Kampong

A kampong or kampung (both Malay and Indonesian spelling) is a village in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore and a "port" in Cambodia. The term applies to traditional villages, especially of indigenous people, and has also been used to refer to urban slum areas and enclosed developments and neighbourhoods within towns and cities in Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Cambodia, Sri Lanka and Christmas Island. The traditional kampong village designs and architecture have been targeted for reform by urbanists and modernists and have also been adapted by contemporary architects for various projects. Traditional kampongs are also a tourist attraction.

The English word "compound" referring to a development in a town is from the Malay word kampung.[1]

Kampung Naga Java110
Traditional houses and pond pavilion of Kampung Naga, a traditional Sundanese village in West Java, Indonesia

Brunei

In Brunei, the term kampong (also kampung) primarily refers to the third- and lowest-level subdivisions after districts (Malay: daerah) and mukim (equivalent to subdistrict). Some kampong divisions are sufficiently villages by anthropological definition or in its traditional sense, while others may only serve for census and other administrative purposes. There are also some which have been incorporated as part of the capital Bandar Seri Begawan and a few towns.

A kampong is generally led by a ketua kampung or village head. Infrastructure-wise, it typically has a primary school and a balai raya or dewan kemasyarakatan, the equivalent of a community centre. Because many kampongs have predominantly Muslim residents, each may also have a mosque for the Jumu'ah or Friday prayers, as well as a school providing the Islamic religious primary education compulsory for Muslim pupils in the country.[2]

Both "kampong" and "kampung" are used with equal tendency in written media as well as in official place names. For example, Keriam, a village in Tutong District, is known as 'Kampung Keriam' by the Survey Department but 'Kampong Keriam' by the Postal Services Department — both are government departments.[3][4]

Indonesia

In Indonesia, the term "Kampung" generally refers to "village" which is the opposite of the so-called "city" known in Indonesia as "Kota". Although actually, most of Indonesian cities are initially consists of a collection of kampung settlements. "Kampung" also usually refers to a settlement or compound of certain community of certain ethnic, which later become the names of places. Such as Kampung Melayu district in East Jakarta, Kampung Ambon (Ambonese village), Kampung Jawa (Javanese village), Kampung Arab (Arabs village), etc. The other name for "Village" in Indonesia is known as Desa.

In Sumatra the indigenous peoples have distinctive architecture and building type features including longhouses and rice storage buildings in their kampongs. Malays, Karo people, Batak people, Toba people, Minangkabau people and others have communal housing and tiered structures.

Orang Kampung means "people from/of the village" in Indonesia and it sometimes become a degrading label such as in America the term Hillbilly. Kampungan is an Indonesian term to address behavior, acts, traditions, customs, and other things associated to that which resembles Villagers.

The kampong by Peter Nas, Leslie Boon, Ivana Hladka and Nova Tampubolon explores various iterations of the kampong as a rural settlement, mythical place of origin for the Minangkabau, palatial compound, and slum settlement, while looking at attempts to modernize, social changes, tourism, and urbanism.[5]

Malaysia

In Malaysia, a kampung is determined as a locality with 10,000 or fewer people. Since historical times, every Malay village came under the leadership of a penghulu (village chief), who has the power to hear civil matters in his village (see Courts of Malaysia for more details).

A Malay village typically contains a masjid (mosque) or surau, paddy fields or orchards and Malay houses on stilts. Malay and Indonesian villagers practice the culture of helping one another as a community, which is better known as "joint bearing of burdens" (gotong royong). They are family-oriented (especially the concept of respecting one's family, particularly the parents and elders). It is common to see a cemetery near the mosque. In Sarawak and East Kalimantan, some villages are called long, primarily inhabited by the Orang Ulu.

The British initiated the Kampong Baru ("New Village") program as a way to settle Malays into urban life. Malaysia's long serving prime minister Mahathir Mohamad lauded urban lifestyles in his book The Malay Dilemma and associated kampong village life with backward traditionalism. He also had the kampung sentiggan (squatter settlements) cleared and new buildings constructed to house them.[6]

Singapore

The native Malay kampung are found in Singapore, but there are few kampung villages remaining, mostly on islands surrounding Singapore, such as Pulau Ubin. In the past, there were many kampung villages in Singapore but development and urbanization have replaced them. Development plans for Kampong Glam have been controversial. Singapore is also home to Kampong Buangkok, featured in the film The Last Kampong.

See also

References

  1. ^ "From 'Kampong' to 'Compound': Retracing the forgotten connections". singapurastories.com.
  2. ^ Azahari, Izah (21 October 2017). "Brunei will remain a MIB-guided nation, thanks to religious education". Borneo Bulletin. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
  3. ^ "Geoportal - Survey Department". Retrieved 2017-09-10.
  4. ^ "Brunei Postal Services - postcodes". post.gov.bn. Retrieved 2017-09-10.
  5. ^ Indonesian Houses: Volume 2: Survey of Vernacular Architecture in Western Indonesia, Volume 2, R. Schefold, BRILL, January 1, 2008 page14
  6. ^ Architecture and Urban Form in Kuala Lumpur: Race and Chinese Spaces in a Postcolonial City Dr Yat Ming Loo, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., Jul 27, 2013

Further reading

  • Indonesian Houses: Volume 2: Survey of Vernacular Architecture in Western Indonesia R. Schefold BRILL, Jan 1, 2008
Communes of Cambodia

Communes of Cambodia (Khmer: ឃុំ, khum) are the third-level administrative divisions in Cambodia. They are the subdivisions of the districts of Cambodia. Communes can consist of as few as 3 or as many as 30 villages (phum), depending on population.

