Kampfgeschwader 200

Kampfgeschwader 200 (KG 200) (in English "Battle Wing 200" or "Air Battle Group 200") was a German Luftwaffe special operations unit during World War II. The unit carried out especially difficult bombing and transport operations, long-distance reconnaissance flights, tested new aircraft designs and operated captured aircraft.[2][3][4]

Kampfgeschwader 200
Active1934–45
Country Nazi Germany
BranchBalkenkreuz (Iron Cross) Luftwaffe
TypeSpecial operations
RoleReconnaissance, test flights, special missions
SizeAir Force Wing
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Werner Baumbach
Insignia
Identification
symbol
Geschwaderkennung
of A3
Aircraft flown
BomberDornier Do 335, Arado Ar 232, Heinkel He 111, Heinkel He 177, Junkers Ju 290, Junkers Ju 390, Junkers Ju 188, Heinkel He 115, Dornier Do 24, Dornier Do 18, Arado Ar 196, Siebel Si 204, Arado Ar 240
captured aircraft: B-17, B-24, SM.75, LeO H-246, Short Stirling, de Havilland Mosquito, Bristol Beaufighter[1]
Fightercaptured: Lockheed P-38 Lightning, Polikarpov I-16, Supermarine Spitfire[1]
TransportArado Ar 232, Blohm & Voss BV 222, Messerschmitt Me 323, Junkers Ju 252, Junkers Ju 352 Herkules, Gotha Go 244

History

The unit's history began in 1934, when the Luftwaffe formed a reconnaissance squadron under Oberst Theodor Rowehl and attached it to the Abwehr, Germany's military intelligence department. As the Abwehr started to lose Hitlers goodwill during the war, a new reconnaissance unit, the 2nd Test Formation, was formed in 1942 under the command of Werner Baumbach. This unit was combined with 1st Test Formation in March 1944 to form KG 200 on 20 February 1944.

On 11 November 1944 Baumbach became Geschwaderkommodore, all aerial special-ops missions were carried out by KG 200 under Baumbach's command.[5]

Missions

The unit carried out a wide variety of missions:

Long-range reconnaissance

Before the beginning of the war, aerial reconnaissance was usually carried out by civilian Lufthansa planes equipped with cameras. This practice was continued throughout the war as long as civilian airlines remained operational; later on, recon missions were most often carried out by Junkers Ju 86s flying at very high altitudes or by flying boats. Due to the lack of German aircraft with sufficient range, some recon missions used captured American B-17s or B-24s and Soviet Tu-2s. For the most part, these machines were used for re-supply roles (dropping in supplies to German forces operating behind enemy lines), or transporting important personnel.[6]

The Mistel program

Beginning in 1942, to compensate for its lack of heavy bombers, the Luftwaffe started to experiment with packing some of its war-weary Junkers Ju 88 bombers with enormous shaped-charge warheads and guiding them to their targets with a fighter airplane mounted on the back of the unmanned bomber. Although not as effective as the Luftwaffe planners had hoped, the Mistel program continued to be developed through 1944. However, few effective operations were flown.[7] The unit was originally intended to attack naval installations at Gibraltar, Leningrad or Scapa Flow in Scotland, but the Allied Operation Overlord diverted efforts to Normandy.

On the night of 24 June 1944, Mistels of Kampfgeschwader 101 [8] were dispatched to bomb targets in the English Channel. Although one of the Ju 88s had to be jettisoned prematurely, the remaining four pilots had successful launches and sank several block ships. Interest in the Scapa Flow attack was maintained, and in August 1944 Mistel forces were concentrated at Grove in Schleswig-Holstein. On 11 November 1944 RAF Lancasters attacked the German battleship Tirpitz and caused her to capsize. With Tirpitz out of commission there was no requirement for capital ships to be held in the Atlantic theatre, and soon those with the Home Fleet at Scapa Flow were on their way to the Pacific war, leaving the Mistels no worthwhile targets in Scapa Flow.

All Mistels were placed under the command of KG 200 and Oberst (Colonel) Joachim Helbig. By late 1944 emphasis was placed on an all-out attack on Soviet armaments and power plants but by March 1945 the bases had been overrun by the Soviet advance. KG 200 was ordered to concentrate Mistel operations against the bridges over the Oder and Neisse rivers. On 27 April 7 Mistel aircraft under Leutnant Dittmann of II./KG 200, escorted by Fw 190s, were launched against crossings at Küstrin, but only two Mistels got to the target to launch, results were inconclusive and the bridges remained intact.[9] By April all available Mistel composite airframes had been expended and aircrew dispersed to nearby fighter units.[10]

On 12 April 1945 also Henschel Hs 293 standoff missiles were used against bridges on the Oder, by Do 217 bombers of KG 200.[11]

Suicide and near-suicide missions

In the last months of the war, a small number of high-ranking German officers pressed for a suicide fighter program as a last-ditch effort to stop Allied bombing runs over the Reich. This program, known as Selbstopfer ("self sacrifice"), was intended to use the Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg, a manned version of the V1 pulsejet cruise missile, to attack enemy bombers and ground targets. Several test flights were carried out by Leonidas Squadron KG 200, and mass production of the converted pulsejet-propelled missiles had begun, but the program was stopped due to intervention from Baumbach who felt that these missions would be a waste of valuable pilots.

