 two
mūru (ಮೂರು) 3 three
nālku (ನಾಲ್ಕು) 4 four
aidu (ಐದು) 5 five
āru (ಆರು) 6 six
ēḷu (ಏಳು) 7 seven
enṭu (ಎಂಟು) 8 eight
oṃbattu (ಒಂಬತ್ತು) 9 nine
೧೦ hattu (ಹತ್ತು) 10 ten

Transliteration

Several transliteration schemes/tools are used to type Kannada characters using a standard keyboard. These include Baraha[13] (based on ITRANS), Pada Software[14] and several internet tools like Google transliteration, Quillpad[15] (predictive transliterator). Nudi, the Government of Karnataka's standard for Kannada Input, is a phonetic layout loosely based on transliteration.

In popular culture

Due to its resemblance to an eye and an eyebrow, the Kannada letter ṭha is used in a popular emoticon called the "look of disapproval" (displayed as "ಠ_ಠ") used to convey disapproval or contempt.[16] Similarly, the akshara ರೃ rr̥a has been used in emoticons to represent a monocle, while ಥ tha has been used to represent a tearing eye.

Unicode

Kannada script was added to the Unicode Standard in October, 1991 with the release of version 1.0.

The Unicode block for Kannada is U+0C80–U+0CFF:

Kannada[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+0C8x
U+0C9x
U+0CAx
U+0CBx ಿ
U+0CCx
U+0CDx
U+0CEx
U+0CFx  ೱ   ೲ 
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 12.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

See also

References

  1. ^ "Kannada, Stone inscriptions". Archived from the original on 25 June 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
  2. ^ Campbell, George L. (6 November 1997). Handbook of scripts and alphabets (1st ed.). Routledge, New York. pp. 84–5. ISBN 978-0-415-13715-7. OCLC 34473667.
  3. ^ Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh (2007). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. pp. 804, 805. ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5.
  4. ^ "Romanization, Sinhala (Sinhalese) Script" (PDF). KAMALAKAR. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 September 2010. Retrieved 7 May 2009.
  5. ^ "Ancient scripts, hala". Retrieved 7 May 2009.
  6. ^ "Telugu & Sinhalese script similarities". Retrieved 7 May 2009.
  7. ^ A Grammar of the Kannada Language. F. Kittel (1993), p. 5
  8. ^ "Old Kannada". Retrieved 7 May 2009.
  9. ^ "Kadamba". Retrieved 7 May 2009.
  10. ^ "Kannada inscription at Talagunda may replace Halmidi as oldest". Deccan Herald. 12 January 2017.
  11. ^ Rice, Edward. P (1921), "A History of Kannada Literature", Oxford University Press, 1921: 14–15
  12. ^ "Kannada script Evolution". Official website of the Central Institute of Indian Languages, India. Classicalkannada.org. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2008.
  13. ^ "Baraha – Free Indian Language Software". baraha.com.
  14. ^ "Pada Software – For Indic Scripts". pada.pro.
  15. ^ "QuillPad – Typing in Kannada has never been easier". Quillpad.in. Archived from the original on 4 November 2008. Retrieved 7 November 2008.
  16. ^ "Browser Extension of the Week: Look of Disapproval". Maximum PC. Retrieved 24 April 2013.

External links

Badaga language

Badaga is a southern Dravidian language spoken by approximately 135,000 people in the Nilgiri Hills of Tamil Nadu. It is known for its retroflex vowels. It is a dialect of neighbouring Kannada language.The word Badaga, meaning "northerner", refers to the Badaga language as well as the Badaga indigenous people who speak it.

Coorgi–Cox alphabet

The Coorgi–Cox alphabet is an abugida developed by the linguist Gregg M. Cox that is used by a number of individuals within Kodagu district of India to write the endangered Dravidian language of Kodava, also known sometimes as Coorgi.The script uses a combination of 26 consonants, five vowel diacritics and a diphthong marker. Each letter represents a single sound and there are no capital letters. A computer-based font has been created.The script was developed out of the request by a group of Kodava individuals to have a distinct script for Kodava Takk, to distinguish the language. Kodava Takk is generally written in the Kannada script, but can also be found written in the Malayalam script, especially along the borders with Kerala. The new script is intended as a unified writing system for all Kodava Takk speakers.In order to introduce the script, 10,000 CD booklets and 25,000 post cards with various scenes from the region were produced and distributed throughout the Coorg area in March and April 2005. Several books are being planned including a phrase book and dictionary.

Gudikatti

Gudikatti is a village in Belgaum district in the southern state of Karnataka, India.There is an old Kannada script written on a stone, which is placed in the village temple..

Halmidi

Halmidi is a small village in the Hassan district of Karnataka state, India, near the temple town of Belur. Halmidi is best known as the place where the oldest known inscription exclusively in Kannada language, the Halmidi inscription, was discovered. Anterior to this, many inscriptions with Kannada words have been discovered, such as Brahmagiri edict of 230 BCE of Emperor Ashoka. However, this is the first full length inscription in Kannada. This inscription is generally known as the Halmidi inscription and consists of sixteen lines carved on a sandstone slab. It has been dated to 450 CE and demonstrates that Kannada was used as a language of administration at that time. The inscription is in primitive Kannada with distinctive characteristics attributed to those of Proto-Kannada and uses Kannada script similar to Brahmi characters.Halmidi village is located between Chikmagalur city and Belur town. In recognition of the cultural importance of the inscription, and the role played by the village of Halmidi in its preservation, the Government of Karnataka has spent INR 2.5 million on developing infrastructural facilities in the village, and on building a mantapa to house a fibreglass replica of the original inscription. The Government has also begun to promote the village as a place of historical interest.

Halmidi inscription

The Halmidi inscription is the oldest known Kannada language inscription in the Kannada script. While estimates vary slightly, the inscription is often dated to between 450 CE - 500 CE. The inscription was discovered in 1936 by Dr. M. H. Krishna, the Director of Archaeology of the (princely) State of Mysore (present-day Karnataka region of India), in Halmidi, a village in the Hassan district.

The original inscription is kept in the Office of the Director of Archaeology and Museums, Govt. of Karnataka, Mysore, and a fibreglass replica has been installed in Halmidi.

