Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre

The Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre was a World War II mass shooting of Jews carried out in the opening stages of Operation Barbarossa, by mobile killing squads of Nazi German Order Police Battalion 320 along with Jeckeln's Einsatzgruppen,[1] the Hungarian soldiers, and the Ukrainian Auxiliary Police. The killings were conducted on August 27 and August 28, 1941, in the Soviet city of Kamianets-Podilskyi (now Ukraine), occupied by German troops in the previous month on July 11, 1941.[2] According to the Nazi German reports a total of 23,600 Jews were murdered, including 16,000 who had earlier been expelled from Hungary.[3]

Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre
Kamianets-Podilskyi August 1941 roundup
Jews marched through Kamenets to their execution site on the outskirts of town
DateAugust 27–28, 1941
TargetHungarian and Soviet Jews
DeathsTotal of 23,600 men, women and children

History

The city of Kamianets-Podilskyi (Kam'yanets'-Podil's'kyy), now in south-western Ukraine, was part of the Ukrainian SSR invaded by German forces on June 22, 1941 during the opening stages of Operation Barbarossa launched from occupied Poland. Shortly after Hungary (Germany's ally) engaged in war on the Soviet Union on June 27, 1941, officials of the agency responsible for the foreign nationals living in Hungary decided to deport foreign Jews; these were mostly Polish and Russian Jews, but there were also many refugees from western Europe. Jews who could not readily establish Hungarian citizenship were equally vulnerable to deportation. As a result, many Hungarian Jews who could not document their citizenship were also deported. Many Jewish communities, especially in Governorate of Subcarpathia (then as part of Hungary), were deported in their entirety.

The Hungarians loaded the Jews into freight cars and took them to Kőrösmező (now Yasinia, Ukraine), near the prewar Hungarian-Polish border, where they were transferred across the former Soviet border and handed over to the Germans. By August 10, 1941, approximately 14,000 Jews had been deported from Hungary to German-controlled territory. Once in German hands, the Jews, often still in family units, were forced to march from Kolomyia to Kamianets-Podilskyi.

On August 27 and 28, a detachment of Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing units) in Kamianets-Podilskyi and troops under the command of the Higher SS and Police Leader for the southern region, SS General Friedrich Jeckeln, carried out mass murder of the entire Jewish community including both deportees and locals. According to Jeckeln's report, a total of 23,600 Jews were massacred in this action. It was one of the first large-scale mass murder operations in pursuit of the Final Solution in Reichskommissariat Ukraine.[4] Within the Soviet Union grounds, it was preceded by a similar killing spree which began on July 9, 1941, and continued until September 19, in the city of Zhytomyr (made Judenfrei) with three mass-murder operations conducted by German and Ukrainian police in which 10,000 Jews perished. It was followed by the killing of 28,000 Jews shot by SS and the Ukrainian paramilitary in Vinnytsia on September 22, 1941, and the September 29 massacre of 33,771 Jews at Babi Yar.[5][6]

See also

References

  1. ^ Timothy Snyder (2010). Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. Basic Books. pp. 200–204. ISBN 0465002390.
  2. ^ Martin Davis. "Kamyanets-Podilskyy" (PDF). pp. 11-14 / 24 in PDF – via direct download. Also in: Martin Davis (2010). "The Nazi Invasion of Kamenets". JewishGen.
  3. ^ Randolph L. Braham (2000). The Politics of Genocide. Wayne State University Press. p. 34. ISBN 0814326919.
  4. ^ Mallmann, Klaus-Michael (2001). Der qualitative Sprung im Vernichtungsprozeß: das Massaker von Kamenez-Podolsk Ende August 1941 [The jump in quality of the extermination process: the Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre, end of August 1941]. Jahrbuch für Antisemitismusforschung (in German). 10. pp. 239–264. ISBN 3-593-36722-X.
  5. ^ Yad Vashem (2016). "Goering orders Heydrich to prepare the plan for the Final Solution of the Jewish Problem". The Holocaust Timeline 1940-1945. The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority.
  6. ^ Desbois, Patrick (2009). "Places of Massacres by German Task Forces between 1941 - 1943" (PDF). Germany: TOS Gemeinde Tübingen.
This article incorporates text from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, and has been released under the GFDL.
  • Yad Vashem Digital Collections. Source: Rabbi Baruch Jehoszua Rachmiel Rabinowicz. Kamenets Podolskiy mass grave, photos from Hungarian officers who took them. Item ID: 26094.