As part of the Aktion 24 operations, Dornier Do 24 flying boats were modified and loaded with explosives, with the intention that they would be landed on the Vistula River and exploded against river bridges used by Soviet forces. Experienced pilots were to be used to fly the aircraft to a point upstream where it would be left to a "suicide pilot" to ensure a collision with the bridge and ignite the explosives. The assumption that Soviet forces would not react and the unlikelihood of the aircrew managing to return to German-held territory after delivery made the concept highly dubious. The modified aircraft were destroyed on the ground during air raids.[12]

Special missions

B17 kg200
The first Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bomber operated by German forces, in KG 200 markings. This B-17F-27-BO (41-24585; PU-B) was crash-landed near Melun, France by a crew from the 303d Bombardment Group on December 12, 1942 and repaired by Luftwaffe ground staff. Its USAAF nickname, "Wulfe Hound", is frequently misspelled.

On 1 December 1943, a lone B-24 joined a bomber formation from the 44th Bomb Group. It was reported to have been a machine carrying the markings of a 392nd Bomb Group aircraft. However this unit did not become operational until 9 December.[13] On 27 June 1944, a B-17 of KG 200, with Luftwaffe Geschwaderkennung code A3+FB, landed in Manises airport (Valencia) and was interned by the Spanish government.[14]

In July 1944 para-trained commandos of II./KG 200 carried out a parachute assault in July 1944 against French partisan forces on the Vercors Massif plateau in the French Alps where hundreds of partisans had created a stronghold from which they were mounting operations against the German occupiers.

These para-trained commandos of II./KG 200 remain a little-known arm of Germany's World War II parachute forces and were listed on II./KG 200's ORBAT (Order of Battle) as the 3rd Staffel. It is possible the paratroopers were actually Waffen SS paratroopers from the 500th SS Parachute Battalion assigned to Kampfgeschwader 200 for this particular mission.

KG 200 in the Middle East

Beginning in early 1944 (perhaps as early as November 1943) the short-lived Operations Dora and Bunny-Hop took place in the Gulf of Sirte, Libya with secret bases inland at Al Mukaram and Wadi Tamet, as well as at Shott al Jerid behind the Mareth Line. These used a (long range) Messerschmitt Bf-108, two Heinkel He 111s, and a captured B-17 - given the fictional designation "Dornier Do 288" (as a "confusive reuse" of the 8-288 RLM airframe number for Junkers' Bomber B design competitor) - which despite being badly damaged during a raid on Al Mukaram by a Sudan Defence Force detachment, managed to return to Athens for repair. As well as local intelligence and meteorological work their aim was to ferry agents via French West Africa to Cairo, Freetown and Durban.[15][16]

On the night of 27 November 1944, KG 200 pilots Braun and Pohl flew a Junkers Ju 290 transport from Vienna to a position just south of Mosul, Iraq, where they successfully air-dropped five Iraqi parachutists in bright moonlight. The Luftwaffe crew flew back to the island of Rhodes, still under German occupation. After dealing with engineering problems, they evacuated some thirty casualties from Rhodes, reaching Vienna two nights later.[17]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Gilman & Clive (1978), p.314.
  2. ^ Geoffrey Thomas: KG200: Luftwaffe’s Most Secret Squadron, Hikoki Publications, August 2004, ISBN 1902109333
  3. ^ Günther W. Gellermann: Moskau ruft Heeresgruppe Mitte … - Was nicht im Wehrmachtbericht stand - Die Einsätze des geheimen Kampfgeschwaders 200 im Zweiten Weltkrieg, Bernard & Graefe, 1988, in German, ISBN 3763758569
  4. ^ P. W. Stahl/Manfred Jäger: Geheimgeschwader KG 200, 1984, in German, ISBN 3613010348
  5. ^ Thomas 2003, p. 128.
  6. ^ Thomas 2003, p. 153–154
  7. ^ KG 200 history at "2 World War 2" site
  8. ^ The Last Year of the Luftwaffe, Alfred Price, 1991, ISBN 1-85409-189-1, page 60
  9. ^ Price, 1991, page 161
  10. ^ Thomas 2003, p. 156–161.
  11. ^ Scutts, Jerry: Dornier Do 217, Warpaint Series No.24, Hall Park Books Ltd: Milton Keynes, p.21
  12. ^ Thomas 2003, pp. 86–88.
  13. ^ Thomas 2003, p. 53.
  14. ^ Thomas 2003, p. 135.
  15. ^ Kelly 2002, p. 242–9.
  16. ^ The KG200.org site mentions "bases .. in the Algerian (sic) desert" - this appears to be an error - Kelly seems to make clear that KG 200 only operated in the Libyan desert.
  17. ^ Stahl, P. KG 200 The True Story London Book Club edition 1981 pp. 78–88

