Kangchenjunga, also spelled Kanchenjunga, is the third highest mountain in the world. It rises with an elevation of 8,586 m (28,169 ft) in a section of the Himalayas called Kangchenjunga Himal delimited in the west by the Tamur River, in the north by the Lhonak Chu and Jongsang La, and in the east by the Teesta River. It lies between Nepal and Sikkim, India, with three of the five peaks (Main, Central, and South) directly on the border, and the remaining two (West and Kangbachen) in Nepal's Taplejung District.
Until 1852, Kangchenjunga was assumed to be the highest mountain in the world, but calculations based on various readings and measurements made by the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India in 1849 came to the conclusion that Mount Everest, known as Peak XV at the time, was the highest. Allowing for further verification of all calculations, it was officially announced in 1856 that Kangchenjunga is the third highest mountain in the world.
Kangchenjunga was first climbed on 25 May 1955 by Joe Brown and George Band, who were part of a British expedition. They stopped short of the summit in accordance with the promise given to the Chogyal that the top of the mountain would remain intact. Every climber or climbing group that has reached the summit has followed this tradition. Other members of this expedition included John Angelo Jackson and Tom Mackinon.
Kangchenjunga viewed from Tiger Hill, Darjeeling, India
|Elevation||8,586 m (28,169 ft) |
|Prominence||3,922 m (12,867 ft) |
|Isolation||124 kilometres (77 mi)|
Location of Kangchenjunga
Kangchenjunga (Province No. 1)
|Location||Taplejung District, Nepal;|
|First ascent||25 May 1955 by|
Joe Brown and George Band
(First winter ascent 11 January 1986 Jerzy Kukuczka and Krzysztof Wielicki)
|Easiest route||glacier/snow/ice climb|
Kangchenjunga is the official spelling adopted by Douglas Freshfield, Alexander Mitchell Kellas, and the Royal Geographical Society that gives the best indication of the Tibetan pronunciation. Freshfield referred to the spelling used by the Indian Government since the late 19th century. There are a number of alternative spellings including Kangchendzönga, Khangchendzonga, and Kanchenjunga.
The brothers Hermann, Adolf and Robert Schlagintweit explained the local name 'Kanchinjínga' meaning “The five treasures of the high snow” as originating from the Tibetan word "gangs" pronounced [kaŋ] meaning snow, ice; "chen" pronounced [tɕen] meaning great; "mzod" meaning treasure; "lnga" meaning five.
Local Lhopo people believe that the treasures are hidden but reveal to the devout when the world is in peril; the treasures comprise salt, gold, turquoise and precious stones, sacred scriptures, invincible armor or ammunition, grain, and medicine.
Its name in Chinese is 干城章嘉峰 (Gānchéng zhāngjiāfēng).
The Kangchenjunga landscape is a complex of three distinct ecoregions: the eastern Himalayan broad-leaved and coniferous forests, the Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows, and the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands. The Kangchenjunga transboundary landscape is shared by Bhutan, China, India, and Nepal, and comprises 14 protected areas with a total of 6,032 km2 (2,329 sq mi):
These protected areas are habitats for many globally significant plant species such as rhododendrons and orchids and many endangered flagship species such as snow leopard, Asian black bear, red panda, white-bellied musk deer, blood pheasant, and chestnut-breasted partridge.
The Kangchenjunga Himal section of the Himalayas lies both in Nepal and India and encompasses 16 peaks over 7,000 m (23,000 ft). In the north, it is limited by the Lhonak Chu, Goma Chu, and Jongsang La, and in the east by the Teesta River. The western limit runs from the Jongsang La down the Gingsang and Kangchenjunga glaciers and the rivers of Ghunsa and Tamur. Kanchenjunga rises about 20 km (12 mi) south of the general alignment of the Great Himalayan range about 125 km (78 mi) east-southeast of Mount Everest as the crow flies. South of the southern face of Kanchenjunga runs the 3,000–3,500 m (9,800–11,500 ft) high Singalila Ridge that separates Sikkim from Nepal and northern West Bengal.
