Kandyba or Candyba (Hittite: Hinduwa, Lycian: Xākbi, Ancient Greek: Κάνδυβα, Latin: Candyba) was a settlement in ancient Lycia, in modern-day Antalya province on the southwestern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The modern Turkish village next to the ruins of ancient Kandyba is named Çataloluk.
The ancient settlement is set on a hilltop high above the plain of Kasaba, 13 kilometres north of Kaş. The modern village is located to the south of the ruins.
Since it was in the Roman province of Lycia, the bishopric of Candyba was a suffragan of the metropolitan see of Myra, the province's capital. The names of two of its bishops are preserved in extant records. Constantinus took part in the Second Council of Nicaea in 787; and Basilius was at the Photian Council of Constantinople (879).
Some of the rock tombs are beautifully executed. One perfect inscription in Lycian characters was found. A coin procured on the spot from the peasantry had the letters KAND on it.
Ain Saar (8 August 1968) is a Võro punk rocker, and freedom fighter, the leader of the group Vaba-Sõltumatu Noorte Kolonn Nr.1 (Free Independent Youth Column No. 1) of December 20, 1987, which struggled against the Soviet rule. He was exiled in 1988 by the authorities of Estonian SSR to Sweden where he lived in Skarpnäck, Stockholm.
In 2006, he campaigned for the removal of the Bronze Soldier of Tallinn.Grigory Isayev
Grigory Zinovyevich Isayev (Russian: Григорий Зиновьевич Исаев; born 1943) is a Russian politician and labor activist. He is the leader of the Samara Stachkom (Strike Committee) and the Party of the Dictatorship of the Proletariat. Isayev was arrested and sentenced to a prison camp in 1981 for his role in organizing workers' strike and an underground communist organization in the Soviet Union under Leonid Brezhnev rule. He was arrested twice under Boris Yeltsin in 1998 for leading the successful two-month-long strike of the 5,000 ZIM (Zavod imeni Maslennikova) factory's workers and the blockade of the main street of Samara which paralyzed the center of the city.Guram Mamulia
Guram Mamulia (Georgian: გურამ მამულია) (May 9, 1937 – January 1, 2003) was a Georgian historian, politician and campaigner for Meskhetian rights. A month after Mamulia was born, his father, Samson Mamulia was imprisoned and executed by Joseph Stalin's government. He was raised by his aunt. He graduated with a degree in history from Tbilisi State University in 1960. He began teaching at Tbilisi University in 1973.Ivan Kandyba
Ivan Kandyba (Ukrainian: Іван Кандиба) (June 7, 1930 - Nov. 8, 2002), was a Ukrainian lawyer, who achieved most fame by being a founding member of the Ukrainian Helsinki Group.Levko Lukyanenko
Levko Hryhorovych Lukyanenko (Ukrainian: Левко́ Григо́рович Лук'я́ненко, sometimes written as Levko Lukianenko, 24 August 1928 – 7 July 2018) was a Ukrainian politician, and Soviet dissident and Hero of Ukraine. He was one of the founders of Ukrainian Helsinki Group in 1976 and was elected a leader of the revived Ukrainian Helsinki Group, Ukrainian Helsinki Association, in 1988.Mykhailo Melnyk
Mykhailo Spyrydonovych Melnyk (Ukrainian: Миха́йло Спиридо́нович Ме́льник; 14 March 1944 – 10 March 1979) was Ukrainian historian, poet, human rights activist, dissident and member of Ukrainian Helsinki Group. He was an author of a book about the history of Ukraine, which was confiscated by the KGB.On November 8, 2006 he was posthumously awarded the Order For Courage 1st class by the order of President of Ukraine. On December 25, 2015 a street in Brovary was named after him.Mykola Horbal
Mykola Andriyovych Horbal (Ukrainian: Мико́ла Андрі́йович Го́рбаль; born September 10, 1940) is a well-known Ukrainian dissident, human right activists, member of parliament of Ukraine, poet, and member of the Ukrainian Helsinki GroupMyroslav Marynovych
Myroslav Frankovych Marynovych (Ukrainian: Миросла́в Фра́нкович Марино́вич, born 4 January 1949, Komarovychi, Staryi Sambir Raion) is a vice-rector of the Ukrainian Catholic University in Lviv, co-founder of Amnesty International Ukraine, and a founding member of the Ukrainian Helsinki GroupOleh Olzhych
Oleh Olzhych (July 8, 1907, Zhytomyr - 9 June 1944, Sachsenhausen concentration camp, Germany) was a Ukrainian poet and nationalist leader. Born as Oleh Kandyba, he emigrated from Ukraine in 1923 and lived in Prague, Czechoslovakia. He graduated in 1929 from Charles University with a degree in archaeology. In 1929 he joined the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and became head of their cultural and educational branch.
After the split in the OUN in 1938, Olzhych remained loyal to the Melnyk faction and represented OUN-M in Carpatho-Ukraine as Melnyk's deputy. Olzhych's poetry focused on themes of Ukrainian struggle for independence. He moved to Kyiv in 1941 and was instrumental in the formation of the Ukrainian National Council.