Coordinates: 48°41′00″N 26°35′00″E / 48.68333°N 26.58333°E

213th Security Division (Wehrmacht)

The 213th Security Division (213. Sicherungs-Division) was a rear-security division in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany. The unit was deployed in German-occupied areas of the Soviet Union, in the Army Group South Rear Area.

281st Security Division (Wehrmacht)

281st Security Division (281. Sicherungs-Division) was a rear-security division in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany. Established in 1941, the unit was deployed in German-occupied areas of the Soviet Union, in the Army Group North Rear Area. The unit was converted to an infantry division in 1945, while stationed in Courland.

285th Security Division (Wehrmacht)

The 285th Security Division (285. Sicherungs-Division) was a rear-security division in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany. The unit was deployed in German-occupied areas of the Soviet Union, in the Army Group North Rear Area.

286th Security Division (Wehrmacht)

The 286th Security Division (286. Sicherungs-Division) was a rear-security division in the Wehrmacht during World War II. The unit was deployed in German-occupied areas of the Soviet Union, in the Army Group Centre Rear Area. It was responsible for large-scale war crimes and atrocities including the deaths of thousands of Soviet civilians.

444th Security Division (Wehrmacht)

The 444th Security Division (444. Sicherungs-Division) was a rear-security division in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany. The unit was deployed in German-occupied areas of the Soviet Union, in the Army Group South Rear Area.

454th Security Division (Wehrmacht)

The 454th Security Division (454. Sicherungs-Division) was a rear-security division in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany. The unit was deployed in German-occupied areas of the Soviet Union, in the Army Group South Rear Area.

Erich Friderici

Erich Friderici (21 December 1885 – 19 September 1967) was a German general during World War II. He was the commander of Army Group South Rear Area behind Army Group South from 27 October 1941 to 9 January 1942, while the original commander, Karl von Roques, was on medical leave.Like other Army Group Rear Areas, the territories under Friderici's control were the sites of mass murder during the Holocaust and other crimes against humanity targeting the civilian population. Rear Area commanders operated in parallel, and in cooperation, with the Higher SS and Police Leaders appointed by the head of the SS, Heinrich Himmler, for each of the army group's rear areas. In the words of historian Michael Parrish, these army commanders "presided over an empire of terror and brutality".

Franz von Roques

Franz von Roques (1 September 1877 – 7 August 1967) was a German general during World War II. He was the commander of Army Group North Rear Area behind Army Group North from March 1941 to April 1943.

Like other Army Group Rear Areas, the territories under Roques control were the sites of mass murder during the Holocaust and other crimes against humanity targeting the civilian population. Rear Area commanders operated in parallel, and in cooperation, with the Higher SS and Police Leaders appointed by the head of the SS, Heinrich Himmler, for each of the army group's rear areas. In the words of historian Michael Parrish, these army commanders "presided over an empire of terror and brutality".

Friedrich Jeckeln

Friedrich Jeckeln (2 February 1895 – 3 February 1946) was a German SS commander during the Nazi era. He served as a Higher SS and Police Leader in the occupied Soviet Union during World War II. Jeckeln was the commander of one of the largest collection of Einsatzgruppen death squads and was personally responsible for ordering and organizing the deaths of over 100,000 Jews, Romani, and other "undesirables". After the end of World War II, Jeckeln was convicted for his war crimes by a Soviet military tribunal in Riga and executed in 1946.

Kharkov Trial

The Kharkov Trial was a war crimes trial held in front of a Soviet military tribunal in December 1943 in Kharkov, Soviet Union. Defendants included one Soviet collaborator, as well as German military, police, and SS personnel responsible for implementing the occupational policies during the German–Soviet War of 1941–45. The trial was the first time that German personnel had been tried for war crimes by the Allies during and after World War II.

Kommandostab Reichsführer-SS

Kommandostab Reichsführer-SS ("Command Staff Reichsführer-SS") was a paramilitary organisation within the SS of Nazi Germany under the personal control of Heinrich Himmler, the head of the SS. Established in 1941, prior to the German invasion of Soviet Union, it consisted of the Waffen-SS security forces deployed in the occupied territories.