Kadamba script

The Kadamba script (known as Pre-Old Kannada script) marks the birth of a dedicated script for writing Kannada. It is a descendant of the Brahmi script, an abugida visually close to the Kalinga alphabet. The Kadamba script was developed during the reign of the Kadamba dynasty in the 4th–6th centuries. The Kadamba script is also known as Pre-Old-Kannada script. This script later became popular in what is today the state of Goa and was used to write Sanskrit, Kannada

The Kadamba script is one of the oldest of the southern group of South Asian scripts that evolved from the Brahmi script. By 5th century CE it became different from other Brahmi variants and was used in southern Indian states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. It evolved into the Old Kannada script by the 10th century CE and was used to write Kannada and Telugu. Many scripts were derived from the Kadamba script, including the Pyu script.

Kannada

Kannada (; Kannada: ಕನ್ನಡ, [ˈkɐnnɐɖaː]; also known as Kanarese) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Kerala and abroad. The language has roughly 45 million native speakers, who are called Kannadigas. Kannada is also spoken as a second and third language by over 12.9 million non-Kannada speakers living in Karnataka, which adds up to 56.6 million speakers. It is one of the scheduled languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka.The Kannada language is written using the Kannada script, which evolved from the 5th-century Kadamba script. Kannada is attested epigraphically for about one and a half millennia, and literary Old Kannada flourished in the 6th-century Ganga dynasty and during the 9th-century Rashtrakuta Dynasty. Kannada has an unbroken literary history of over a thousand years. Kannada literature has been presented with 8 Jnanapith awards, the most for any Dravidian language and the second highest for any Indian language.Based on the recommendations of the Committee of Linguistic Experts, appointed by the ministry of culture, the government of India designated Kannada a classical language of India. In July 2011, a center for the study of classical Kannada was established as part of the Central Institute of Indian Languages at Mysore to facilitate research related to the language.

Kannada inscriptions

About 25,000 inscriptions found in Karnataka belongs to Kannada rulers like Kadambas, Western Ganga Dynasty, Rashtrakuta, Chalukya, Hoysala and Vijayanagara Empire. Many inscriptions related to Buddhism and Jainism are unearthed. The inscriptions generally found are on stone (Shilashasana) or copper plates (Tamarashasana). The Kannada inscriptions (Old Kannada, Kadamba script) found on historical Hero Stone, coin and temple wall, piller, tablet and rock edict. These Inscription have contributed towards Kannada literature and helped to classify as Proto Kannada, Pre Old Kannada, Old Kannada, Middle Kannada and New KannadaInscriptions depicts culture, tradition and prosperity of those era. The world wide recognized literature Ramayana and Mahabharata are transferred through generation by these Inscription Hazara Rama Temple and Aranmula Parthasarathy Temple are the best example.

Kappe Arabhatta

Kappe Arabhatta (Kannada: ಕಪ್ಪೆ ಆರಭಟ್ಟ) was a Chalukya warrior of the 8th century who is known from a Kannada verse inscription, dated to c. 700 CE, and carved on a cliff overlooking the northeast end of the artificial lake in Badami, Karnataka, India. The inscription consists of five stanzas written out in ten lines in the Kannada script. Stanza 2 (Lines 3 and 4) consists of a Sanskrit śloka. Of the remaining stanzas, all except the first are in the tripadi, a Kannada verse metre.Stanza 3 (lines 5 and 6), which consists of twelve words of which nine are Sanskrit loan-words in Kannada, is well known in a condensed version, and is sometimes cited as the earliest example of the tripadi metre in Kannada. However, neither stanza 3 nor stanza 4 strictly conform to the precise rules of the tripadi metre; they each have more than 18 moras in line two, in excess of the allowed 17.

Kodava language

The Kodava (Kannada script: ಕೊಡವ ತಕ್ಕ್ Kodava takk, meaning 'speech of Kodavas', in the Kodava language) is an endangered Dravidian language and the original language of the Kodagu district in southern Karnataka, India. The term Kodava has two related usages. Firstly, it is the name of the Kodava language and culture followed by a number of communities from Kodagu. Secondly, within the Kodava-speaking communities and region (Kodagu) it describes the dominant Kodava people. Hence, the Kodava language is not only the primary language of the Kodavas but also of a large number of other castes and tribes in Kodagu. The language has two dialects: Mendele (spoken in Northern and Central Kodagu, i.e. outside Kodagu's Kiggat naadu) and Kiggat (spoken in Kiggat naadu, in Southern Kodagu).

Konkani language

Konkani (Kōṅkaṇī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by Konkani people along the western coast of India. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages mentioned in the 8th schedule of the Indian Constitution and the official language of the Indian state of Goa. The first Konkani inscription is dated 1187 A.D. It is a minority language in Karnataka, Maharashtra and Kerala, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, and Daman and Diu.

Konkani is a member of the southern Indo-Aryan language group. It retains elements of Vedic structures and shows similarities with both western and eastern Indo-Aryan languages.There are many fractured Konkani dialects, most of which are not mutually intelligible with one another.

Lambadi

Lambadi or Gor-bol, also called Banjari, is a language spoken by the Banjara people across India and it belongs to Indo-Aryan group of languages. The language does not have a native script.The language is known by various other names, including Lamani, Lamadi, Lambani, Labhani, Lambara, Lavani, Lemadi, Lumadale, Labhani Muka and variants, Banjara, Banjari, Bangala, Banjori, Banjuri, Brinjari, and variants, Gohar-Herkeri, Goola, Gurmarti, Gormati, Kora, Singali, Sugali, Sukali, Tanda.

Regional dialects are divided between the Banjara of

Maharashtra (written in Devanagari), Karnataka (written in the Kannada script) Tamil Nadu and Telangana (written in the Telugu script). Speakers are bilingual in either Telugu, Kannada, or Marathi.

List of languages by writing system

Below is a list of languages sorted by writing system (by alphabetical order).