References

  • Gilman J.D. & Clive J. (1978). KG 200. London: Pan Books Ltd. p. 315. ISBN 0-85177-819-4.
  • Ambrose, Stephen (2001). The Wild Blue. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9780743217521.
  • Geoffrey J Thomas, Barry Ketley: KG 200: The Luftwaffe's Most Secret Unit, Hikoki Publications, 2003, ISBN 1-902109-33-3.
  • Peter Wilhelm Stahl: KG 200: The true story, Jane's, 1981, ISBN 0-531-03729-0. German original: Geheimgeschwader KG 200: D. Wahrheit nach uber 30 Jahren, Motorbuch-Verlag, 1977, ISBN 3-87943-543-X (later edition co-authored by Manfred Jäger). P.W. Stahl had served in the KG 200 unit.
  • Saul Kelly: The Hunt for Zerzura, John Murray, 2002, ISBN 0-7195-6162-0. Includes much information on the LRDG (Long Range Desert Group) and its 'foundation' before World War II. A small well referenced section refers to KG 200.
  • Kelly refers to (a) K. Jozsef: A Homok Atyja, Magyar Repulestortereti Tarasag, Budapest 1995 (in Hungarian), and (see also above) (b) P W Stahl: KG 200: Gehaimaesch wuden(? sounds like "Geheimgeschwader" - "secret squadron") Motorbuch-Verlag, 1992 (in German)

External links

303rd Air Expeditionary Group

The 303rd Air Expeditionary Group is a provisional United States Air Force unit. In 2011, it was assigned to United States Air Forces Europe to activate or inactivate as needed.

The unit was first activated as the 303rd Bombardment Group in February 1942. During World War II, the 303rd was one of the first VIII Bomber Command B-17 Flying Fortress units in England. The group's "Hell's Angels" is recognized by the USAF as the first B-17 to complete 25 combat missions in the ETO on May 13, 1943, six days before the Memphis Belle, though 12 days after Delta Rebel 2. The group went on to fly more than 300 combat missions, more than any other B-17 group in the theater. The B-17 "Knock-out Dropper" was the first aircraft in Eighth Air Force to complete 50, then 75 missions. The group was awarded the Distinguished Unit Citation for completing an attack against a heavily defended target in January 1944.

The group was twice activated for brief periods by Strategic Air Command (SAC). During the first of these periods, from July 1947 to September 1948, the group was not equipped or manned. It was again activated at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona in September 1951. However, SAC reorganized its combat wings to assign operational squadrons directly to the wing headquarters in June 1952 and the group was again inactivated.

Air Force Materiel Command activated the Global Hawk Systems Group in January 2005 during a reorganization called the Air Force Materiel Command Transformation to manage the acquisition and development of the Northrop Grumman RQ-4 Global Hawk. This group was consolidated with the 303rd as the 303rd Aeronautical Systems Group in June 2006. The consolidated group was inactivated in June 2010 when AF Materiel Command returned to its traditional directorate systems management organization.

500th SS Parachute Battalion

The 500th SS-Parachute Battalion (German: SS-Fallschirmjägerbataillon 500) was the parachute unit of the Waffen-SS. The idea to form a paratrooper unit within the Waffen-SS allegedly came directly from Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler.

A3

A3, A03 or A.III may refer to:

A3 paper, a paper size defined by ISO 216

Amiot 354

The Amiot 354 was the last in a series of fast, twin-engine bombers which fought with the French Air Force in limited numbers during the Battle of France.

Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress

The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is a four-engined heavy bomber developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC). Competing against Douglas and Martin for a contract to build 200 bombers, the Boeing entry (prototype Model 299/XB-17) outperformed both competitors and exceeded the air corps' performance specifications. Although Boeing lost the contract (to the Douglas B-18 Bolo) because the prototype crashed, the air corps ordered 13 more B-17s for further evaluation. From its introduction in 1938, the B-17 Flying Fortress evolved through numerous design advances, becoming the third-most produced bomber of all time, behind the four-engined B-24 and the multirole, twin-engined Ju 88.

The B-17 was primarily employed by the USAAF in the daylight strategic bombing campaign of World War II against German industrial and military targets. The United States Eighth Air Force, based at many airfields in central, eastern and southern England, and the Fifteenth Air Force, based in Italy, complemented the RAF Bomber Command's nighttime area bombing in the Combined Bomber Offensive to help secure air superiority over the cities, factories and battlefields of Western Europe in preparation for the invasion of France in 1944. The B-17 also participated to a lesser extent in the War in the Pacific, early in World War II, where it conducted raids against Japanese shipping and airfields.From its prewar inception, the USAAC (by June 1941, the USAAF) promoted the aircraft as a strategic weapon; it was a relatively fast, high-flying, long-range bomber with heavy defensive armament at the expense of bombload. It developed a reputation for toughness based upon stories and photos of badly damaged B-17s safely returning to base. The B-17 dropped more bombs than any other U.S. aircraft in World War II. Of approximately 1.5 million tons of bombs dropped on Nazi Germany and its occupied territories by U.S. aircraft, over 640,000 tons were dropped from B-17s. In addition to its role as a bomber, the B-17 was also employed as a transport, antisubmarine aircraft, drone controller, and search-and-rescue aircraft.

As of October 2019, 9 aircraft remain airworthy, though none of them were ever flown in combat. Dozens more are in storage or on static display. The oldest of these is a D-series flown in combat in the Pacific and the Caribbean.

