A kalpis is a type of Greek pottery vessel used for carrying water. It is a two-handled variant of the hydria.

Kalpis komastes Louvre G51
Attic Kalpis, Komastes and urinating woman. Attic red-figure kalpis, ca. 500 BC. "(Department of Greek, Etruscan and Roman Antiquities, Louvre)"
Angel's Hill

Angel's Hill (エンゼルの丘, Enzeru no Oka) is a manga by Osamu Tezuka that began serialization in 1960.

Apple of Discord

An apple of discord is a reference to the Golden Apple of Discord (Greek: μῆλον τῆς Ἔριδος) which, according to Greek mythology, the goddess Eris (Gr. Ἔρις, "Strife") tossed in the midst of the feast of the gods at the wedding of Peleus and Thetis as a prize of beauty, thus sparking a vanity-fueled dispute among Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite that eventually led to the Trojan War (for the complete story, see The Judgement of Paris). Thus, "apple of discord" is used to signify the core, kernel, or crux of an argument, or a small matter that could lead to a bigger dispute.

Archaeological Museum of Veroia

The Archaeological Museum of Veroia is one of the most important archaeological museums in Macedonia, Greece. The museum was established in 1965 in a building constructed especially for the purpose in Elia, one of the loveliest parts of the town. Finds from the Palaeolithic to the Ottoman period are displayed in its three halls.

The Neolithic finds come from the settlement at Nea Nikomideia, which is believed to be the oldest known permanent settlement in Europe. The Iron Age finds come from the cemetery of Vergina.

In the first hall are special showcases displaying a bronze kalpis or cinerary urn of the fourth century BC, a red-figure bell crater of the Kertsch type of the fourth century BC, and a bronze hydria kalpis used as a cinerary urn of the fourth century BC from the north-east cemetery of Veroia, and a reconstruction of a single-chambered rock-cut family tomb of the Hellenistic period, which was excavated in Veroia. Various other showcases display groups of finds from pit graves, cist graves, and rock-cut graves excavated in Veroia’s north-east, south-east, and south-west cemeteries. These groups illustrate the development of pottery and koroplastics from the end of the fifth to the end of the second century BC.

The second hall contains mainly grave stelai and Hellenistic and Roman reliefs of the first century BC from the Veroia area. Of particular note are the stela bearing the Gymnasiarch’s Law, which describes how middle and senior education was conducted in the Veroia Gymnasium, and the hunter-and-boar group, which is part of the sculptural decoration of a third-century BC grave monument from Vergina. The most notable of the stelai are those of Paterinos Antigonou and Adea Kassandrou.

The third hall contains exhibits of the Roman period, most notably an inscribed bust of the river god Olganos of the second century AD, which was found at Kopanos and is in excellent condition. There are also a grave relief of a husband and wife (second century AD), which was found in Veroia, burial offerings from a cist grave of the Roman period (third century AD), and terracotta figurines from an early Roman tomb.

Outside the museum are dozens of sarcophagi, grave stelai, and statues, the most impressive of all being a head of Medusa, a work of the second century BC, which must have been built into the north wall of the city.


In Greek mythology, Argo (; in Greek: Ἀργώ) was the ship on which Jason and the Argonauts sailed from Iolcos to Colchis to retrieve the Golden Fleece.


In classical antiquity, the cornucopia (from Latin cornu copiae), also called the horn of plenty, was a symbol of abundance and nourishment, commonly a large horn-shaped container overflowing with produce, flowers or nuts.

Dragon's teeth (mythology)

In Greek myth, dragon's teeth feature prominently in the legends of the Phoenician prince Cadmus and in Jason's quest for the Golden Fleece. In each case, the dragons are real and breathe fire. Their teeth, once planted, would grow into fully armed warriors.

Cadmus, the bringer of literacy and civilization, killed the sacred dragon that guarded the spring of Ares. The goddess Athena told him to sow the teeth, from which sprang a group of ferocious warriors called the spartoi. He threw a precious jewel into the midst of the warriors, who turned on each other in an attempt to seize the stone for themselves. The five survivors joined with Cadmus to found the city of Thebes.The classical legends of Cadmus and Jason have given rise to the phrase "to sow dragon's teeth." This is used as a metaphor to refer to doing something that has the effect of fomenting disputes.

Eucharides Painter

Eucharides Painter is the common nickname of an ancient Greek artist who decorated but did not sign attic vases. Neither his real name, nor the dates of his birth and death are known. Presumably this artist was a pupil of the Nikoxenos painter.