Mahakuta group of temples

The Mahakuta group of temples is located in Mahakuta, a village in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka state, India. It is an important place of worship for Hindus and the location of a well-known Shaiva monastery. The temples are dated to the 6th or 7th century CE and were constructed by the early kings of the Chalukya dynasty of Badami. The dating of the temples is based on the style of architecture which is similar to that of the temples in nearby Aihole and the information in two notable inscriptions in the complex: the Mahakuta Pillar inscription dated between 595–602 CE (written in the Sanskrit language and Kannada script); and an inscription of Vinapoti, a concubine of king Vijayaditya, dated between 696–733 CE and written in the Kannada language and script.

Pyu script

The Pyu script is a writing system used to write the Pyu language, an extinct Sino-Tibetan language that was mainly spoken in present-day central Burma. It was based on the Brahmi-based scripts of both north and south India. The best available evidence suggests that the Pyu script gradually developed between the 2nd and 6th centuries CE. The Pyu script's immediate precursor appears to be the Kadamba script of southwest India. The early period Pyu inscriptions always included interlinear Brahmi scripts. It was not until the 7th and 8th centuries that Sri Ksetra's inscriptions appeared all in the Pyu script, without any interlinear Brahmi.Many of the important inscriptions were written in Sanskrit and Pali, alongside the Pyu script. The Pyu sites have yielded a wide variety of Indian scripts from King Ashoka's edicts written in north Indian Brahmi and Tamil Sangam literature, both dated to the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE, to the Gupta script and Kannada script dated to the 4th to 6th centuries CE.The Pyu script is presently not in Unicode. Its inclusion was proposed in 2010, and has tentative placement in the Unicode Consortium's roadmap.

Shravanabelagola inscription of Nandisena

The Shravanabelagola inscription of Nandisena, dated to the 7th century, is one of the early poetic inscriptions in the Kannada language. The inscription extols saint Nandisena of Shravanabelagola (a prominent place of Jain religious power and worship) and his journey to heaven ("world of gods", lit, devaloka). According to the "Institute for Classical Kannada Studies", the inscription, which it dates to 700 A.D., is suffused with literary characteristics and figure of speech. It is therefore important to the study of the development of Kannada literature. According to the scholar D.R. Nagaraj, exalting the "individual as the hero of the community" is the commonality the Nandisena inscription has with the other metrical Kannada inscriptions of the period; the Halmidi inscription and the Kappe Arabhatta inscription.

Telugu-Kannada alphabet

The Telugu-Kannada alphabet is a writing system used in southern India. Despite, some differences, the scripts used for the Telugu and Kannada languages remain quite similar.

Tigalari script

Tigalari (Tigaḷāri lipi) is a southern Brahmic script used in the Coastal region of Karnataka, also prevalent in Kasaragod district of Kerala. It evolved from the Grantha script. It bears high similarity and relationship to its sister script Malayalam, which also evolved from the Grantha.

It was used by Tulu-speaking Brahmins like Shivalli Brahmins and Kannada speaking Havyaka Brahmins and Kota Brahmins to write Vedic mantras and other Sanskrit religious texts. Although the script is primarily used to write Sanskrit, some Kannada and Tulu works are also written with Tigalari. It is currently not used to write the Kannada and Tulu languages as they use the Kannada script for documentation. However, there has been a renewed interest among Tulu speakers to revive the script as it was formerly used in the Tulu speaking region. The Karnataka Tulu Sahitya Academy, a cultural wing of the Government of Karnataka, has introduced Tuḷu language (written in Kannada script) and Tigalari-Tulu script in schools across the Mangalore and Udupi districts. The Academy provides instructional manuals to learn this script and conducts workshops to teach it. Tigalari-Tulu was proposed for inclusion in Unicode in 2011. as well as in 2017

Tulu language

Tulu (Tulu: ತುಳು ಭಾಷೆ Tulu bāse [ˈt̪ulu ˈbɒːsæ]) is a Dravidian language spoken mainly in the south west part of the Indian state of Karnataka and also in the Kasaragod district of Kerala. The Tulu speaking region is often referred to as Tulu Nadu. The native speakers of Tulu are referred to as Tuluva or Tulu people.

The Indian census report of 2011 reported a total of 1,846,427 native Tulu speakers in India. The 2001 census had reported a total of 1,722,768 native speakers, According to one estimate reported in 2009, Tulu is currently spoken by 3 to 5 million speakers in the world. There is some difficulty in counting Tulu speakers who have migrated from their native region as they often get counted as Kannada speakers in Indian Census reportsSeparated early from Proto-South Dravidian, Tulu has several features not found in Tamil–Kannada. For example, it has the pluperfect and the future perfect, like French or Spanish, but formed without an auxiliary verb.

Robert Caldwell, in his pioneering work A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian family of languages, called this language "peculiar and very interesting". According to him, "Tulu is one of the most highly developed languages of the Dravidian family. It looks as if it had been cultivated for its own sake."Tulu is the primary spoken language in Tulu Nadu, a region comprising the districts of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi, in the west of the state of Karnataka and the Kasaragod taluk. Non-native speakers of Tulu include those who speak the Beary language, Havyaka and Gowda dialects of Kannada as also Konkani, Koraga and Malayalam speakers resident in the Tulu Nadu region. Apart from Tulu Nadu, a significant emigrant population of Tulu speaking people is found in Maharashtra, Bangalore, Chennai, the English-speaking world, and the Gulf countries.The various medieval inscriptions of Tulu from the 15th century are in the Tigalari alphabet script. Two Tulu epics named Sri Bhagavato and Kaveri from the 17th century were also written in the same script. However, in modern times the Tulu language is mostly written using the Kannada script. The Tulu language is known for its oral literature in the form of epic poems called Paddana .The Epic of Siri and the legend of Koti and Chennayya belong to this category of Tulu literature.