Kangchenjunga and its satellite peaks form a huge mountain massif. The massif's five highest peaks are listed in the following table.
|Name of peak||Height (m)||Height (ft)||Location||Prominence (m)||Prominence (ft)||Nearest Higher Neighbor||Location (political)|
|Kangchenjunga Main||8,586||28,169||3,922||12,867||Mount Everest – South Summit||North Sikkim, Sikkim, India / Taplejung, Province No. 1, Nepal|
|Kangchenjunga West (Yalung Kang)||8,505||27,904||135||443||Kangchenjunga||Taplejung, Province No. 1, Nepal|
|Kangchenjunga Central||8,482||27,828||32||105||Kangchenjunga South||North Sikkim, Sikkim, India / Taplejung, Province No. 1, Nepal|
|Kangchenjunga South||8,494||27,867||119||390||Kangchenjunga||North Sikkim, Sikkim, India / Taplejung, Province No. 1, Nepal|
|Kangbachen||7,903||25,928||103||337||Kangchenjunga West||Taplejung, Province No. 1, Nepal|
The main ridge of the massif runs from north-northeast to south-southwest and forms a watershed to several rivers. Together with ridges running roughly from east to west they form a giant cross. These ridges contain a host of peaks between 6,000 and 8,586 m (19,685 and 28,169 ft). The northern section includes Yalung Kang, Kangchenjunga Central and South, Kangbachen, Kirat Chuli, and Gimmigela Chuli, and runs up to the Jongsang La. The eastern ridge in Sikkim includes Siniolchu. The southern section runs along the Nepal-Sikkim border and includes Kabru I to III. This ridge extends southwards to the Singalila Ridge. The western ridge culminates in the Kumbhakarna, also known as Jannu.
Four main glaciers radiate from the peak, pointing roughly to the northeast, southeast, northwest, and southwest. The Zemu glacier in the northeast and the Talung glacier in the southeast drain to the Teesta River; the Yalung glacier in the southwest and the Kangchen glacier in the northwest drain to the Arun and Kosi rivers. The glaciers spread over the area above approximately 5,000 m (16,000 ft), and the glacialized area covers about 314 km2 (121 sq mi) in total. There are 120 glaciers in the Kanchenjunga Himal, of which 17 are debris-covered. Between 1958 and 1992, more than half of 57 examined glaciers had retreated, possibly due to rising of air temperature.
Kangchenjunga Main is the highest elevation of the Brahmaputra River basin, which forms part of the southeast Asian monsoon regime and is among the globally largest river basins. Kangchenjunga is one of six peaks above 8,000 m (26,000 ft) located in the basin of the Koshi river, which is among the largest tributaries of the Ganges. The Kangchenjunga massif forms also part of the Ganges Basin.
Although it is the third highest peak in the world, Kangchenjunga is only ranked 29th by topographic prominence, a measure of a mountain's independent stature. The key col for Kangchenjunga lies at a height of 4,664 metres (15,302 ft), along the watershed boundary between Arun and Brahmaputra rivers in Tibet. It is however, the 4th most prominent peak in the Himalaya, after Everest, and the western and eastern anchors of the Himalaya, Nanga Parbat, and Namcha Barwa, respectively.
There are four climbing routes to reach the summit of Kangchenjunga, three of which are in Nepal from the southwest, northwest, and northeast, and one from northeastern Sikkim in India. To date, the northeastern route from Sikkim has been successfully used only three times. The Indian government has banned expeditions to Kanchenjunga; therefore, this route has been closed since 2000.
In 1955, Joe Brown and George Band made the first ascent on 25 May, followed by Norman Hardie and Tony Streather on 26 May. The full team also included John Clegg (team doctor), Charles Evans (team leader), John Angelo Jackson, Neil Mather, and Tom Mackinnon.
The ascent proved that Aleister Crowley's 1905 route (also investigated by the 1954 reconnaissance) was viable. The route starts on the Yalung Glacier to the southwest of the peak, and climbs the Yalung Face, which is 3,000 metres (10,000 ft) high. The main feature of this face is the "Great Shelf", a large sloping plateau at around 7,500 metres (24,600 ft), covered by a hanging glacier. The route is almost entirely on snow, glacier, and one icefall; the summit ridge itself can involve a small amount of travel on rock. The first ascent expedition made six camps above their base camp, two below the Shelf, two on it, and two above it. They started on 18 April, and everyone was back to base camp by 28 May.
Despite improved climbing gear the fatality rate of climbers attempting to summit Kanchenjunga is high. Since the 1990s, more than 20% of people died while climbing Kanchenjunga's main peak.