Brandenburgers

The Brandenburgers (German: Brandenburger) were members of the Brandenburg German special forces unit during World War II. Originally the unit was formed by and operated as an extension of the military's intelligence organ, the Abwehr. Members of this unit took part in seizing operationally important targets by way of sabotage and infiltration. Being foreign German nationals who were convinced Nazi volunteers, constituent members had lived abroad and were proficient in foreign languages as well as being familiar with the way of life in the area of operations where they were deployed.

The Brandenburg Division was generally subordinated to the army groups in individual commands and operated throughout Eastern Europe, in southern Africa, Afghanistan, the Middle East and in the Caucasus. In the later course of the war, parts of the special unit were used in Bandenbekämpfung operations against partisans in Yugoslavia before the Division, in the last months of the war, was reclassified and merged into one of the Panzergrenadier divisions. They committed various atrocities in the course of their operations.

Fieseler Fi 103R Reichenberg

The Fieseler Fi 103R, code-named Reichenberg, was a late-World War II German crewed version of the V-1 flying bomb (more correctly known as the Fieseler Fi 103) produced for attacks in which the pilot was likely to be killed (as actually intended, for use of the Imperial Japanese Naval Air Service's Ohka rocket-powered kamikaze suicide anti-ship missile) or at best to parachute down at the attack site, which were to be carried out by the "Leonidas Squadron", V. Gruppe of the Luftwaffe's Kampfgeschwader 200.

Index of World War II articles (K)

K-25

K-ration

K-class submarine (Soviet)

K is for Killing

K. P. K. Menon

Kōichi Kido

Kōichi Shiozawa

Kōki Hirota

Kōsō Abe

Kōsaku Aruga

Kōtarō Nakamura

KA-BAR

Ka-tzetnik

Kaarlo Mäkinen

Kabaty

Kabayama Sukenori

Kadam Kadam Badaye Ja

Kaethe Hoern

Kai Holst

Kai Winding

Kaija Mustonen

Kailash Nath Katju

Kaimingjie germ weapon attack

Kairyu-class submarine

Kaisenbun

Kaiser Shipyards

Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics

Kaiser Wilhelm Institute

Kaiserwald concentration camp

Kaiten

Kaj Aksel Hansen

Kaj Christiansen

Kaj Munk

Kaju Sugiura

Kakou Senda

Kakuji Kakuta

Kalagon Massacre

Kalev-class submarine

Kalevi Oikarainen

KALIBAPI

Kalinin Front

Kaliningrad K-5

Kalle Anttila

Kalmi Baruh

Kalmykian Voluntary Cavalry Corps

Kalonymus Kalman Shapira

Kamal Ram

Kamenets-Podolsky pocket

Kamianets-Podilskyi Massacre

Kamikaze-class destroyer (1922)

Kamikaze

Kamimura Hikonojō

Kaminski Brigade

Kammhuber Line

Kamp Amersfoort

Kamp Schoorl

Kampfbund

Kampfgeschwader 200

Kampfgeschwader 3

Kampfgeschwader 4

Kampfgeschwader 55

Kampfgruppe

Kampfmesser 42

Kan'in Haruhito

Kanchanaburi War Cemetery

Kanga Force

Kangaroo (armoured personnel carrier)

Kanichiro Tashiro

Kanji Ishiwara

Kankō Maru

Kansas World War II Army Airfields

Kantai kessen

Kantarō Suzuki

Kaoru Moto

Kapò

Kapo (concentration camp)

Karabiner 98k

Karamjeet Singh Judge

Karaya Quartet

Karel Čurda

Karel Ančerl

Karel Appel

Karel Destovnik Kajuh

Karel Doorman

Karel Kuttelwascher

Karel Miljon

Karel Nedvěd

Karel Pavlík

Karel Pešek

Karel Poláček

Karel Treybal

Karelia (historical province of Finland)

Karelian Fortified Region

Karelian Front

Karen Magnussen

Karim Ghani

Karl-Friedrich Höcker

Karl-Friedrich Merten

Karl-Gottfried Nordmann

Karl-Heinz Greisert

Karl-Heinz Moehle

Karl-Heinz Schnibbe

Karl-Jesko von Puttkamer

Karl-Lothar Schulz

Karl-Maria Demelhuber

Karl Albrecht

Karl Allmendinger

Karl Allmenröder

Karl Auer (SS officer)

Karl August Nerger

Karl Barth

Karl Bendetsen

Karl Brandt (Nazi physician)

Karl Dönitz

Karl Decker

Karl Dietrich Bracher

Karl Eberhard Schöngarth

Karl Ehrenbolger

Karl Eibl

Karl Emil Schäfer

Karl Ernst Krafft

Karl Ernst Rahtgens

Karl Ernst

Karl Fiehler

Karl Frenzel

Karl Friedrich Eichhorn

Karl Friedrich von dem Knesebeck

Karl Fritzsch

Karl Gebhardt

Karl Genzken

Karl Gerland

Karl Gorath

Karl Gröger

Karl Hanke

Karl Hass

Karl Haushofer

Karl Heinz Bremer

Karl Henke

Karl Hermann Frank

Karl Herxheimer

Karl Hess

Karl Holz (Gauleiter)