ಕ್ಕ ಕ್ಖ ಕ್ಗ ಕ್ಘ ಕ್ಙ ಕ್ಚ ಕ್ಛ ಕ್ಜ ಕ್ಝ ಕ್ಞ ಕ್ಟ ಕ್ಠ ಕ್ಡ ಕ್ಢ ಕ್ಣ ಕ್ತ ಕ್ಥ ಕ್ದ ಕ್ಧ ಕ್ನ ಕ್ಪ ಕ್ಫ ಕ್ಬ ಕ್ಭ ಕ್ಮ ಕ್ಯ ಕ್ರ ಕ್ಱ ಕ್ಲ ಕ್ವ ಕ್ಶ ಕ್ಷ ಕ್ಸ ಕ್ಹ ಕ್ಳ ಕ್ೞ
ಖ್ಕ ಖ್ಖ ಖ್ಗ ಖ್ಘ ಖ್ಙ ಖ್ಚ ಖ್ಛ ಖ್ಜ ಖ್ಝ ಖ್ಞ ಖ್ಟ ಖ್ಠ ಖ್ಡ ಖ್ಢ ಖ್ಣ ಖ್ತ ಖ್ಥ ಖ್ದ ಖ್ಧ ಖ್ನ ಖ್ಪ ಖ್ಫ ಖ್ಬ ಖ್ಭ ಖ್ಮ ಖ್ಯ ಖ್ರ ಖ್ಱ ಖ್ಲ ಖ್ವ ಖ್ಶ ಖ್ಷ ಖ್ಸ ಖ್ಹ ಖ್ಳ ಖ್ೞ
ಗ್ಕ ಗ್ಖ ಗ್ಗ ಗ್ಘ ಗ್ಙ ಗ್ಚ ಗ್ಛ ಗ್ಜ ಗ್ಝ ಗ್ಞ ಗ್ಟ ಗ್ಠ ಗ್ಡ ಗ್ಢ ಗ್ಣ ಗ್ತ ಗ್ಥ ಗ್ದ ಗ್ಧ ಗ್ನ ಗ್ಪ ಗ್ಫ ಗ್ಬ ಗ್ಭ ಗ್ಮ ಗ್ಯ ಗ್ರ ಗ್ಱ ಗ್ಲ ಗ್ವ ಗ್ಶ ಗ್ಷ ಗ್ಸ ಗ್ಹ ಗ್ಳ ಗ್ೞ
ಘ್ಕ ಘ್ಖ ಘ್ಗ ಘ್ಘ ಘ್ಙ ಘ್ಚ ಘ್ಛ ಘ್ಜ ಘ್ಝ ಘ್ಞ ಘ್ಟ ಘ್ಠ ಘ್ಡ ಘ್ಢ ಘ್ಣ ಘ್ತ ಘ್ಥ ಘ್ದ ಘ್ಧ ಘ್ನ ಘ್ಪ ಘ್ಫ ಘ್ಬ ಘ್ಭ ಘ್ಮ ಘ್ಯ ಘ್ರ ಘ್ಱ ಘ್ಲ ಘ್ವ ಘ್ಶ ಘ್ಷ ಘ್ಸ ಘ್ಹ ಘ್ಳ ಘ್ೞ
ಙ್ಕ ಙ್ಖ ಙ್ಗ ಙ್ಘ ಙ್ಙ ಙ್ಚ ಙ್ಛ ಙ್ಜ ಙ್ಝ ಙ್ಞ ಙ್ಟ ಙ್ಠ ಙ್ಡ ಙ್ಢ ಙ್ಣ ಙ್ತ ಙ್ಥ ಙ್ದ ಙ್ಧ ಙ್ನ ಙ್ಪ ಙ್ಫ ಙ್ಬ ಙ್ಭ ಙ್ಮ ಙ್ಯ ಙ್ರ ಙ್ಱ ಙ್ಲ ಙ್ವ ಙ್ಶ ಙ್ಷ ಙ್ಸ ಙ್ಹ ಙ್ಳ ಙ್ೞ
ಚ್ಕ ಚ್ಖ ಚ್ಗ ಚ್ಘ ಚ್ಙ ಚ್ಚ ಚ್ಛ ಚ್ಜ ಚ್ಝ ಚ್ಞ ಚ್ಟ ಚ್ಠ ಚ್ಡ ಚ್ಢ ಚ್ಣ ಚ್ತ ಚ್ಥ ಚ್ದ ಚ್ಧ ಚ್ನ ಚ್ಪ ಚ್ಫ ಚ್ಬ ಚ್ಭ ಚ್ಮ ಚ್ಯ ಚ್ರ ಚ್ಱ ಚ್ಲ ಚ್ವ ಚ್ಶ ಚ್ಷ ಚ್ಸ ಚ್ಹ ಚ್ಳ ಚ್ೞ
ಛ್ಕ ಛ್ಖ ಛ್ಗ ಛ್ಘ ಛ್ಙ ಛ್ಚ ಛ್ಛ ಛ್ಜ ಛ್ಝ ಛ್ಞ ಛ್ಟ ಛ್ಠ ಛ್ಡ ಛ್ಢ ಛ್ಣ ಛ್ತ ಛ್ಥ ಛ್ದ ಛ್ಧ ಛ್ನ ಛ್ಪ ಛ್ಫ ಛ್ಬ ಛ್ಭ ಛ್ಮ ಛ್ಯ ಛ್ರ ಛ್ಱ ಛ್ಲ ಛ್ವ ಛ್ಶ ಛ್ಷ ಛ್ಸ ಛ್ಹ ಛ್ಳ ಛ್ೞ
ಜ್ಕ ಜ್ಖ ಜ್ಗ ಜ್ಘ ಜ್ಙ ಜ್ಚ ಜ್ಛ ಜ್ಜ ಜ್ಝ ಜ್ಞ ಜ್ಟ ಜ್ಠ ಜ್ಡ ಜ್ಢ ಜ್ಣ ಜ್ತ ಜ್ಥ ಜ್ದ ಜ್ಧ ಜ್ನ ಜ್ಪ ಜ್ಫ ಜ್ಬ ಜ್ಭ ಜ್ಮ ಜ್ಯ ಜ್ರ ಜ್ಱ ಜ್ಲ ಜ್ವ ಜ್ಶ ಜ್ಷ ಜ್ಸ ಜ್ಹ ಜ್ಳ ಜ್ೞ
ಝ್ಕ ಝ್ಖ ಝ್ಗ ಝ್ಘ ಝ್ಙ ಝ್ಚ ಝ್ಛ ಝ್ಜ ಝ್ಝ ಝ್ಞ ಝ್ಟ ಝ್ಠ ಝ್ಡ ಝ್ಢ ಝ್ಣ ಝ್ತ ಝ್ಥ ಝ್ದ ಝ್ಧ ಝ್ನ ಝ್ಪ ಝ್ಫ ಝ್ಬ ಝ್ಭ ಝ್ಮ ಝ್ಯ ಝ್ರ ಝ್ಱ ಝ್ಲ ಝ್ವ ಝ್ಶ ಝ್ಷ ಝ್ಸ ಝ್ಹ ಝ್ಳ ಝ್ೞ