Because of its remote location in Nepal and the difficulty involved in accessing it from India, the Kangchenjunga region is not much explored by trekkers. It has, therefore, retained much of its pristine beauty. In Sikkim too, trekking into the Kangchenjunga region has just recently been permitted. The Goecha La trek is gaining popularity amongst tourists. It goes to the Goecha La Pass, located right in front of the huge southeast face of Kangchenjunga. Another trek to Green Lake Basin has recently been opened for trekking. This trek goes to the Northeast side of Kangchenjunga along the famous Zemu Glacier. The film Singalila in the Himalaya is journey around Kangchenjunga.
The area around Kangchenjunga is said to be home to a mountain deity, called Dzö-nga or "Kangchenjunga Demon", a type of yeti or rakshasa. A British geological expedition in 1925 spotted a bipedal creature which they asked the locals about, who referred to it as the "Kangchenjunga Demon".
For generations, there have been legends recounted by the inhabitants of the areas surrounding Mount Kanchenjunga, both in Sikkim and in Nepal, that there is a valley of immortality hidden on its slopes. These stories are well known to both the original inhabitants of the area, the Lepcha people, and those of the Tibetan Buddhist cultural tradition. In Tibetan, this valley is known as Beyul Demoshong. In 1962 a Tibetan Lama by the name of Tulshuk Lingpa led over 300 followers into the high snow slopes of Kanchenjunga to ‘open the way’ to Beyul Demoshong. The story of this expedition is recounted in the 2011 book A Step Away from Paradise.
The above Himalayan Journal References were all also reproduced in the "50th Anniversary of the First Ascent of Kangchenjunga" The Himalayan Club, Kolkata Section 2005.
Edurne Pasaban Lizarribar (born August 1, 1973) is a Basque Spanish mountaineer. On May 17, 2010, she became the 21st person and either the first woman to climb all of the fourteen eight-thousander peaks in the World. Her first 8,000 peak had been achieved 9 years earlier, on May 23, 2001, when she climbed to the summit of Mount Everest.Eight-thousander
The International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation or UIAA recognise eight-thousanders as the 14 mountains that are more than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) in height above sea level, and are considered to be sufficiently independent from neighbouring peaks. However, there is no precise definition of the criteria used to assess independence, and since 2012 the UIAA has been involved in a process to consider whether the list should be expanded to 20 mountains. All eight-thousanders are located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia, and their summits are in the death zone.
The first person to summit all 14 eight-thousanders was Italian Reinhold Messner in 1986, who completed the feat without the aid of supplementary oxygen. In 2010, Spaniard Edurne Pasaban became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders, but with the aid of supplementary oxygen; in 2011 Austrian Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders without the aid of supplementary oxygen. From 1950–1964, all eight-thousanders were summited. As of May 2019, K2 remains the only eight-thousander not summited in a Winter ascent.Frank Smythe
Francis Sydney Smythe, better known as Frank Smythe or F. S. Smythe (6 July 1900, Maidstone, Kent – 27 June 1949), was an English mountaineer, author, photographer and botanist. He is best remembered for his mountaineering in the Alps as well as in the Himalayas, where he identified a region that he named the "Valley of Flowers", now a protected park. His ascents include two new routes on the Brenva Face of Mont Blanc, Kamet, and attempts on Kangchenjunga and Mount Everest in the 1930s. It was said that he had a tendency for irascibility, something some of his mountaineering contemporaries said "decreased with altitude".
Smythe was educated in Switzerland after an initial period at Berkhamsted School, trained as an electrical engineer and worked for brief periods with the Royal Air Force and Kodak before devoting himself to writing and public lecturing. Smythe enjoyed mountaineering, photography, collecting plants, and gardening; he toured as a lecturer; and he wrote a total of twenty seven books.
Smythe's focused approach is well documented, not only through his own writings, but by his contemporaries and later works.
Among his many public lectures, Smythe gave at least several to the Royal Geographical Society, his first being in 1931 titled "Explorations in Garhwal around Kamet", his second in 1947 titled "An Expedition to the Lloyd George Mountains, North-East British Columbia".