Krasnodar Trial

The Krasnodar Trial was a war crimes trial held in front of a Soviet military tribunal in July 1943 in Krasnodar, Soviet Union. Defendants included Soviet collaborators with the German military, police, and SS forces responsible for implementing the occupational policies during the German–Soviet War of 1941–45.

List of massacres in Ukraine

This is a list of massacres in Ukraine.

Miklós Kozma

Vitéz Miklós Kozma de Leveld (5 September 1884 – 8 December 1941) was a Hungarian politician, who served as Interior Minister between 1935 and 1937. He was also Minister of Defence for a short time in the cabinet of Gyula Gömbös. He attended the Ludovika Academy and fought in World War I. He was the supporter of Miklós Horthy from the begins (Counter-government of Szeged). He worked as head of the Magyar Távirati Iroda (MTI) from 1922 until his death. He didn't agree with the Prime Minister Kálmán Darányi's moderate policy, so he resigned the position of the Minister of the Interior.

After the ministership Kozma continued his radical politics, he wanted to attack Carpathian Ruthenia (Kárpátalja) with the Rongyos Gárda at which time it was part of Czechoslovakia, but the government talked him out of this plan. The Rongyos Gárda had encountered the Slovak army after they filtered into the region. After the occupation Miklós Kozma was appointed as governor of Kárpátalja. He played an major role in the starting of the first Jewish deportation in Hungary, beginning with non-Hungarian Jews, including those who had escaped from surrounding countries into Hungary. Many of these deportees soon became victims of the Kamianets-Podilskyi Massacre.

Police Battalion 320

The Police Battalion 320 (Polizeibattalion 320) was a formation of the German Order Police (uniformed police) during the Nazi era. During Operation Barbarossa, it was subordinated to the SS and deployed in German-occupied areas, specifically the Army Group South Rear Area, of the Soviet Union, as part of Police Regiment Special Purpose (later the 11th SS Police Regiment). Alongside detachments from the Einsatzgruppen of the SD, it perpetrated mass murder in the Holocaust and was responsible for large-scale crimes against humanity targeting civilian populations.

Police Regiment North

The Police Regiment North (Polizei-Regiment Nord) was a police formation under the command of the SS of Nazi Germany. During Operation Barbarossa, it was deployed in German-occupied areas of the Soviet Union, in the Army Group North Rear Area.The Police Regiment Centre was formed in June 1941 by combining three Order Police (Orpo) Battalions and associated units. The regiment was subordinated to Hans-Adolf Prützmann, the Higher SS and Police Leader (HSS-PF) for Army Group North.Alongside the Einsatzgruppen detachments, it perpetrated mass murder in the Holocaust. The information on the scope of the unit's activities remains limited as, in contrast to the Police Regiment Centre and South, the 1941 reports of the unit were not intercepted by the British intelligence. Prützmann's command experienced communications difficulties during the summer of 1941. Then starting on September 12, the HSS-PF were instructed to not transmit their reports over the radio. Thus, none of its reports were decrypted as part of the operation Ultra, the British signals intelligence program.

Rintfleisch massacres

The Rintfleisch or Rindfleisch movement was a series of massacres against Jews in the year 1298. The event, in later terminology a pogrom, was the first large-scale persecution in Germany since the First Crusade.

Ukase 43

Ukase 43 was the 19 April 1943 ukase (decree) of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Its full title was "On measures for the punishment of German-Fascist criminals who are guilty of killing or maltreating Soviet civilians and Red Army prisoners-of-war and for the punishment of spies and traitors to their fatherland among Soviet citizens and their helpers". The law was directed at the German, Romanian, Hungarian, and Finnish personnel guilty of war crimes, as well as Soviet citizens who collaborated with the enemy.Under the law, Soviet tribunals prosecuted members of the Wehrmacht, SS, SD, Order Police, and the Nazi civilian administration in the formerly occupied territories. The decree was issued on the same date as the Soviet authorities broke off relations with the Polish government-in-exile in the aftermath of the discovery of the site of the Katyn massacre. Ukase 43 can thus be viewed as part of the Soviet response to the diplomatic crisis, aimed at drawing the attention of the world public to the crimes of Germany and its allies.

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