ಞ್ಕ ಞ್ಖ ಞ್ಗ ಞ್ಘ ಞ್ಙ ಞ್ಚ ಞ್ಛ ಞ್ಜ ಞ್ಝ ಞ್ಞ ಞ್ಟ ಞ್ಠ ಞ್ಡ ಞ್ಢ ಞ್ಣ ಞ್ತ ಞ್ಥ ಞ್ದ ಞ್ಧ ಞ್ನ ಞ್ಪ ಞ್ಫ ಞ್ಬ ಞ್ಭ ಞ್ಮ ಞ್ಯ ಞ್ರ ಞ್ಱ ಞ್ಲ ಞ್ವ ಞ್ಶ ಞ್ಷ ಞ್ಸ ಞ್ಹ ಞ್ಳ ಞ್ೞ
ಟ್ಕ ಟ್ಖ ಟ್ಗ ಟ್ಘ ಟ್ಙ ಟ್ಚ ಟ್ಛ ಟ್ಜ ಟ್ಝ ಟ್ಞ ಟ್ಟ ಟ್ಠ ಟ್ಡ ಟ್ಢ ಟ್ಣ ಟ್ತ ಟ್ಥ ಟ್ದ ಟ್ಧ ಟ್ನ ಟ್ಪ ಟ್ಫ ಟ್ಬ ಟ್ಭ ಟ್ಮ ಟ್ಯ ಟ್ರ ಟ್ಱ ಟ್ಲ ಟ್ವ ಟ್ಶ ಟ್ಷ ಟ್ಸ ಟ್ಹ ಟ್ಳ ಟ್ೞ
ಠ್ಕ ಠ್ಖ ಠ್ಗ ಠ್ಘ ಠ್ಙ ಠ್ಚ ಠ್ಛ ಠ್ಜ ಠ್ಝ ಠ್ಞ ಠ್ಟ ಠ್ಠ ಠ್ಡ ಠ್ಢ ಠ್ಣ ಠ್ತ ಠ್ಥ ಠ್ದ ಠ್ಧ ಠ್ನ ಠ್ಪ ಠ್ಫ ಠ್ಬ ಠ್ಭ ಠ್ಮ ಠ್ಯ ಠ್ರ ಠ್ಱ ಠ್ಲ ಠ್ವ ಠ್ಶ ಠ್ಷ ಠ್ಸ ಠ್ಹ ಠ್ಳ ಠ್ೞ
ಡ್ಕ ಡ್ಖ ಡ್ಗ ಡ್ಘ ಡ್ಙ ಡ್ಚ ಡ್ಛ ಡ್ಜ ಡ್ಝ ಡ್ಞ ಡ್ಟ ಡ್ಠ ಡ್ಡ ಡ್ಢ ಡ್ಣ ಡ್ತ ಡ್ಥ ಡ್ದ ಡ್ಧ ಡ್ನ ಡ್ಪ ಡ್ಫ ಡ್ಬ ಡ್ಭ ಡ್ಮ ಡ್ಯ ಡ್ರ ಡ್ಱ ಡ್ಲ ಡ್ವ ಡ್ಶ ಡ್ಷ ಡ್ಸ ಡ್ಹ ಡ್ಳ ಡ್ೞ
ಢ್ಕ ಢ್ಖ ಢ್ಗ ಢ್ಘ ಢ್ಙ ಢ್ಚ ಢ್ಛ ಢ್ಜ ಢ್ಝ ಢ್ಞ ಢ್ಟ ಢ್ಠ ಢ್ಡ ಢ್ಢ ಢ್ಣ ಢ್ತ ಢ್ಥ ಢ್ದ ಢ್ಧ ಢ್ನ ಢ್ಪ ಢ್ಫ ಢ್ಬ ಢ್ಭ ಢ್ಮ ಢ್ಯ ಢ್ರ ಢ್ಱ ಢ್ಲ ಢ್ವ ಢ್ಶ ಢ್ಷ ಢ್ಸ ಢ್ಹ ಢ್ಳ ಢ್ೞ
ಣ್ಕ ಣ್ಖ ಣ್ಗ ಣ್ಘ ಣ್ಙ ಣ್ಚ ಣ್ಛ ಣ್ಜ ಣ್ಝ ಣ್ಞ ಣ್ಟ ಣ್ಠ ಣ್ಡ ಣ್ಢ ಣ್ಣ ಣ್ತ ಣ್ಥ ಣ್ದ ಣ್ಧ ಣ್ನ ಣ್ಪ ಣ್ಫ ಣ್ಬ ಣ್ಭ ಣ್ಮ ಣ್ಯ ಣ್ರ ಣ್ಱ ಣ್ಲ ಣ್ವ ಣ್ಶ ಣ್ಷ ಣ್ಸ ಣ್ಹ ಣ್ಳ ಣ್ೞ
ತ್ಕ ತ್ಖ ತ್ಗ ತ್ಘ ತ್ಙ ತ್ಚ ತ್ಛ ತ್ಜ ತ್ಝ ತ್ಞ ತ್ಟ ತ್ಠ ತ್ಡ ತ್ಢ ತ್ಣ ತ್ತ ತ್ಥ ತ್ದ ತ್ಧ ತ್ನ ತ್ಪ ತ್ಫ ತ್ಬ ತ್ಭ ತ್ಮ ತ್ಯ ತ್ರ ತ್ಱ ತ್ಲ ತ್ವ ತ್ಶ ತ್ಷ ತ್ಸ ತ್ಹ ತ್ಳ ತ್ೞ
ಥ್ಕ ಥ್ಖ ಥ್ಗ ಥ್ಘ ಥ್ಙ ಥ್ಚ ಥ್ಛ ಥ್ಜ ಥ್ಝ ಥ್ಞ ಥ್ಟ ಥ್ಠ ಥ್ಡ ಥ್ಢ ಥ್ಣ ಥ್ತ ಥ್ಥ ಥ್ದ ಥ್ಧ ಥ್ನ ಥ್ಪ ಥ್ಫ ಥ್ಬ ಥ್ಭ ಥ್ಮ ಥ್ಯ ಥ್ರ ಥ್ಱ ಥ್ಲ ಥ್ವ ಥ್ಶ ಥ್ಷ ಥ್ಸ ಥ್ಹ ಥ್ಳ ಥ್ೞ
ದ್ಕ ದ್ಖ ದ್ಗ ದ್ಘ ದ್ಙ ದ್ಚ ದ್ಛ ದ್ಜ ದ್ಝ ದ್ಞ ದ್ಟ ದ್ಠ ದ್ಡ ದ್ಢ ದ್ಣ ದ್ತ ದ್ಥ ದ್ದ ದ್ಧ ದ್ನ ದ್ಪ ದ್ಫ ದ್ಬ ದ್ಭ ದ್ಮ ದ್ಯ ದ್ರ ದ್ಱ ದ್ಲ ದ್ವ ದ್ಶ ದ್ಷ ದ್ಸ ದ್ಹ ದ್ಳ ದ್ೞ
ಧ್ಕ ಧ್ಖ ಧ್ಗ ಧ್ಘ ಧ್ಙ ಧ್ಚ ಧ್ಛ ಧ್ಜ ಧ್ಝ ಧ್ಞ ಧ್ಟ ಧ್ಠ ಧ್ಡ ಧ್ಢ ಧ್ಣ ಧ್ತ ಧ್ಥ ಧ್ದ ಧ್ಧ ಧ್ನ ಧ್ಪ ಧ್ಫ ಧ್ಬ ಧ್ಭ ಧ್ಮ ಧ್ಯ ಧ್ರ ಧ್ಱ ಧ್ಲ ಧ್ವ ಧ್ಶ ಧ್ಷ ಧ್ಸ ಧ್ಹ ಧ್ಳ ಧ್ೞ