Karl Jäger

Karl Kaufmann

Karl Koller (general)

Karl Löffler

Karl Löwith

Karl Laforce

Karl Lange (Nazi persecutee)

Karl Leib

Karl Lennart Oesch

Karl Linnas

Karl Litzmann

Karl Magnus Wegelius

Karl Malden

Karl Mander Gravell

Karl Maria Wiligut

Karl Mauss

Karl Mayr

Karl Metzger

Karl Mobius

Karl Otto Koch

Karl Plagge

Karl Röderer

Karl Rankl

Karl Richter (sport shooter)

Karl Ruberl

Karl Ruprecht Kroenen

Karl Sack

Karl Schnörrer

Karl Schranz

Karl Silberbauer

Karl Staaf

Karl Stotz

Karl Targownik

Karl Taylor Compton

Karl von Oberkamp

Karl Weinrich

Karl Wolff

Karla Mayer

Karlrobert Kreiten

Karol Świerczewski

Karol Chmiel

Karol Marian Pospieszalski

Karol Piegza

Karol Rómmel

Karol Sidor

Karol Szwedowski

Karpaty Army

Kasi Maru

Kastner train

Kasuga-class cruiser

Katō Tomosaburō

Kataoka Shichirō

Katarapko (Wood Camp)

Katarina Matanović-Kulenović

Katayama Detachment

Kate ter Horst

Katherine Rawls

Kathie Lee Gifford

Kathleen Best

Kathleen McKane Godfree

Katori-class battleship

Katori-class cruiser

Katoucha Niane

Katsu Kaishū

Katsuo Takaishi

Katsura Tarō

Katyń (film)

Katya Budanova

Katyn massacre

Katyusha (song)

Katyusha rocket launcher

Katzenberger Trial

Katzmann Report

Kaufering concentration camp

Kaunas Ghetto

Kaunas Offensive Operation

Kaunas pogrom

Kawachi-class battleship

Kawaguchi Detachment

Kawakami Soroku

Kawamura Kageaki

Kawamura Sumiyoshi

Kawanishi Baika

Kawanishi H6K

Kawanishi H8K

Kawanishi K-200

Kawanishi N1K

Kawasaki Ki-100

Kawasaki Ki-102

Kawasaki Ki-147 I-Go Type1 - Ko Air to Surface Radio Guidance Missile

Kawasaki Ki-32

Kawasaki Ki-56

Kawasaki Ki-60

Kawasaki Ki-61

Kawasaki Ki-96

Kayaba Ka-1

Kazimierz Bartel

Kazimierz J. Kasperek

Kazimierz Kierzkowski

Kazimierz Leski

Kazimierz Moczarski

Kazimierz Prószyński

Kazimierz Pużak

Kazimierz Sakowicz

Kazimierz Skorupka

Kazimierz Szosland

Kazimierz Zarankiewicz

Kazimierz Zdziechowski

Kazimir Hnatow

Kazumi Onishi

Kazuo Mizutani

Kazuo Otani

Kazuo Sakamaki

Kazushige Ugaki

Kb wz. 98a

Kbk wz. 1929

Kbsp wz. 1938M

Kea Bouman

Kedyw

Kees Kist

Kees Rijvers

Kees Verkerk

Kehlsteinhaus

Keiji Nakazawa

Keiji Shibazaki

Keisuke Fujie

Keisuke Okada

Keith Arbuthnott, 15th Viscount of Arbuthnott

Keith B. McCutcheon

Keith Douglas

Keith Elliott

Keith Joseph

Keith L. Ware

Keith Mant

Keith Miller

Keith Moffatt

Keith Park

Keith Truscott

Keizō Komura

Keller E. Rockey

Kellogg-Briand Pact

Kelly's Heroes

Kempeitai East District Branch

Kempeitai

Ken Adam

Ken Albers

Ken Case

Ken Farnes

Ken Kavanaugh

Ken Reardon

Ken Wallis

Kendall Carl Campbell

Kenji Doihara

Kenji Hatanaka

Kenji Yanagiya

Kenkichi Ueda

Kenkichi Yoshizawa

Kenneth A. Walsh

Kenneth Arthur Noel Anderson

Kenneth Bainbridge

Kenneth Campbell

Kenneth Cecil Bunch

Kenneth Claiborne Royall

Kenneth Cummins

Kenneth D. Bailey

Kenneth E. Gruennert

Kenneth H. Dahlberg

Kenneth Hart Muir

Kenneth Horsfield

Kenneth Jacobs

Kenneth Kendall

Kenneth Konstam

Kenneth Lockwood

Kenneth M. Taylor

Kenneth Martin Willett

Kenneth Nichols

Kenneth Noland

Kenneth R. Harding

Kenneth S. Stern

Kenneth Shelley

Kenneth Smith

Kenneth Stonehouse

Kenneth Thomson, 2nd Baron Thomson of Fleet

Kenneth W. Durant

Kenneth Walker

Kenneth Wolstenholme

Kennkarte

Kenny Bowen

Kent Battle of Britain Museum

Kent Courtney

Kent Lee

Kenzo Oshima

Kerberos & Tachiguishi

Kerberos Panzer Cop

Kerberos Panzer Jäger

Kerberos saga characters

Kerberos saga chronicles

Kerberos Saga Rainy Dogs

Kerberos saga

Kerch-Eltigen Operation

Kerestinec prison

Kermit Beahan

Kermit Roosevelt

Kerrville Municipal Airport

Kesago Nakajima

Kesternich (World War II)