Smythe was a prodigious writer and produced many popular books. However his book "The Kangchenjunga Adventure" launched Smythe as a legitimate and respected author.During the Second World War he served in the Canadian Rockies as a mountaineer training officer for the Lovat Scouts. He went on to write two books about climbing in the Rockies, Rocky Mountains (1948) and Climbs in the Canadian Rockies (1951). Mount Smythe (10,650 ft) was named in his honour.
In 1949, in Delhi, he was taken ill with food poisoning; then a succession of malaria attacks took their toll. He died on 27 June 1949, two weeks before his 49th birthday.Gimmigela Chuli
Gimmigela Chuli, or The Twins, is a mountain in the Himalayas, located on the border between Taplejung, Mechi, Nepal and Sikkim, India. It has an elevation of 7,350 m (24,110 ft) above sea level and is situated approximately 4.2 km (2.6 mi) NNE from Kangchenjunga, the third highest peak on Earth.
The mountain has a subpeak, Gimmigela Chuli II (elevation = 7,005 metres; prominence = 185m). This subpeak, sometimes referred to as "Gimmigela's Sister", lies entirely within India. Together the two peaks, Gimmigela I and Gimmigela II, are known as "The Twins".Kabru
Kabru is a mountain in the Himalayas on the border of eastern Nepal and India. It is part of a ridge that extends south from Kangchenjunga and is the southernmost 7,000 metres (23,000 ft) peak in the world.
The main features of this ridge are as follows (north to south):
Kangchenjunga south top, 8476 m, at 27°41′30″N 88°09′15″E
A 6600–6700 m saddle, located at 27°39′51″N 88°09′39″E
A 7349 m summit, known as Talung, at 27°39′18″N 88°07′51″E
A 6983 m saddle, at 27°38′51″N 88°07′21″E
A 7412 m summit, at 27°38′06″N 88°07′06″E. This point has sufficient prominence to be classified as the highest point of a separate mountain, according to the definition used in List of highest mountains. It is confusingly referred to by some authorities as "Kabru IV", but it is not clear that this is correct, or that any "Kabru" name is correctly applied to this summit.
A substantial "field of firn" measuring about 2 km from north to south, and 1 km from east to west. This is almost entirely over 7200 m, and the watershed divide that runs through this field does not drop below this height.
A 7338 m summit, at ca. 27°37′09″N 88°07′28″E, at the eastern boundary of the field of firn. This point is known as Kabru North. Although it is lower than the 7412 m summit, it has been at times considered to be Kabru's highest point, with the higher summit considered to be an unnamed summit along the ridge to Kangchenjunga.
An intervening c.7200 m saddle
A 7318 m summit, at 27°36′30″N 88°06′42″E, known as Kabru South is the southernmost "7000 m peak" in the world.To the south west of Kabru south, there is a 6400 m saddle and a 6682 m summit known as Rathong. To its south east is the 6600 m Kabru Dome.Khangchendzonga National Park
Khangchendzonga National Park also Kanchenjunga Biosphere Reserve is a National Park and a Biosphere reserve located in Sikkim, India. It was inscribed to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list in July 2016, becoming the first "Mixed Heritage" site of India. It was recently included in the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme. The park gets its name from the mountain Kangchenjunga (alternative spelling Khangchendzonga) which is 8,586 metres (28,169 ft) tall, the third-highest peak in the world. The total area of this park is 849.5 km2 (328.0 sq mi).Kinga Baranowska
Kinga Baranowska (born 17 November 1975 in Wejherowo) is a Polish mountaineer. She currently lives in Warsaw.Kinga summited her first eight-thousander, Cho Oyu, in 2003. She failed on an attempt to reach one of the most difficult seven-thousanders, Jengish Chokusu in Tian-Shan range. In 2006, she successfully reached the top of Broad Peak. On June 11, 2007, she summited Mount McKinley, following this up just five weeks later - on July 18 - with a successful climb of Nanga Parbat. One year later, she summited Dhaulagiri (May 1, 2008) – her first attempt to reach the summit from north-east face, in September 2007, failed.
Ms. Baranowska summited Dhaulagiri along with other prestigious climbers on May 1, 2008. Fellow summitters included: Ivan Vallejo (his 14th 8000er), Ferrán Latorre, Nacho Orviz, Fernando Gonzalez-Rubio, Edurne Pasaban (her 10th 8000er), Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner (her 11th 8000er), David Göttler, Carlos Pauner (his 8th 8000er), Marta Alejandre, Asier izaguirre, Alex Txicon, Muptu Sherpa and Kinga Baranowska Dhaulagiri in 40 km/h winds, thunder and lightning on the summit.