ನ್ಕ ನ್ಖ ನ್ಗ ನ್ಘ ನ್ಙ ನ್ಚ ನ್ಛ ನ್ಜ ನ್ಝ ನ್ಞ ನ್ಟ ನ್ಠ ನ್ಡ ನ್ಢ ನ್ಣ ನ್ತ ನ್ಥ ನ್ದ ನ್ಧ ನ್ನ ನ್ಪ ನ್ಫ ನ್ಬ ನ್ಭ ನ್ಮ ನ್ಯ ನ್ರ ನ್ಱ ನ್ಲ ನ್ವ ನ್ಶ ನ್ಷ ನ್ಸ ನ್ಹ ನ್ಳ ನ್ೞ
ಪ್ಕ ಪ್ಖ ಪ್ಗ ಪ್ಘ ಪ್ಙ ಪ್ಚ ಪ್ಛ ಪ್ಜ ಪ್ಝ ಪ್ಞ ಪ್ಟ ಪ್ಠ ಪ್ಡ ಪ್ಢ ಪ್ಣ ಪ್ತ ಪ್ಥ ಪ್ದ ಪ್ಧ ಪ್ನ ಪ್ಪ ಪ್ಫ ಪ್ಬ ಪ್ಭ ಪ್ಮ ಪ್ಯ ಪ್ರ ಪ್ಱ ಪ್ಲ ಪ್ವ ಪ್ಶ ಪ್ಷ ಪ್ಸ ಪ್ಹ ಪ್ಳ ಪ್ೞ
ಫ್ಕ ಫ್ಖ ಫ್ಗ ಫ್ಘ ಫ್ಙ ಫ್ಚ ಫ್ಛ ಫ್ಜ ಫ್ಝ ಫ್ಞ ಫ್ಟ ಫ್ಠ ಫ್ಡ ಫ್ಢ ಫ್ಣ ಫ್ತ ಫ್ಥ ಫ್ದ ಫ್ಧ ಫ್ನ ಫ್ಪ ಫ್ಫ ಫ್ಬ ಫ್ಭ ಫ್ಮ ಫ್ಯ ಫ್ರ ಫ್ಱ ಫ್ಲ ಫ್ವ ಫ್ಶ ಫ್ಷ ಫ್ಸ ಫ್ಹ ಫ್ಳ ಫ್ೞ
ಬ್ಕ ಬ್ಖ ಬ್ಗ ಬ್ಘ ಬ್ಙ ಬ್ಚ ಬ್ಛ ಬ್ಜ ಬ್ಝ ಬ್ಞ ಬ್ಟ ಬ್ಠ ಬ್ಡ ಬ್ಢ ಬ್ಣ ಬ್ತ ಬ್ಥ ಬ್ದ ಬ್ಧ ಬ್ನ ಬ್ಪ ಬ್ಫ ಬ್ಬ ಬ್ಭ ಬ್ಮ ಬ್ಯ ಬ್ರ ಬ್ಱ ಬ್ಲ ಬ್ವ ಬ್ಶ ಬ್ಷ ಬ್ಸ ಬ್ಹ ಬ್ಳ ಬ್ೞ
ಭ್ಕ ಭ್ಖ ಭ್ಗ ಭ್ಘ ಭ್ಙ ಭ್ಚ ಭ್ಛ ಭ್ಜ ಭ್ಝ ಭ್ಞ ಭ್ಟ ಭ್ಠ ಭ್ಡ ಭ್ಢ ಭ್ಣ ಭ್ತ ಭ್ಥ ಭ್ದ ಭ್ಧ ಭ್ನ ಭ್ಪ ಭ್ಫ ಭ್ಬ ಭ್ಭ ಭ್ಮ ಭ್ಯ ಭ್ರ ಭ್ಱ ಭ್ಲ ಭ್ವ ಭ್ಶ ಭ್ಷ ಭ್ಸ ಭ್ಹ ಭ್ಳ ಭ್ೞ
ಮ್ಕ ಮ್ಖ ಮ್ಗ ಮ್ಘ ಮ್ಙ ಮ್ಚ ಮ್ಛ ಮ್ಜ ಮ್ಝ ಮ್ಞ ಮ್ಟ ಮ್ಠ ಮ್ಡ ಮ್ಢ ಮ್ಣ ಮ್ತ ಮ್ಥ ಮ್ದ ಮ್ಧ ಮ್ನ ಮ್ಪ ಮ್ಫ ಮ್ಬ ಮ್ಭ ಮ್ಮ ಮ್ಯ ಮ್ರ ಮ್ಱ ಮ್ಲ ಮ್ವ ಮ್ಶ ಮ್ಷ ಮ್ಸ ಮ್ಹ ಮ್ಳ ಮ್ೞ
ಯ್ಕ ಯ್ಖ ಯ್ಗ ಯ್ಘ ಯ್ಙ ಯ್ಚ ಯ್ಛ ಯ್ಜ ಯ್ಝ ಯ್ಞ ಯ್ಟ ಯ್ಠ ಯ್ಡ ಯ್ಢ ಯ್ಣ ಯ್ತ ಯ್ಥ ಯ್ದ ಯ್ಧ ಯ್ನ ಯ್ಪ ಯ್ಫ ಯ್ಬ ಯ್ಭ ಯ್ಮ ಯ್ಯ ಯ್ರ ಯ್ಱ ಯ್ಲ ಯ್ವ ಯ್ಶ ಯ್ಷ ಯ್ಸ ಯ್ಹ ಯ್ಳ ಯ್ೞ
ರ‍್ಕ ರ‍್ಖ ರ‍್ಗ ರ‍್ಘ ರ‍್ಙ ರ‍್ಚ ರ‍್ಛ ರ‍್ಜ ರ‍್ಝ ರ‍್ಞ ರ‍್ಟ ರ‍್ಠ ರ‍್ಡ ರ‍್ಢ ರ‍್ಣ ರ‍್ತ ರ‍್ಥ ರ‍್ದ ರ‍್ಧ ರ‍್ನ ರ‍್ಪ ರ‍್ಫ ರ‍್ಬ ರ‍್ಭ ರ‍್ಮ ರ‍್ಯ ರ‍್ರ ರ‍್ಱ ರ‍್ಲ ರ‍್ವ ರ‍್ಶ ರ‍್ಷ ರ‍್ಸ ರ‍್ಹ ರ‍್ಳ ರ‍್ೞ
ಱ್ಕ ಱ್ಖ ಱ್ಗ ಱ್ಘ ಱ್ಙ ಱ್ಚ ಱ್ಛ ಱ್ಜ ಱ್ಝ ಱ್ಞ ಱ್ಟ ಱ್ಠ ಱ್ಡ ಱ್ಢ ಱ್ಣ ಱ್ತ ಱ್ಥ ಱ್ದ ಱ್ಧ ಱ್ನ ಱ್ಪ ಱ್ಫ ಱ್ಬ ಱ್ಭ ಱ್ಮ ಱ್ಯ ಱ್ರ ಱ್ಱ ಱ್ಲ ಱ್ವ ಱ್ಶ ಱ್ಷ ಱ್ಸ ಱ್ಹ ಱ್ಳ ಱ್ೞ