Ketil Askildt

Kevin Fagan (doctor)

Kevin Hatchi

Kevin Stoney

Keystone Heights Airport

Khaibakh massacre

Khaled Abdul-Wahab

Khaled Kasab Mahameed

Khalid Abdul Muhammad

Kharkov offensive operation

Khatyn massacre

Khorloogiin Choibalsan

KhTZ-16

Ki Aldrich

Kibei

Kichisaburō Nomura

Kidnapping of Polish children by Germany

Kidnapping of Polish children by Nazi Germany

Kielce cemetery massacre

Kiev Archive Museum of Transitional Period

Kigoshi Yasutsuna

Kii-class battleship

Kiichi Hasegawa

Kiichiro Higuchi

Kijiro Nambu

Kilauea-class ammunition ship

Kilo-class submarine

Kilometer Zero

Kim Malthe-Bruun

Kim Suk-won

Kimberley Plan

Kimon Georgiev

Kindertransport (play)

Kindertransport

King-Byng Affair

King George V-class battleship (1939)

King Michael's Coup

King of the Texas Rangers

King Rat (1962 novel)

King Rat (film)

Kingdom Identity Ministries

Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)

Kingdom of Montenegro (1941-1944)

Kingdom of Shadows

Kingman Airport and Industrial Park

Kings Go Forth

Kinmel Park Riots

Kinoaki Matsuo

Kirchenkampf

Kiril Dojčinovski

Kirill Meretskov

Kirino Toshiaki

Kirk Douglas

KIS (weapon)

Kiss Me Goodnight, Sergeant Major

Kite-class minesweeper

Kitsuju Ayabe

Kittelbach Pirates

Kitty Hart-Moxon

Kiyohide Shima

Kiyokazu Abo

Kiyonao Ichiki

Kiyoshi Itō

Kiyoshi K. Muranaga

Kiyoshi Katsuki

Kiyoshi Ogawa

Kiyotake Kawaguchi

Kiyoto Kagawa

KJ-1 AEWC

KJ-2000

Kjesäter

KKK auxiliaries

Klamath Falls Airport

Klaus Barbie

Klaus Bargsten

Klaus Bonhoeffer

Klaus Bonsack

Klaus Fuchs

Klaus Hildebrand

Klaus Kinski

Klaus Neumann

Klaus von Pape

Klavdiya Shulzhenko

Kleagle

Klement Gottwald

Klemm Kl 151

Klemm Kl 35

Klemm Kl 36

Kleo Pleyer

Klim (Red Cross)

Kliment Voroshilov tank

Kliment Voroshilov

Klooga concentration camp

Kloran

Kléber (Paris Métro)

Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross

Knighthood in the Independent State of Croatia

Knights of the White Camelia

Know Your Ally: Britain

Know Your Enemy: Japan

Knud Børge Martinsen

Knud Degn

Knut Hamsun

Knut Haugland

Knut Haukelid

Knut Rød

Knut Schmidt-Nielsen

Ko-hyoteki-class submarine

Ko Willems

Koča Popović

Kočevski Rog massacre

Kobylisy Shooting Range

Kodama Gentarō

Koji Ariyoshi

Koko Tanimoto-Kondo

Kokoda (film)

Kokoda Front Line

Kokoda Track campaign

Kokura

Kokusai Ku-7

Kokusai Ku-8

Kolberg (film)

Kolesnikov-Tsibin KC-20

Koli Point action

Kolkau

Kolmannen valtakunnan vieraana

Kommando Nowotny

Kommando

Kompanieführer

Komsomolets armored tractor

Konfederacja Narodu

Kong Xianrong

Kongō-class battlecruiser

Kongsberg Colt

Konrāds Kalējs

Konrad Dannenberg

Konrad Guderski

Konrad Henlein

Konrad Hirsch

Konrad Huber

Konrad Lorenz

Konrad Nonn

Konrad Rudnicki

Konrad Stäheli

Konrad von Preysing

Konstantin Feoktistov

Konstantin Hierl

Konstantin Leselidze

Konstantin Muraviev

Konstantin Pankov

Konstantin Rakutin

Konstantin Rodzaevsky

Konstantin Rokossovsky

Konstantin von Neurath

Konstantinos Davakis

Konstantinos Koukidis

Konstantinos Logothetopoulos

Konstanty Troczyński

Koolama

Korczak (film)

Korechika Anami

Korematsu v. United States

Koreshige Inuzuka

Korherr Report

Korpsabteilung

Korpsführer

Korsun-Cherkassy Pocket

Kortelisy

Koshirō Oikawa

Kosovo Operation (1944)