From 1941 to 1944 he directed the activities of OUN-M in Ukraine. He was arrested by the Gestapo for his nationalist activities and subsequently executed.Oleksandr Oles
Oleksandr Ivanovych Oles (real name Oleksandr Kandyba) (Ukrainian: Олександр Іванович Олесь) (1878–1944) was a prominent Ukrainian writer and poet. He is the father of another Ukrainian poet and political activist, Oleh Olzhych, who perished in the Nazi labor camps in 1944. He is one of representatives of the Ukrainian Cossack family of Kandyba.Shypyntsi
Shypyntsi (Ukrainian: Шипинці; Romanian: Şipeniţ), a village in Ukraine, is located within the Kitsman Raion (district) of the Chernivtsi Oblast (province), about 530 kilometers (330 mi) driving distance southwest of Kiev, and about 30 kilometers (19 mi) northwest from the provincial capital of Chernivtsi. Shypyntsi is about 48 kilometers (30 mi) from the Ukrainian/Romanian border, about 64 kilometers (40 mi) from the Ukrainian/Moldovan border, and about 80 kilometers (50 mi) from the city of Suceava, Romania. This village is located on the left bank of the Prut River, amid rolling hills covered with farms and forests, in the region generally known as the Dniester Hills.
To the north of the village are the ancient ruins of a Cucuteni-Trypillian culture settlement, dating back to the 5th Millennium to early 4th Millennium BC. Archaeological excavation began at this site in the late 19th century by a team of Ukrainians: J. Shombathy, R. Kindle, F. Volkov, O. Kandyba and Tatiana Sergeyevna Passek. Houses, earthenware, and ceramic shards were discovered, and in 1938 Kandyba published a collection of images from this site of beautifully decorated pottery.This settlement was part of the Neolithic Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, which lasted from 5100 to 2750 BC, and which had some of the largest communities in the world at the time. The members of this society plowed their farms, raised livestock, hunted and fished, created textiles, and developed a beautiful and highly refined style of pottery with very intricate designs. Their settlements were built in oval or circular layouts, with concentric rows of houses interconnected to form rings around the center of the community, where often a sanctuary building would be found. They left behind a large number of clay figurines, many of which are regarded as Goddess fetishes. For over 2500 years their culture flourished with no evidence left behind that would indicate they experienced warfare. However, at the beginning of the Bronze Age their culture disappeared, the reasons for which are still debated, but possibly as a result of invaders coming from the Steppes to the east.The artifacts taken from the Shypyntsi ruins are kept in museums in Chernivtsi and Vienna.Ukrainian Helsinki Group
The Ukrainian Helsinki Group (Ukrainian: Українська Гельсінська Група) was founded on November 9, 1976 as the "Ukrainian Public Group to Promote the Implementation of the Helsinki Accords on Human Rights" (Ukrainian: Українська громадська група сприяння виконанню гельсінських угод, romanized: Ukrayins'ka hromads'ka hrupa spryyannya vykonannyu hel'sins'kykh uhod) to monitor human rights in Ukraine. The group was active until 1981 when all members were jailed.
The group's goal was to monitor the Soviet Government's compliance with the Helsinki Accords, which ensure human rights. The members of the group based the group's legal viability on the provision in the Helsinki Final Act, Principle VII, which established the rights of individuals to know and act upon their rights and duties.Vasile Odobescu
Vasile Odobescu (born Cuizăuca) was a founder and leader of the anti-Soviet organization Democratic Agrarian Party.Viktoras Petkus
Viktoras Petkus (May 17, 1928 – May 1, 2012) was a Lithuanian political activist and dissident, political prisoner, a founding member of the Lithuanian Helsinki Group.Vitaliy Kalynychenko
Vitaliy Kalynychenko (Ukrainian: Віталій Калиниченко, January 31, 1938 - April 27, 2017) was a member of the Ukrainian Helsinki Group.
Kalynychenko's first transgression of Soviet law was his nonagreement to work for the KGB. He was approached in 1964 to act as an informant, but his unwillingness to do so caused him to be arrested by a fellow student in 1965. He was released without charge, and worked in Leningrad as an electrical engineer.Yaroslav Lesiv
Yaroslav Vasylyovych Lesiv (Ukrainian: Яросла́в Васи́льович Ле́сів, 3 January 1945, Luzhki, Dolyna Raion – 10 October 1991, Bolekhiv) was a Ukrainian poet, priest, and member of the Ukrainian Helsinki Group.
Yaroslav Lesiv was born in the village of Luzhkiv, (Ukrainian Лужків), in the Dolyna Raion, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast of Western Ukraine.
In 1965, he joined the Ukrainian National Front, an underground organization working for Ukrainian independence from the Soviet Union. On March 29, 1965, his membership in this organization was discovered, and Lesiv was sentenced to 5 years in prison.
He carried out a hunger strike.
On October 3, 1977, Lesiv joined the Ukrainian Helsinki Group.Yosyf Zisels
Yosyf Zisels, also Josef Zissels (born 2 December 1946 in Tashkent) is a human rights activist and Ukrainian dissident.He was a member of the Ukrainian Helsinki group (UHG), involved in the samizdat movement, human rights activist, prominent activist in the Jewish movement in Ukraine, and a political prisoner.Yulian Panich
Yulian Aleksandrovich Panich (Russian: Юлиа́н Алекса́ндрович Па́нич; born May 23, 1931, Zinovyevsk) is a Soviet / Russian actor, director, and journalist. Honored Artist of Russia (1996).Yuriy Shukhevych
Yuriy-Bohdan Romanovych Shukhevych (Ukrainian: Ю́рій-Богда́н Рома́нович Шухе́вич, born 28 March 1933, Ohladów, Lwów Voivodeship, Poland) is a Ukrainian politician, member of the Ukrainian Helsinki Group, political prisoner, son of Roman Shukhevych. He is a former long serving leader of the Ukrainian National Assembly – Ukrainian National Self Defence. Shukhevych spent over 30 years in the Soviet prisons and concentration camps. In the 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election Shukhevych was elected into the Ukrainian parliament for Radical Party.