ಲ್ಕ ಲ್ಖ ಲ್ಗ ಲ್ಘ ಲ್ಙ ಲ್ಚ ಲ್ಛ ಲ್ಜ ಲ್ಝ ಲ್ಞ ಲ್ಟ ಲ್ಠ ಲ್ಡ ಲ್ಢ ಲ್ಣ ಲ್ತ ಲ್ಥ ಲ್ದ ಲ್ಧ ಲ್ನ ಲ್ಪ ಲ್ಫ ಲ್ಬ ಲ್ಭ ಲ್ಮ ಲ್ಯ ಲ್ರ ಲ್ಱ ಲ್ಲ ಲ್ವ ಲ್ಶ ಲ್ಷ ಲ್ಸ ಲ್ಹ ಲ್ಳ ಲ್ೞ
ವ್ಕ ವ್ಖ ವ್ಗ ವ್ಘ ವ್ಙ ವ್ಚ ವ್ಛ ವ್ಜ ವ್ಝ ವ್ಞ ವ್ಟ ವ್ಠ ವ್ಡ ವ್ಢ ವ್ಣ ವ್ತ ವ್ಥ ವ್ದ ವ್ಧ ವ್ನ ವ್ಪ ವ್ಫ ವ್ಬ ವ್ಭ ವ್ಮ ವ್ಯ ವ್ರ ವ್ಱ ವ್ಲ ವ್ವ ವ್ಶ ವ್ಷ ವ್ಸ ವ್ಹ ವ್ಳ ವ್ೞ
ಶ್ಕ ಶ್ಖ ಶ್ಗ ಶ್ಘ ಶ್ಙ ಶ್ಚ ಶ್ಛ ಶ್ಜ ಶ್ಝ ಶ್ಞ ಶ್ಟ ಶ್ಠ ಶ್ಡ ಶ್ಢ ಶ್ಣ ಶ್ತ ಶ್ಥ ಶ್ದ ಶ್ಧ ಶ್ನ ಶ್ಪ ಶ್ಫ ಶ್ಬ ಶ್ಭ ಶ್ಮ ಶ್ಯ ಶ್ರ ಶ್ಱ ಶ್ಲ ಶ್ವ ಶ್ಶ ಶ್ಷ ಶ್ಸ ಶ್ಹ ಶ್ಳ ಶ್ೞ
ಷ್ಕ ಷ್ಖ ಷ್ಗ ಷ್ಘ ಷ್ಙ ಷ್ಚ ಷ್ಛ ಷ್ಜ ಷ್ಝ ಷ್ಞ ಷ್ಟ ಷ್ಠ ಷ್ಡ ಷ್ಢ ಷ್ಣ ಷ್ತ ಷ್ಥ ಷ್ದ ಷ್ಧ ಷ್ನ ಷ್ಪ ಷ್ಫ ಷ್ಬ ಷ್ಭ ಷ್ಮ ಷ್ಯ ಷ್ರ ಷ್ಱ ಷ್ಲ ಷ್ವ ಷ್ಶ ಷ್ಷ ಷ್ಸ ಷ್ಹ ಷ್ಳ ಷ್ೞ
ಸ್ಕ ಸ್ಖ ಸ್ಗ ಸ್ಘ ಸ್ಙ ಸ್ಚ ಸ್ಛ ಸ್ಜ ಸ್ಝ ಸ್ಞ ಸ್ಟ ಸ್ಠ ಸ್ಡ ಸ್ಢ ಸ್ಣ ಸ್ತ ಸ್ಥ ಸ್ದ ಸ್ಧ ಸ್ನ ಸ್ಪ ಸ್ಫ ಸ್ಬ ಸ್ಭ ಸ್ಮ ಸ್ಯ ಸ್ರ ಸ್ಱ ಸ್ಲ ಸ್ವ ಸ್ಶ ಸ್ಷ ಸ್ಸ ಸ್ಹ ಸ್ಳ ಸ್ೞ
ಹ್ಕ ಹ್ಖ ಹ್ಗ ಹ್ಘ ಹ್ಙ ಹ್ಚ ಹ್ಛ ಹ್ಜ ಹ್ಝ ಹ್ಞ ಹ್ಟ ಹ್ಠ ಹ್ಡ ಹ್ಢ ಹ್ಣ ಹ್ತ ಹ್ಥ ಹ್ದ ಹ್ಧ ಹ್ನ ಹ್ಪ ಹ್ಫ ಹ್ಬ ಹ್ಭ ಹ್ಮ ಹ್ಯ ಹ್ರ ಹ್ಱ ಹ್ಲ ಹ್ವ ಹ್ಶ ಹ್ಷ ಹ್ಸ ಹ್ಹ ಹ್ಳ ಹ್ೞ
ಳ್ಕ ಳ್ಖ ಳ್ಗ ಳ್ಘ ಳ್ಙ ಳ್ಚ ಳ್ಛ ಳ್ಜ ಳ್ಝ ಳ್ಞ ಳ್ಟ ಳ್ಠ ಳ್ಡ ಳ್ಢ ಳ್ಣ ಳ್ತ ಳ್ಥ ಳ್ದ ಳ್ಧ ಳ್ನ ಳ್ಪ ಳ್ಫ ಳ್ಬ ಳ್ಭ ಳ್ಮ ಳ್ಯ ಳ್ರ ಳ್ಱ ಳ್ಲ ಳ್ವ ಳ್ಶ ಳ್ಷ ಳ್ಸ ಳ್ಹ ಳ್ಳ ಳ್ೞ
ೞ್ಕ ೞ್ಖ ೞ್ಗ ೞ್ಘ ೞ್ಙ ೞ್ಚ ೞ್ಛ ೞ್ಜ ೞ್ಝ ೞ್ಞ ೞ್ಟ ೞ್ಠ ೞ್ಡ ೞ್ಢ ೞ್ಣ ೞ್ತ ೞ್ಥ ೞ್ದ ೞ್ಧ ೞ್ನ ೞ್ಪ ೞ್ಫ ೞ್ಬ ೞ್ಭ ೞ್ಮ ೞ್ಯ ೞ್ರ ೞ್ಱ ೞ್ಲ ೞ್ವ ೞ್ಶ ೞ್ಷ ೞ್ಸ ೞ್ಹ ೞ್ಳ ೞ್ೞ
Kannada Devanagari Pronunciation
[a]
[aː]
[i]
[iː]
[u]
[uː]
[rɨ]
[e]
[eː]
[eʲ]
[o]
[oː]
[oʷ]
ಅಂ अं [am]
ಅಃ अः [ah]
[ka]
[kʰa]
[ɡa]
[ɡʱa]
[ŋa]
[tʃa]
[tʃʰa]
[dʒa]
[dʒʱa]
[ɲa]
[ʈa]
[ʈʰa]
[ɖa]
[ɖʱa]
[ɳa]
[t̪a]