In 1998 there were a total of 1,609 communes and 13,406 villages in Cambodia. However, according to the 2008 census there are now 1,621 communes in Cambodia and 14,073 villages. As of the 2017 commune elections, the number of communes had risen to 1,646.

Kampong Cham Municipality

Kampong Cham District (Khmer: ស្រុកកំពង់ចាម)is a district (srok) of Kampong Cham Province, Cambodia. Kampong Cham is considered an urban district. The provincial capital Kampong Cham City is located in this district. The city is located on National Highway 7 124 kilometres by road from the capital Phnom Penh. The district is split by the Mekong and the capital is located on the western bank of the river., since 2001, the Kizuna bridge provides a good junction for the region.

Kampong Cham Province

Kampong Cham (Khmer: ខេត្តកំពង់ចាម, IPA: [kɑmpɔːŋ caːm], "Port of the Chams") is a province (khaet) of Cambodia located on the central lowlands of the Mekong River. It borders the provinces of Kampong Chhnang to the west, Kampong Thom and Kratié to the north, Tbong Khmum to the east, and Prey Veng and Kandal to the south. Kampong Cham was officially divided into two provinces on 31 December 2013 in what was seen by many as a political move by the ruling party. All land west of the Mekong remained Kampong Cham while land east of the river became Tbong Khmum province. Prior to this division, Kampong Cham extended eastward to the international border with Vietnam, was the eleventh largest province in Cambodia, and with a population of 1,680,694, was the most populous province in Cambodia. Its capital and largest city is Kampong Cham.

Kampong Chhnang Province

Kampong Chhnang (Khmer: ខេត្តកំពង់ឆ្នាំង, IPA: [kɑmpɔːŋ cʰnaːŋ], "Port of Pottery") is one of the central provinces (khaet) of Cambodia. Neighboring provinces are (from north clockwise) Kampong Thom, Kampong Cham, Kandal, Kampong Speu and Pursat. The capital city of Kampong Chhnang Province is Kampong Chhnang.

Kampong Gajah (state constituency)

Kampong Gajah is a state constituency in Perak, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Perak State Legislative Assembly.

Kampong Glam

Kampong Glam (Malay: Kampung Gelam; Jawi alphabet: كامڤوڠ ڬلم ; Chinese: 甘榜格南; pinyin: Gānbǎnggénán; Tamil: கம்ப்பொங் கிலாம்) is a neighbourhood and ethnic enclave in Singapore. It is located north of the Singapore River, in the planning area of Rochor, known as the Malay-Muslim quarter.

Kampong Java

Kampong Java (Chinese: 甘榜爪哇) is a subzone within the planning area of Kallang, Singapore, as defined by the Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA). It is bounded by the Central Expressway (CTE) in the west; Balestier Road in the north; Tessensohn Road, Race Course Road, Gloucester Road, Northumberland Road and Tekka Lane in the east; and Bukit Timah Road in the south.Kampong Java is probably best known for being the location of KK Women's and Children's Hospital and the headquarters of the Land Transport Authority (LTA). Other significant places within this subzone include the headquarters of Tanglin Police Division, Kampong Java Neighbourhood Police Centre, Pek Kio Community Centre, Balestier Plain, Farrer Park Field, Farrer Park Tennis Centre, the Singapore Indian Association, the Singapore Khalsa Association, Kampong Java Park and Farrer Park Primary School.

Part of the Little India ethnic district stretches into this area. Located within Kampong Java are Little India MRT station and Farrer Park MRT station.

In August 2018, the Singapore Government announced its plan to destroy the Kampong Java Park, a haven for wetland wildlife, turtles, birds and mature trees, frequented by parents and sick children from the nearby hospital, so that it can build an expressway road tunnel.

Kampong Leaeng District

Kampong Leaeng District (Khmer: ស្រុកកំពង់លែង) is a district (srok) in the north east of Kampong Chhnang Province, in central Cambodia. The district capital is Kampong Leaeng town located around 4 kilometres east of the provincial capital of Kampong Chhnang in a direct line. Kampong Leaeng District is the northernmost district of Kampong Chhnang. The district shares a border with Kampong Thom province to north and east. Much of the district is low-lying floodplain and the Tonle Sap river runs through the district roughly from north to south. In the south of the district are two significant mountains. Phnom Chrak Tunling and Phnom Neang Kangrei both over 1000 metres in elevation.The district has very little road infrastructure. There is one provincial ring road that circles the small mountains in the district's south. This road is accessible from National Highway 6 in Stueng Saen District of Kampong Thom. Settlements are located along this road or along the Tonle Sap river and various smaller tributaries. Kampong Leaeng District is the second largest district in Kampong Chhnang province by land area and only Tuek Phos is larger. However, it has the smallest district population in the province after Chol Kiri due to its flooded landscape and lack of road transport infrastructure.