Kosta Mušicki

Kosta Pećanac

Kotoku Sato

Kotwica

Košice attack

Kouji Sakai

Kristian Løken

Krøkebærsletta

Krafft Arnold Ehricke

Krag-Jørgensen

Kragujevac massacre

Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp

Kraków Army

Kraków Cavalry Brigade

Kraków District

Kraków Ghetto

Kraków Uprising (1944)

Kranji War Cemetery

Krasny Kavkaz

Kreisau Circle

Kremenets

Kriegsmarine

Kriegsschule

Kriminalpolizei

Kristallnacht

Kristiansand Airport, Kjevik

Kristoffer Nilsen

Kronach Lorin

Kronprinz Wilhelm

Kronshtadt-class submarine chaser

Krsto Zrnov Popović

Krupp K5

Krupp Protze

Krupp Trial

Krystyna Skarbek

Krzyż Oświęcimski

Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński

Krzyz Walecznych

Ksawery Wyrozemski

Károly Bartha

Károly Fogl

Károly Kárpáti

Ku Klux Klan

Kuban Shield

Kubuś

Kuehn Family

Kugelblitz

Kugelpanzer

Kuma-class cruiser

Kumiko Sato

Kuniaki Koiso

Kuomintang

Kure Naval Arsenal

Kure Naval District

Kuroda Kiyotaka

Kuroki Tamemoto

Kurt-Bertram von Döring

Kurt Becher

Kurt Blome

Kurt Bühligen

Kurt Brändle

Kurt Daluege

Kurt Diebner

Kurt Dittmar

Kurt Doerry

Kurt Franz

Kurt Freiherr von Liebenstein

Kurt Gerron

Kurt Gerstein

Kurt Grasshoff

Kurt Gruber

Kurt Hahn

Kurt Herbert Adler

Kurt Huber

Kurt Jahn

Kurt Julius Goldstein

Kurt Knispel

Kurt Kuhlmey

Kurt Mahler

Kurt Meyer (Panzermeyer)

Kurt Nehrling

Kurt Plenzat

Kurt Sanderling

Kurt Schlosser

Kurt Schmitt

Kurt Schneider (aviator)

Kurt Schneider

Kurt Student

Kurt Tank

Kurt Ubben

Kurt von Hammerstein-Equord

Kurt von Ruffin

Kurt von Schleicher

Kurt von Tippelskirch

Kurt Vonnegut

Kurt Wahle

Kurt Weill

Kurt Welter

Kurt Wüthrich

Kurt Wolff (aviator)

Kurt Zeitzler

Kustaa Pihlajamäki

Kusunose Yukihiko

Kuzma Nikolaevich Derevyanko

Kvænangen concentration camp

KW-line

Kwacho Hironobu

Kwantung Army

Kyūjō Incident

Kyushu J7W

Kyushu K11W

Kyösti Karhila

KZ - Nebenlager Bretstein

KZ Gusen

Kåre Olav-Berg

Leonidas Squadron

The Leonidas Squadron, formally known as 5th Staffel of Kampfgeschwader 200, was a unit which was originally formed to fly the Fieseler Fi 103R (Reichenberg), a manned version of the V-1 flying bomb, in attacks in which the pilot was likely to be killed, or at best to parachute down at the attack site. The Reichenberg was never used in combat because Werner Baumbach, the commander of KG 200, and his superiors considered it an unnecessary waste of life and resources, and preferred instead to use the Mistel bomb, piloted from a regular Luftwaffe single-seat fighter used as an integral parasite aircraft, as the only manned part of the composite aircraft Mistel ordnance system, which released the lower, unmanned flying bomb component aircraft towards its target and returned.

List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients (Sa–Schr)

The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) and its variants were the highest awards in the military and paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany during World War II. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded for a wide range of reasons and across all ranks, from a senior commander for skilled leadership of his troops in battle to a low-ranking soldier for a single act of extreme gallantry. A total of 7,321 awards were made between its first presentation on 30 September 1939 and its last bestowal on 17 June 1945. This number is based on the acceptance by the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR). Presentations were made to members of the three military branches of the Wehrmacht—the Heer (Army), Kriegsmarine (Navy) and Luftwaffe (Air Force)—as well as the Waffen-SS, the Reich Labour Service and the Volkssturm (German national militia). There were also 43 foreign recipients of the award.These recipients are listed in the 1986 edition of Walther-Peer Fellgiebel's book, Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945. Fellgiebel was the former chairman and head of the order commission of the AKCR. In 1996 a second edition of this book was published with an addendum delisting 11 of these original recipients. Author Veit Scherzer has cast doubt on a further 193 of these listings. The majority of the disputed recipients had received the award in 1945, when the deteriorating situation of Germany during the final days of World War II left a number of nominations incomplete and pending in various stages of the approval process.Listed here are the 457 recipients whose last name is in the range "Sa–Schr". Scherzer has challenged the validity of 11 of these listings. This is the first of two lists of all 1,060 Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients whose last names start with "S". The recipients whose last name is in the range "Schu–Sz" are listed at List of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients (Schu–Sz). The recipients are ordered alphabetically by last name. The rank listed is the recipient's rank at the time the Knight's Cross was awarded.