On 18 May 2009, Kinga Baranowska became the first Polish woman (Alpinus Expedition Team, KW Warsaw) to summit Kangchenjunga (8586 m), which is located on the India-Nepal border. Kangchenjunga has been summited in high winds - however, descent on Kang is reportedly very difficult.Kinga Baranowska is the first Polish female climber to reach the collective summits of Dhaulagiri, Manaslu and Kangchenjunga. Kinga’s summits include: Cho Oyu (8201 m) - October, 2003; Broad Peak (8047 m) - July 22, 2006 - the 11th female ascent; Nanga Parbat (8125 m) July 18, 2007; Dhaulagiri (8167 m) May 1, 2008; Manaslu (8156 m) October 5, 2008; Kangchenjunga (8586 m) May 18, 2009; Annapurna (8091 m) April 27, 2010; Lhotse (8516 m) May 25, 2012; Gasherbrum II (8035 m) July 17, 2015. She attempted Makalu (8481 m) in May 2013, but failed to reach summit due to early monsoon.She climbs without the use of supplemental oxygen.List of deaths on eight-thousanders
The eight-thousanders are the 14 mountains that rise more than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) above sea level; they are all in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges.
This is a list of mountaineers who have died on these mountains.List of highest mountains on Earth
There are at least 109 mountains on Earth with elevations greater than 7,200 metres (23,622 ft) above sea level. The vast majority of these mountains are located on the edge of the Indian and Eurasian continental plates. Only those summits are included that, by an objective measure, may be considered individual mountains as opposed to subsidiary peaks.List of mountains in Nepal
Nepal contains part of the Himalayas, the highest mountain range in the world. Eight of the fourteen eight-thousanders are located in the country, either in whole or shared across a border with China or India. Nepal has the highest mountain in the world, Mount Everest.Michael Groom (climber)
Michael Groom (born 1959) is an Australian mountain climber. In 1995, Groom became the fourth person ever to summit the four highest mountains in the world (Lhotse, Kangchenjunga, K2 and Everest) without the aid of bottled oxygen. He proceeded to climb the fifth-highest, Makalu, in 1999. In 1987 he lost the front third of his feet to frostbite descending from his successful summit of Kangchenjunga. Despite this, he later managed to summit Mount Everest in 1993 and again in 1996. He acted as a guide for Adventure Consultants during the 1996 Mount Everest disaster, which he survived and subsequently described in his 1997 autobiography. In the 2015 film Everest, Groom was portrayed by actor Tom Wright.Nanda Devi
Nanda Devi (Hindi: नन्दा देवी) is the second highest mountain in India, and the highest located entirely within the country. (Kangchenjunga, which is higher, is on the border of India and Nepal.) It is the 23rd-highest peak in the world. It was considered the highest mountain in the world before computations in 1808 proved Dhaulagiri to be higher. It was also the highest mountain in India until 1975 when Sikkim, the state in which Kangchenjunga is located, joined the Republic of India. It is part of the Garhwal Himalayas, and is located in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand, between the Rishiganga valley on the west and the Goriganga valley on the east. The peak, whose name means "Bliss-Giving Goddess", is regarded as the patron-goddess of the Uttarakhand Himalaya. In acknowledgment of its religious significance and for the protection of its fragile ecosystem, the peak as well as the circle of high mountains surrounding it—the Nanda Devi sanctuary—were closed to both locals and climbers in 1983. The surrounding Nanda Devi National Park was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988.Oh Eun-sun
Oh Eun-sun (Korean: 오은선, Hanja: 吳銀善, born March 5, 1966) is a South Korean female mountaineer. She is the first Korean woman to climb the Seven Summits. On April 27, 2010, she reached the Annapurna summit. Oh claimed she had climbed all fourteen eight-thousanders, which would have made her the first woman to achieve this feat, but her claim to have ascended Kangchenjunga was disputed by multiple experts. Oh Eun-sun later admitted that she had to stop a few meters before the Kangchenjunga summit — therefore the Korean Alpine Federation ruled that Oh did not climb that peak, and the mountaineering site ExplorersWeb considered that Edurne Pasaban is the first woman to have successfully climbed all fourteen peaks.Oxford University Mountaineering Club
