Kamchatka Krai (Russian: Камча́тский край, tr. Kamchatsky kray, IPA: [kɐmˈtɕatskʲɪj kraj]) is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia. It is geographically located in the Far East region of the country, and it is administratively part of the Far Eastern Federal District. Kamchatka Krai has a population of 322,079 (2010).
Kamchatka Krai was formed on July 1, 2007, as a result of the merger of Kamchatka Oblast and Koryak Autonomous Okrug, based on the voting in a referendum on the issue on October 23, 2005. The okrug retains the status of a special administrative division of the krai, under the name of Koryak Okrug.
The Kamchatka Peninsula forms the majority of the krai's territory, separating the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea in the Pacific Ocean. The remainder is formed by a minor northern mainland portion, Karaginsky Island and the Commander Islands in the Bering Sea. It is bordered by Magadan Oblast to the west and Chukotka to the north. Kamchatka Krai is an active volcanic zone which is home to Kluchevskaya, the largest volcano in Eurasia, and the Decade Volcanoes of Avachinsky and Koryaksky.
Coat of arms
|Federal district||Far Eastern|
|Economic region||Far Eastern|
|Established||July 1, 2007|
|• Body||Legislative Assembly|
|• Governor||Vladimir Ilyukhin|
|• Total||472,300 km2 (182,400 sq mi)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||0.68/km2 (1.8/sq mi)|
|ISO 3166 code||RU-KAM|
|License plates||41, 82|
Kamchatka Krai occupies the territory of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the adjacent part of the mainland, the island Karaginsky and Commander Islands. Bounded to the east by the Bering Sea of the Pacific Ocean (a coastline of more than 2,000 kilometers (1,200 mi)) and to the west by the Okhotsk Sea (a coastline of approximately 2,000 kilometers (1,200 mi)).
Mountain ranges: Sredinny Range (the length of about 900 kilometres (560 mi)), East, Vetveysky, Penzhinsky, Pahachinsky, Olyutorskij et al. Heights: Khuvkhoitun (2,613 meters (8,573 ft)), the Ice (2,562 meters (8,406 ft)), Acute (2,552 meters (8,373 ft)), Shishel (2,531 meters (8,304 ft)), Tylele volcano (2,234 meters (7,329 ft)).
Peninsulas (NW-NE going clockwise): Gavena Peninsula, Ilpinsky Peninsula, Ozernoy Peninsula, Kamchatskiy Pensinula, Shipunksiy Peninsula and the Yelistratova Peninsula.
Islands (NW-NE going clockwise): Verkhoturov Island, Karaginsky Island, the Commander Islands, Ptichy Island (Kamchatka Krai), Konus Island, Zubchaty Island, Rovny Island, Dobrzhanskogo Island, Vtoroy Island, Krayniy Island and Trety Island. Despite their proximity the Kuril Islands are not part of Kamchatka Krai, falling instead under Sakhalin Oblast.
Kamchatka belongs to the zone of volcanic activity, there are about 300 large and medium-sized volcanoes, 29 of them are active. The largest volcano in Eurasia – Kluchevskaya (altitude 4,750 meters (15,580 ft)). With the volcanic activity associated with the formation of many minerals, as well as a manifestation of hydro geo thermal activity: education fumaroles, geysers, hot springs, etc.
Most of the peninsula is covered with forests of stone birch, in the upper parts of the mountain slopes are common alder and cedar elfin. In the central part, especially in the valley of the Kamchatka River, widespread forests of larch and spruce Kuril Ajan. In floodplains, forests grow with fragrant poplar, alder, hairy, Chosenia, willow Sakhalin. In the second tier, and the undergrowth common hawthorn zelenomyakotny, Asian cherry, rowan Kamchatka, shrubs – Kamchatka elderberries, rosehips tupoushkovy, rowan buzinolistnaya, honeysuckle Kamchatka, meadowsweet, willow shrubs, and many other species. Kamchatka, especially coastal areas, characterized by tall – species such as shelamaynik Kamchatka, angelica bearish, sweet parsnip reach a height of 3–4 meters.
More than 14.5% of the territory of the Kamchatka Territory refers to the specially protected. There are six protected areas of federal significance (three state reserves, one federal reserve "South Kamchatka", two spa areas – "Resort Paratunka", "Malkinskie mineral waters"); four natural parks of regional significance ("Nalychevo", "Bystrinsky", "South Kamchatka", "Kluchevskoy"); 22 reserve of regional importance; 116 monuments of nature; four protected areas (landscape natural park "Blue Lake", Southwest and Tundra Sobolewski reserves).
Kronotsky Nature Reserve is a nature area reserved for the study of natural sciences in the remote Russian Far East, on the coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula. It was created in 1934 and its current boundary contains an area of 10,990 square kilometers (4,240 sq mi). It also has Russia's only geyser basin, plus several mountain ranges with numerous volcanoes, both active and extinct. Due to its often harsh climate and its mix of volcanoes and geysers, it is frequently described as the "Land of Fire and Ice".