The name was introduced in 1911 by John Beazley, a classical historian at the University of Oxford who had a special interest in attic vases. Through close examination of stylistic details, Beazley and other scholars recognized pieces painted by the same artist. In this case, the nickname appreciates the anonymous painter's repeated use of kalos inscriptions praising the beauty of a named young boy. A vase with the inscription καλος Ευχαριδης ("kalos Eucharides", i.e. Eucharides is beautiful) became the source of the artist's name.

The Eucharides painter was working in Athens in the years from about 500 BC to 470 BC. At this time the technique of vase painting switched from black-figured to red-figured illustrations, a process commonly attributed to the Andokides Painter. Correspondingly, both black-figured and red-figured vases are attributed to the Eucharides painter. Their shapes range from large kraters to small cups. Scenes were drawn from mythology and daily life.

Many of this artist's known works were retrieved from Etruscan tombs in Italy. Recently, one of his attic vases was claimed to be looted and was repossessed by the Italian State. NY Observer NY Times

Galatea (mythology)

Galatea (; Greek: Γαλάτεια; "she who is milk-white") is a name popularly applied to the statue carved of ivory by Pygmalion of Cyprus, which then came to life in Greek mythology. In modern English the name usually alludes to that story.

Galatea is also the name of Polyphemus's object of desire in Theocritus's Idylls VI and XI and is linked with Polyphemus again in the myth of Acis and Galatea in Ovid's Metamorphoses.


The harpē (ἅρπη) was a type of sword or sickle; a sword with a sickle protrusion along one edge near the tip of the blade. The harpe is mentioned in Greek and Roman sources, and almost always in mythological contexts.

The harpe sword is most notably identified as the weapon used by Cronus to castrate and depose his father, Uranus. Alternately, that weapon is identified as a more traditional sickle or scythe. The harpe, scythe or sickle was either a flint or adamantine (diamond) blade, and was provided to Cronus by his mother, Gaia. According to an ancient myth recorded in Hesiod's Theogony, Uranus had cast his and Gaia's children, the Cyclopes and Hecatonchires, down into Tartarus. The enraged Gaia plotted Uranus' downfall. She beseeched each of her sons to rise up against Uranus but was refused by all but the youngest, Cronus. So, Gaia provided him with the weapon, and when Uranus next came to lay with Gaia, Cronus leapt up into action and castrated his father, overthrowing him and driving him away forever. Thus the blade (whether harpe, sickle or scythe) became a symbol of Cronus's power.

Perseus, a grandson of Cronus, is also regularly depicted in statues and sculpture armed with a harpe sword in his quest to slay the Gorgon, Medusa, and recover her head to use against Ceto. Perseus was provided with such a sword by his father, Zeus (Cronus' youngest son and later overthrower).

In Greek and Roman art it is variously depicted, but it seems that originally it was a khopesh-like sickle-sword. Later depictions often show it as a combination of a sword and sickle, and this odd interpretation is explicitly described in the 2nd century Leucippe and Clitophon.


A hydria (Greek: ὑδρία; plural hydriai) is a type of water-carrying vessel in the metalwork and pottery of Ancient Greece. The hydria has three handles. Two horizontal handles on either side of the body of the pot were used for lifting and carrying the pot. The third handle, a vertical one, located in the center of the other two handles, was used when pouring water. If the third handle is missing, the type is called a kalpis. This water vessel can be found in both red- and black-figure technique. They often depicted scenes of Greek mythology that reflected moral and social obligations. As well as holding water hydriai could be used for holding ashes in burials and collecting ballots in elections.By the mid-5th century BC, Greek artisans were also creating hydria from bronze, some of which were elaborately decorated with finely detailed figures. A 6th-century example is in the Historisches Museum, Berne. Such vessels were also known from Minoan pottery.

Regina Vasorum ("Queen of Vases") is a famous late (4th century BC) hydria in the Hermitage Museum, found in Italy.


In Greek mythology, ichor ( or ; Ancient Greek: ἰχώρ) is the ethereal fluid that is the blood of the gods and/or immortals.

List of avian humanoids

Avian humanoids (people with the characteristics of birds) are a common motif in folklore and popular fiction.

Lotus tree

The lotus tree (Greek: λωτός, translit. lōtós) is a plant that is referred to in stories from Greek and Roman mythology.

The lotus tree is mentioned in Homer's Odyssey as bearing a fruit that caused a pleasant drowsiness, and which was said to be the only food of an island people called the Lotophagi or Lotus-eaters. When they ate of the lotus tree they would forget their friends and homes and would lose their desire to return to their native land in favor of living in idleness. Botanical candidates for the lotus tree include the date-plum (Diospyros lotus), which is a sub-evergreen tree native to Africa that grows to about 25 feet bearing yellowish green flowers, as well as Ziziphus lotus, a plant with an edible fruit closely related to the jujube, native to North Africa and the islands in the Gulf of Gabes such as Jerba.