The Oxford University Mountaineering Club (OUMC) was founded in 1909 by Arnold Lunn, then a Balliol undergraduate; he did not earn a degree.The club has taken a significant part in the development of mountaineering in the United Kingdom, and many famous British climbers have been members of the club. Andrew Irvine was at Merton College and was a member of the OUMC at the time of his fatal attempt to climb Everest with George Mallory. Tom Bourdillon (whose father was one of the club's founders), Charles Evans and Michael Westmacott, all former members of the OUMC, were members of the successful 1953 British Expedition to Everest. Evans was Deputy Leader to John Hunt on that expedition, Bourdillon was responsible for the oxygen apparatus, and Westmacott was in charge of keeping the dangerous passage through the Khumbu Icefall open. Bourdillon and Evans made the first attempt on the summit, on 26 May 1953, three days before the successful climb by Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay. They reached the South Summit (at 8750 m then the highest summit to have been climbed), but had to turn back due to severe exhaustion. Charles Evans was later the Leader of the first successful expedition to Kangchenjunga in 1955.Stephen Venables was the first British climber to climb Everest without using an oxygen cylinder; he climbed to the South Col via the Kangshung Face, creating a new route, and then went solo to the summit, as his colleagues were exhausted.The club has sent exploratory mountaineering expeditions to mountain ranges all over the world. It claims first ascents of peaks in such places as Greenland, the Himalayas, the Karakoram, Kishtwar, Peru, Spitsbergen, and Wakhan.Sandakphu
Sandakphu or Sandakfu or Sandakpur (3636 m; 11,930 ft) is the highest peak in the district of Ilam, Nepal and West Bengal, India. It is the highest point of the Singalila Ridge in Darjeeling district on the West Bengal-Nepal border. The peak is located at the edge of the Singalila National Park and has a small village on the summit with a few hotels. Four of the five highest peaks in the world, Everest, Kangchenjunga, Lhotse and Makalu can be seen from its summit. It also affords a pristine view of the entire Kangchenjunga Range.Siniolchu
Siniolchu is one of the tallest mountains of the Indian state of Sikkim. The 6,888 metres (22,598 ft) mountain is considered to be particularly aesthetically attractive, having been described by Douglas Freshfield as "the most superb triumph of mountain architecture and the most beautiful snow mountain in the world". It is situated near the green lake adjacent to Kangchenjunga, the highest peak in the state and third highest in the world.
Siniolchu’s summit was first scaled in 1936 by the German climbers Karl Wien and Adi Göttner. Later Sikkimese Everest climber, Sonam Gyatso, also scaled the top.Taplejung Airport
Taplejung Airport (IATA: TPJ, ICAO: VNTJ), also known asSuketar Airport is an airport serving Taplejung, in the Taplejung district of the Mechi zone in Eastern Nepal. It is the gateway for tourists heading to the Kangchenjunga mountainous area and Pathibhara Devi Temple. After its runway was blacktopped, Taplejung Airport restarted scheduled service in 2016.Tiger Hill, Darjeeling
Tiger Hill (2,567 m) is located in Darjeeling, in the Indian State of West Bengal, and is the summit of Ghoom, the highest railway station in the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway – a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It has a panoramic view of Mount Everest and Mount Kangchenjunga together.
It is 11 km from the town of Darjeeling and can be reached either by jeep or by foot through Chowrasta, Alubari or Jorebangla and then climbing up the incline to the summit.
At sunrise, the peaks of Kangchenjunga are illuminated before the sun is seen at lower elevations. From Tiger Hill, Mount Everest (8848m) is just visible. Makalu (8481m) looks higher than Mt. Everest, owing to the curvature of the Earth, as it is several miles closer than Everest. The distance in a straight line from Tiger Hill to Everest is 107 miles (172 km).On a clear day, Kurseong is visible to the south and in the distance, along with Teesta River, Mahanada River, Balason River and Mechi River meandering down to the south. Chumal Rhi mountain of Tibet, 84 miles (135 km) away, is visible over the Chola Range.Senchal Wildlife Sanctuary is close to Tiger Hill.