It is mainly accessible only to scientists, plus approximately 3,000 tourists annually who pay a fee equivalent to US$700 to travel by helicopter for a single day's visit. Kronotsky Nature Reserve has been proclaimed a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
The main industries in Kamchatka include fishing and forestry. Coal and other raw materials are extracted. Due to its geographical location near major shipping routes, it is a center for shipbuilding, ship repair, and related services. There are also oil and mineral resources which are yet to be fully developed.
The largest companies in the region include Kamchatskenergo (power distribution company with revenues of $257.11 million in 2017), Oceanrybflot (fishing company, $248.54 million), Morskoy Trast ($197.12 million), Amethystvoye Mining and Processing Combine (gold mine, part of Renova Group, $171.41 million).
After nearly two decades, Kamchatka recorded a net natural population growth instead of decline in 2007. However, in first half of 2008, the trend was reversed and population decline was observed again, partly due to an increased mortality rate among the rural population.
Total fertility rate:
2009 – 1.58 | 2010 – 1.51 | 2011 – 1.61 | 2012 – 1.73 | 2013 – 1.77 | 2014 – 1.85 | 2015 – 1.89 | 2016 – 1.90(e)
Ethnic composition (2010):
According to a 2012 survey 31.2% of the population of Kamchatka adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 4.4% are unaffiliated Christians, 0.8% are Orthodox Christians that don't belong to the Russian Orthodox Church. 2% of the population adheres to the Slavic native faith or to Siberian shamanism, 1.2% to Islam, 0.6% to forms of Protestantism, and 0.4% to Hinduism. In addition, 22.8% of the population declares to be spiritual but not religious, 21% is atheist, and 14.8% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.
Kamchatka Krai was formed on July 1, 2007 as a result of the merger of Kamchatka Oblast with Koryak Autonomous Okrug.
Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:
Palana (Палана) (administrative center of the okrug)
Towns under the federal government management:
Cities and towns under the oblast's jurisdiction:
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Петропавловск-Камчатский) (administrative center)
Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:
Vulkanny (Вулканный)Flag of Kamchatka Krai
The flag of Kamchatka Krai, in the Russian Federation, is a horizontal bicolour of white and blue charged with an emblem. The emblem is a modification of the Coat of Arms of Kamchatka Krai: three snow-capped volcano peaks on the backdrop of a red sun framed by an ornament.
The flag was adopted in February, 2010 by the Legislative Assembly of Kamchatka Krai, and came into use July 1, 2010.Governor of Kamchatka Krai
The Governor of Kamchatka Krai is the head of administration of that federal subject of Russia.Karaginsky Island
Karaginsky Island or Karaginskiy Island (Russian: Карагинский остров) is an island in the Karaginsky Gulf of the Bering Sea. The 40 km-wide strait between the Kamchatka Peninsula and this island is called Litke Strait. Karaginsky Island is a Ramsar site.
Even though the island is uninhabited, the Karagin Koryaks have traditionally lived in Karaginskiy Island. Migrant reindeer herders still live in temporary shelters on the island.
The island is 101 km long and up to 27 km wide, with an area of 2,404 km². The highest peak of the island is 912 m. Karaginsky Island is covered with tundra vegetation and cedar underwood. In the summer there are many flowers.
45 km north of Karaginsky Island's northern tip lies the small and narrow Verkhoturov Island (Ostrov Verkhoturova). It is 3.5 km long and has an average width of 0.5 km.Klyuchi (air base)
Klyuchi Air Base is in Kamchatka Krai, Russia located 3 kilometers (1.9 mi) southwest of the settlement of Klyuchi. It is a small but significant interceptor airfield covering northern Kamchatka, probably to defend international borders during nearby missile testing operations at Kura Missile Test Range 130 km to the northeast. Klyuchi contains about twelve fighter revetments and some narrow tarmac space. It is an active military base; Google high-res imagery shows some An-24 and other transports, along with helicopters.
Early US satellite imagery showed the airfield was constructed in 1963, replacing an old airfield about 10 miles (16 km) to the east-southeast. In another satellite pass in 1966, analysts saw mostly transports such as the Lisunov Li-2, an Antonov An-2, and a helicopter.
An OSAE (Independent Composite Aviation Squadron) with An-26 aircraft is or was based at Klyuchi. The airfield may have reverted to some civilian use since the Cold War.Koryaks
Koryaks (or Koriak, Russian: Коряки) are an indigenous people of the Russian Far East, who live immediately north of the Kamchatka Peninsula in Kamchatka Krai and inhabit the coastlands of the Bering Sea. The cultural borders of the Koryaks include Tigilsk in the south and the Anadyr basin in the north.
The Koryaks are culturally similar to the Chukchis of extreme northeast Siberia. The Koryak language and Alutor (which is often regarded as a dialect of Koryak), are linguistically close to the Chukchi language. All of these languages are members of the Chukotko-Kamchatkan language family. They are more distantly related to the Itelmens on the Kamchatka Peninsula. All of these peoples and other, unrelated minorities in and around Kamchatka are known collectively as Kamchadals.