Luftwaffe serviceable aircraft strengths (1940–45)

The following table summarizes the operational strength of the German air force, or Luftwaffe, by general category of aircraft. The period covered is World War II from 1940 to 1945, starting at the time of the Battle of Britain.

Maquis du Vercors

The Maquis du Vercors was a rural group of the French Forces of the Interior resistance (maquis) that fought the 1940–1944 German occupation of France in World War II. The Maquis du Vercors used the prominent scenic plateau known as the Massif du Vercors (Vercors Plateau) as a refuge. Many members of the maquis, known as maquisards, died fighting in 1944 in the Vercors Plateau.

Operation Eisenhammer

Operation Eisenhammer (German; in English Operation Iron Hammer) was a planned strategic bombing operation against power generators near Moscow and Gorky in the Soviet Union which was planned by Nazi Germany during World War II but eventually abandoned.

The plan of the operation was created in 1943 by Professor Heinrich Steinmann (1899–1969), an official at the Reich Air Ministry. A bombing raid was to destroy twelve turbines in water and steam power-plants near Moscow, Gorky, Tula, Stalinogorsk and under the Rybinsk Reservoir, as well as to attack certain substations, transmission lines and factories. If the attack were to succeed in destroying just two thirds of the turbines it would have knocked out about 75 percent of the power used by the Soviet defence industry. Only two smaller energy centers behind the Urals and in the Soviet Far East would have been left intact. At this time, the Soviet Union had no turbine manufacturing capabilities and the only repair facility (in Leningrad) had been heavily damaged.

To accomplish the goal Mistel long-range bombers were to be employed. To destroy water turbines, special floating mines called Sommerballon ("summer balloon") were to be dropped into the water and then pulled by the current straight into the turbines.

Due to the shortage of bombers and fuel, technical problems with the floating mine, and the Red Army overrunning advance bases, the plan was postponed repeatedly. In February 1945, however, Eisenhammer was resurrected, and Kampfgeschwader 200 assembled scout planes and about 100 Mistels near Berlin and waited for favourable weather to attack the plants around Moscow. After a US air raid on the primary Rechlin Erprobungstelle military aviation test headquarters facility, which destroyed 18 Mistels, the plan was postponed again and shortly afterwards finally dropped.

Operation Scherhorn

Operation Scherhorn (in English sources) or Operation Berezino (original Soviet codename) or Operation Beresino (in East German sources) was a secret deception operation performed by the NKVD against the Nazi secret services from August 1944 – May 1945. It was proposed by Joseph Stalin, drafted by Mikhail Maklyarsky and executed by Pavel Sudoplatov and his NKVD subordinates, assisted by ethnic German antifascists and communists.The main objective of Operation Berezino was to create an illusion of a large German armed group operating behind the front line in Soviet held territory and to deplete Nazi intelligence resources, through capture and extermination of their field operatives sent to assist these fictitious troops. The NKVD set up a fake German "resistance pocket" under "command" of Lieutenant-Colonel Heinrich Scherhorn, a real German prisoner of war forced to cooperate with the Soviets. The German response, Otto Skorzeny's Operation Freischütz (Operation Poacher in post-war English sources) developed according to Soviet expectations. The German commandos sent by Skorzeny were routinely arrested and forced to take part in the Soviet funkspiel. German support gradually faded but the German command maintained radio contact with "Group Scherhorn" until May 1945.

Phantom

Phantom may refer to:

An apparition, more specifically a

Spirit

Ghost

An illusion, a distortion of the senses

Theodor Rowehl

Theodor Rowehl (9 February 1894 – 6 June 1978) was a German pilot who founded the Luftwaffe's strategic air reconnaissance programme, and headed what became known as the Rowehl Squadron and became Kampfgeschwader 200 after his resignation in December 1943.

Werner Baumbach

Werner Baumbach (27 December 1916 – 20 October 1953) was a German bomber pilot during World War II. He commanded the secret bomber wing Kampfgeschwader 200 (KG 200) of the Luftwaffe, the air force of Nazi Germany. Baumbach received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords for the destruction of over 300,000 gross register tons (GRT) of Allied shipping.

Zirkus Rosarius

Zirkus Rosarius (also known as the Wanderzirkus Rosarius) was an Erprobungskommando-style special test unit of the Luftwaffe, specifically of the Luftwaffe High Command, tasked with testing captured British and American aircraft, all of which were repainted in German markings.

The purpose of testing allied aircraft was to discover any strengths or vulnerabilities in their design or performance. This information was highly useful in enabling German service personnel to develop tactics designed to counter strengths and exploit any vulnerabilities.

The unit was formed by Theodor Rosarius in 1943 and was part of the 2.Staffel/Versuchsverband Oberbefehlshaber der Luftwaffe (second squadron of the Experimental Unit of Luftwaffe High Command). The Zirkus also toured operational airfields showing Luftwaffe pilots the captured aircraft and training them in techniques to counter these aircraft. The Zirkus Rosarius seemed to have merited the use of its own Geschwaderkennung ("wing code") of "T9", with a few of the unit's aircraft coming from KG 200, which already used the "A3" identification code of that wing.

Bomber wings of the Luftwaffe
Kampfgeschwader
Schnellkampfgeschwader
Techniques
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