[t̪ʰa]
[d̪a]
[d̪ʱa]
[n̪a]
[pa]
[pʰa]
[ba]
[bʱa]
[ma]
[ja]
[ra]
[ṟa]
[l̪a]
[ʋa]
[ça]
[ʂa]
[sa]
[ħa]
[ɭa]
[ḻa]
Letter Animation
a Kannada-alphabet-a
ā Kannada-alphabet-aa
i Kannada-alphabet-e
ī Kannada-alphabet-ee
u Kannada-alphabet-u
ū Kannada-alphabet-uu
Kannada-alphabet-ru
e Kannada-alphabet-ae
ē Kannada-alphabet-aee
ai Kannada-alphabet-ai
o Kannada-alphabet-o
ō Kannada-alphabet-oo
au Kannada-alphabet-ou
aṁ Kannada-alphabet-am
aḥ Kannada-Alphabet-Aha
ka Kannada-alphabet-ka
kha Kannada-alphabet-kha
ga Kannada-alphabet-ga
gha Kannada-alphabet-gha
ṅa Kannada-alphabet-knha
ca Kannada-alphabet-cha
cha Kannada-alphabet-chha
ja Kannada-alphabet-ja
jha Kannada-alphabet-jha
ña Kannada-alphabet-chna
a Kannada-alphabet-ta
ṭha Kannada-alphabet-tta
ḍa Kannada-alphabet-da
ḍha Kannada-alphabet-dda
ṇa Kannada-alphabet-nna
ta Kannada-alphabet-tha
tha Kannada-alphabet-thha
da Kannada-alphabet-dha
dha Kannada-alphabet-dhha
na Kannada-alphabet-na
pa Kannada-alphabet-pa
pha Kannada-alphabet-pha
ba Kannada-alphabet-ba
bha Kannada-alphabet-bha
ma Kannada-alphabet-ma
ya Kannada-alphabet-ya
ra Kannada-alphabet-ra
la Kannada-alphabet-la
va Kannada-alphabet-va
śa Kannada-alphabet-sha
ṣa Kannada-alphabet-shha
sa Kannada-alphabet-sa
ha Kannada-alphabet-ha
ḷa Kannada-alphabet-lla
Kannada language

Languages

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