Neighbors of the Koryaks include the Evens to the west, the Alutor to the south (on the isthmus of Kamchatka Peninsula), the Kerek to the east, and the Chukchi to the northeast.
The Koryak are typically split into two groups: the coastal people Nemelan (or Nymylan) meaning 'village dwellers,' due to their living in villages. Their lifestyle is based on local fishing and marine mammal hunting. The inland Koryak, reindeer herders, are called Chaucu (or Chauchuven), meaning 'rich in reindeer.' They are more nomadic, following the herds as they graze with the seasons.According to the 2010 census, there were 7,953 Koryaks in Russia.Lenino (air base)
Lenino (Russian: Ленино(Камчатка)) is a former air base in Kamchatka Krai, Russia located 11 km west of Lenino. It is a large abandoned military base 120 km west of Petropavlovsk, and may have been designed for Tupolev Tu-16 operations during the 1950s and 1960s. It appears to have been abandoned in the 1970s.Milkovo Airport
Milkovo Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Мильково) (ICAO: UHPM) is an airport in Kamchatka Krai, Russia located 4 km southwest of Milkovo. It is a medium-sized airfield; probably constructed in the 1960s, with a single parking tarmac. Dr. Yuyvk, a local physician, requested this airport's construction as patients in Milkovo could not be supplied needed medicines.Nikolskoye Airport
Nikolskoye Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Никольское) (ICAO: UHPX) is an airport on Bering Island, Russia located four kilometers southeast of Nikolskoye, Kamchatka Krai. It is the only airfield on the Commander Islands. The airport has no significant military use.Pakhachi Airport
Pakhachi Airport (ICAO: UHPA) is an airport in Koryak Okrug, Russia located 2kmW of Ust-Pakhachi. It services small transport aircraft.Palana Airport
Palana Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Палана) (ICAO: UHPL) is an airport in Koryak Okrug, Russia located 4 km west of Palana. It services small transports. There is also the Palana New Airport, which appeared to be under construction around 2000 in Google Earth imagery.Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Russian: Петропа́вловск-Камча́тский, tr. Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, IPA: [pʲɪtrɐˈpavləfsk kɐmˈtɕatskʲɪj] (listen)) is a city and the administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center of Kamchatka Krai, Russia. Population: 179,780 (2010 Census); 198,028 (2002 Census); 268,747 (1989 Census).It was previously known as Petropavlovsk (until 1924).Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Airport
Yelizovo Airport (Russian: Аэропорт Елизово) (IATA: PKC, ICAO: UHPP) is an airport located in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Kamchatka Krai. Its 3,400 m (11,200 ft) runway is long enough to accommodate a fully loaded Ilyushin Il-96 or Boeing 707 aircraft. The main apron contains 34 parking spaces, 18 of which can service large wide-body airliners, such as Ilyushin IL-96; additional 8 paved spaces for smaller aircraft and 12 unpaved parking spaces.Ptichy Island (Kamchatka Krai)
Ptichy Island (Russian: Ostrov Ptichy, meaning 'Bird Island') is a small island in the Sea of Okhotsk. It lies close to the mainland off the western coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula.Sea Lion Rock
Sea Lion Rock (Russian: Сивучий Камень, Sivuchiy Kamen), is a rock islet in the Commander Islands archipelago, in the Bering Sea, the Russian Far East.
It is located near the Kamchatka Peninsula, in Kamchatka Krai, Russia.Sea Otter Rocks
Sea Otter Rocks (Russian: Камни Бобровые, Kamni Bobrovyye) are rock islets of the Commander Islands archipelago in the Bering Sea, Russia.
They are within Kamchatka Krai, in the Russian Far East.Tilichiki Airport
Tilichiki (also Korf) (ICAO: UHPT) is an airport in Kamchatka Krai, Russia located 5 km south of Tilichiki. It services small transport aircraft and is located on a sand islet.Uka Airport
Uka Airport was an airfield in Kamchatka Krai, Russia, located 11 km northwest of Uka. In recent decades, it was probably a civilian airfield, but the configuration and runway length suggests that it may have been a military airfield during the 1950s or 1960s. This airfield was used during the Second World War by US airplanes on their way to Siberia for Lend-Lease program.
Near the airfield is a very big old antenna built for the Russian space programme in 1950s.
Satellite imagery (Google Earth) from 2016-09-22 shows substantial vegetation overgrowth on the runway, suggesting the airport has not been operated in several years prior.Ust-Kamchatsk Airport
Ust-Kamchatsk Airport (ICAO: UHPK) is an airport in Kamchatka Krai, Russia located ten kilometers east of Ust-Kamchatsk. It is a medium-sized airfield handling small transport planes. The taxiway and apron configurations suggest possible military use in past, though the substandard runway length suggests it is not of significant military importance.
Administrative divisions of Kamchatka Krai
|Districts of Koryak Okrug|
|Cities and towns|