In Ovid's Metamorphoses, the nymph Lotis was the beautiful daughter of Neptune, the god of water and the sea. In order to flee the violent attention of Priapus, she invoked the assistance of the gods, who answered her prayers by turning her into a lotus tree.The Book of Job has two lines (40:21-22), with the Hebrew word צֶאֱלִים‎ (tse'elim), which appears nowhere else in the Bible. A common translation has been "lotus trees" since the publication of the Revised Version. However it is sometimes rendered simply as "shady trees".

Necklace of Harmonia

The Necklace of Harmonia was a fabled object in Greek mythology that, according to legend, brought great misfortune to all of its wearers or owners, who were primarily queens and princesses of the ill-fated House of Thebes.

Panacea (medicine)

The panacea , named after the Greek goddess of universal remedy Panacea, is any supposed remedy that is claimed to cure all diseases and prolong life indefinitely. It was in the past sought by alchemists as a connection to the elixir of life and the philosopher's stone, a mythical substance which would enable the transmutation of common metals into gold.

The Cahuilla people of the Colorado Desert region of California used the red sap of the elephant tree (Bursera microphylla) as a panacea.The Latin genus name of ginseng is Panax, (or "panacea") reflecting Linnean understanding that ginseng was widely used in traditional Chinese medicine as a cure-all.A panacea (or panaceum) is also a literary term to represent any solution to solve all problems related to a particular issue. The term panacea is also used in a negative way to describe the overuse of any one solution to solve many different problems especially in medicine.

Sappho Painter

Sappho Painter was an Attic black-figure vase painter, active c. 510–490 BCE.His name vase is a kalpis depicting the poet Sappho, currently held by the National Museum, Warsaw (Inv. 142333). The hand of the Sappho Painter has been identified on 95 vessels, 70% of which are lekythoi. His work has been also seen on tomb wall slabs and epinetra.Nearly half of his paintings are of the white-ground style. He apparently avoided the then-predominant red-figure technique, but sometimes used Six's technique whereby figures are laid on a black surface in white or red and details are incised so that the black shows through. He was influenced and possibly trained by the Edinburgh Painter.


A thyrsus or thyrsos (Ancient Greek: θύρσος) was a wand or staff of giant fennel (Ferula communis) covered with ivy vines and leaves, sometimes wound with taeniae and topped with a pine cone or by a bunch of vine-leaves and grapes or ivy-leaves and berries.

Winnowing Oar

The Winnowing Oar (athereloigos - Greek ἀθηρηλοιγός) is an object that appears in Books XI and XXIII of Homer's Odyssey. In the epic, Odysseus is instructed by Tiresias to take an oar from his ship and to walk inland until he finds a "land that knows nothing of the sea", where the oar would be mistaken for a winnowing fan. At this point, he is to offer a sacrifice to Poseidon, and then at last his journeys would be over.

Word stem

In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word. The term is used with slightly different meanings.

In one usage, a stem is a form to which affixes can be attached. Thus, in this usage, the English word friendships contains the stem friend, to which the derivational suffix -ship is attached to form a new stem friendship, to which the inflectional suffix -s is attached. In a variant of this usage, the root of the word (in the example, friend) is not counted as a stem.

In a slightly different usage, which is adopted in the remainder of this article, a word has a single stem, namely the part of the word that is common to all its inflected variants. Thus, in this usage, all derivational affixes are part of the stem. For example, the stem of friendships is friendship, to which the inflectional suffix -s is attached.

Stems may be a root, e.g. run, or they may be morphologically complex, as in compound words (e.g. the compound nouns meat ball or bottle opener) or words with derivational morphemes (e.g. the derived verbs black-en or standard-ize). Hence, the stem of the complex English noun photographer is photo·graph·er, but not photo. For another example, the root of the English verb form destabilized is stabil-, a form of stable that does not occur alone; the stem is de·stabil·ize, which includes the derivational affixes de- and -ize, but not the inflectional past tense suffix -(e)d. That is, a stem is that part of a word that inflectional affixes attach to.

The exact use of the word 'stem' depends on the morphology of the language in question. In Athabaskan linguistics, for example, a verb stem is a root that cannot appear on its own, and that carries the tone of the word. Athabaskan verbs typically have two stems in this analysis, each preceded by prefixes.

Uncovering and analyzing cognation between stems and roots within and across languages has allowed comparative philology and comparative linguistics to determine the history of languages and language families.

Wine vessels
Water vessels
Mixing vessels
Perfume, oil, and wedding
Funerary and religious

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