Kampong Seila District

Kampong Seila District (Khmer: ស្រុកកំពង់សីលា) is a district (srok) in south-western Cambodia, which formerly belonged to Koh Kong Province. In January 2009 King Norodom Sihamoni incorporated the district into Preah Sihanouk Province per Royal Decree, which states: "The administrative boundaries of Preah Sihanouk municipality and Koh Kong province shall be adjusted by sub-dividing land from Kampong Seila district in whole and partial land of Sre Ambil district in Koh Kong province to Preah Sihanouk municipality." Officials were assigned to create a National Workshop - also in relation to other provinces - and to process all necessary administrative tasks. The National Institute of Statistics of Cambodia refers in its most recent and preliminary studies to a successful integration of the district, including maps, although concluding statistics and numbers are expected to be available with the next full report. Preah Sihanouk Province's new official domain already runs administration of Kompong Seila district.

Kampong Speu Province

Kampong Speu (Khmer: ខេត្តកំពង់ស្ពឺ, IPA: [kɑmpɔːŋ spɨː], "Starfruit Port") is a province (khaet) of Cambodia. It borders the provinces of Pursat and Kompong Chhnang to the north, Kandal to the east, Takéo to the southeast, Kampot to the south and Koh Kong to the west. Its capital is Chbarmorn town.

Kampong Svay District

Kampong Svay is a district within Kampong Thom Province, in central Cambodia. According to the 1998 census of Cambodia, it had a population of 74,843.

Kampong Thom Province

Kampong Thom (Khmer: កំពង់ធំ, IPA: [kɑmpɔːŋ tʰom], "Great Port") is a province (khaet) of Cambodia. It borders the provinces of Siem Reap to the northwest, Preah Vihear to the north, Stung Treng to the northeast, Kratie to the east, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang to the south, and the Tonle Sap to the west.

The provincial capital is Stung Saen, a town of approximately 30,000 people on the banks of the Stung Sen River.

Kampong Thom is Cambodia's second largest province by area. There are a number of significant Angkorian sites in the area, including Prasat Sambor Prei Kuk and Prasat Andet temples. As one of the nine provinces bordering Tonle Sap Lake, Kampong Thom is part of the Tonlé Sap Biosphere Reserve.

Kuala Pilah (federal constituency)

Kuala Pilah is a federal constituency in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 1959.

The federal constituency was created in the 1958 redistribution and is mandated to return a single member to the Dewan Rakyat under the first past the post voting system.

Lenggong (federal constituency)

Lenggong is a federal constituency in Perak, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 2004.

The federal constituency was created in the 2003 redistribution and is mandated to return a single member to the Dewan Rakyat under the first past the post voting system.

List of Malaysian electoral districts

These are the list of federal constituencies (Bahagian Pilihan Raya Persekutuan) followed by the state constituencies (Bahagian Pilihan Raya Negeri) in Malaysia.

Each federal constituency (contains 2 to 6 state constituencies, except in the federal territories where there are only federal constituencies. Constituency boundaries and administrative district boundaries may transcend each other and does not correspond with each other in most instances, but federal constituencies may not transcend across state borders. Federal constituencies are denoted by P.xxx, while state constituencies are denoted by N.xx.

Article 46 of the Malaysian Federal Constitution prescribes the composition of the House of Representatives. From Merdeka Day (1957) until 1963 only the total number of seats were specified. From 1963 until 1973 the seats were grouped into the States of Malaya (104 seats), Sabah (16 members), Sarawak (24 members) and Singapore (15 members until 1965). From 1973 onwards the number of seats per state and Federal Territory were prescribed and changed with subsequent constitutional amendments, the last being in 2006. There are in total 222 federal and 576 state electoral districts nationwide. Within each state the number of constituents in each district is not necessarily equal as Schedule 13, Part 2(c) of the Constitution requires a greater weightage to be given to rural districts. Until 1962 any variation was restricted to no more than fifteen percent from the average number of constituents per district across a state.

Electoral district boundaries are not permanent and the Election Commission may review and re-delineate boundaries at an interval of not less than 8 years. The last delineation exercise was made in 2018.

Pasir Salak (federal constituency)

Pasir Salak is a federal constituency in Perak, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 1986.

The federal constituency was created in the 1984 redistribution and is mandated to return a single member to the Dewan Rakyat under the first past the post voting system.

Rembau (federal constituency)

Rembau is a federal constituency in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 2004.

The federal constituency was created in the 2003 redistribution and is mandated to return a single member to the Dewan Rakyat under the first past the post voting system.

Tambun (federal constituency)

Tambun is a federal constituency in Perak, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 1986.

The federal constituency was created in the 1984 redistribution and is mandated to return a single member to the Dewan Rakyat under the first past the post voting system.

Tapah (federal constituency)

Tapah is a federal constituency in Perak, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 1986.

The federal constituency was created in the 1984 redistribution and is mandated to return a single member to the Dewan Rakyat under the first past the post voting system.

Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

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