Kalinyamat Sultanate, Kalinyamat Kingdom or Jepara Kingdom, was a 16th-century Javanese Islamic polity in the northern part of the island of Java, centred in modern-day Jepara, Central Java, Indonesia.
Both Jepara and Kalinyamat was first established as a Duchy settlements under Demak Sultanate. After succession feud, Kalinyamat was declared as a separate polity from Demak. Traditional accounts provide the names of several of its leaders; Sultan Hadlirin, and his wife and also successor, Retna Kencana (Ratu Kalinyamat) (r. 1549–1579).
|Capital||Kalinyamat City and Jepara|
|Common languages||Javanese language|
|Pangeran Arya Jepara|
The settlements in Kalinyamat and the port of Jepara was established as a kadipaten or duchy under Demak Sultanate. The daughter of Sultan Trenggana of Demak, Retna Kencana and her husband, Sultan Hadlirin, was appointed as the duke and duchess of Kalinyamat by Demak Sultan.
After the death of Trenggana, the throne was succeeded to his son Sunan Prawata. In 1549, Arya Penangsang, the duke of Jipang Panolan ascend to the throne of Demak after assassinating his cousin Sunan Prawata. Prawata younger sister Ratna Kencana, sought justice to Sunan Kudus, the teacher of Penangsang. Sunan Kudus however, declined her request since previously Prawata has committed the crime by assassinate Penangsang's father, Raden Kikin (Sekar Seda ing Lepen), thus rendered Penangsang's revenge justified. Disappointed, Ratna Kencana went home with her husband, Sultan Hadlirin, from Kudus to Kalinyamat only to be attacked by Penangsang's men on their way. Hadlirin was killed in this attack while Ratu Kalinyamat barely survived.
After the succession feud that led to the assassination of Sunan Prawata of Demak by Arya Penangsang, Queen Kalinyamat declared her domain, Kalinyamat, Jepara, and other parts as a separate kingdom from Demak. Ratu Kalinyamat sought revenge on Penangsang, since he also murdered her husband, Sultan Hadlirin. She urged her brother in-law, Hadiwijaya (popularly known as Jaka Tingkir), the Duke of Pajang (Boyolali), to kill Arya Penangsang.
In 1550, Queen Regent of Jepara, Kalinyamat, alarmed at the growth of Portuguese power in the region, sent 4,000 soldiers in 40 ships to meet sultan Johor's request to free Malacca of the dreaded Europeans. Jepara troops were later joined forces with Malay Guild with combined up to 200 warships. The combined forces attacked from the north to capture most of Malacca. However, the Portuguese, in retaliation, pushed back the invading forces. Malay Guild troops were repelled, while the Jepara troops remained on shore. While trying to evacuate the shores, the Jepara troops were ambushed by the Portuguese, thus suffering an estimated 2,000 casualties. The storm came crashing and stranded two Jepara vessels back to Malacca shore, and they fell prey to the Portuguese. Jepara soldiers who made it back to Java were not more than a half of those managed to leave Malacca.
In 1564, Ali Riayat Syah of Aceh asked for Demak's help to attack the Portuguese in Malacca. At that time the ruler of Demak was Arya Pangiri, the son of Sunan Prawata. The easily suspecting Pangiri killed the Acehnese envoy instead. Disappointed, Aceh still went on with their plan and attacked Malacca in 1567 without the help of Java. The attack however was ended in failure.
In 1568, Jepara again attacked the Strait of Malacca, combined with the forces of the Aceh Sultanate led by Alauddin al-Kahar. The combined forces met success in plundering the goods of the Portuguese, though it was short-lived. After being beaten back by the Portuguese, the coalition forces retreated.
In 1573, the Sultan of Aceh asked for Queen Kalinyamat's help to attack Malacca once again. The Queen sent 300 ships containing 15,000 Jeparan soldiers. The Javanese forces was led by the Admiral Ki Demat and just arrived in Malacca in October 1574. Yet when they arrived, the Aceh troops has been beaten back by the Portuguese.
Jepara vessels opened fire directly to the fort of Malacca from the strait. The next day they landed and built some defences on the shore. But eventually, the Jeparan defence was being penetrated by the Portuguese that set fires to around 30 Jeparan ships. Jeparan was shaked, but still refused the peace talks. Meanwhile, six supplies ships delivered by Queen Kalinyamat was captured by the Portuguese. The lack of logistics has weakened the Jeparan troops and finally they decided to retreat. From the original numbers of troops sent by Queen Kalinyamat, only about a third of them survived to return to Java.
Despite being beaten several times, the Portuguese had great respect for Queen Kalinyamat, dubbing her "Rainha de Japara, Senhora poderosa e rica, de kranige Dame," meaning "Queen of Jepara, a rich and powerful woman, a brave woman".
After Ratu Kalinyamat's death, the kingdom was entering a period of decline and later was annexed by the Mataram Sultanate.
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The Buni culture is a prehistoric clay pottery culture that flourished in coastal northern West Java, Jakarta and Banten around 400 BC to 100 AD and probably survived until 500 AD. The culture was named after its first discovered archaeological site, Buni village in Babelan, Bekasi, east of Jakarta.
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Communism in Sumatra has historically had an influence in the politics and society of Sumatra.
Padang, Pariaman, Silungkang, Sawah Lunto, Alahan Panjang, and Suliki of West Sumatra have been cited as an area which was particular active in communism.Cultivation System
The Cultivation System (Dutch: cultuurstelsel) was a Dutch government policy in the mid-19th century for its Dutch East Indies colony (now Indonesia). Requiring a portion of agricultural production to be devoted to export crops, it is referred to by Indonesian historians as Tanam Paksa ("Enforcement Planting").Demak Sultanate
The Demak Sultanate was a Javanese Muslim state located on Java's north coast in Indonesia, at the site of the present day city of Demak. A port fief to the Majapahit kingdom thought to have been founded in the last quarter of the 15th century, it was influenced by Islam brought by Muslim traders from China, Gujarat, Arabia and also from Islamic kingdoms in the region, such as Samudra Pasai and Champa. The sultanate was the first Muslim state in Java, and once dominated most of the northern coast of Java and southern Sumatra.Despite its short period, the sultanate played an important role in the establishment of Islam in Indonesia, especially on Java and neighboring area.Galuh Kingdom
Kingdom of Galuh was an ancient Hindu kingdom located in the eastern part of Tatar Pasundan (now West Java province and Banyumasan region of Central Java province), present-day Indonesia. It was established following the end of the Tarumanagara kingdom around the 7th century. Traditionally the kingdom was associated with Eastern Priangan cultural region, around the Citanduy and Cimanuk rivers, with territory spanned from Citarum river on the west, Pamali and Serayu river on the east. Its capital was first located in Karangkamulyan, Ciamis Regency, then Saunggalah, Kuningan, and Kawali, near today Ciamis City. The etymology of "galuh" is Old Sundanese and Old Javanese word for "gemstone".Jambi Sultanate
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These texts are important for the knowledge of Javanese perspectives on the past. Scholars of Javanese history have paid much attention to theoretical questions, aiming at a balanced evaluation of Javanese historiography next to Western historiography. In doing so they focused on Old and Modern Javanese sources, drawing both on written sources and archaeological and epigraphic material. The debate continues up to the present.Kalingga Kingdom
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Operation Product took place from 21 July until 5 August 1947.
Operation Kraai took place from December 1948 until January 1949.President Sukarno's 1959 Decree
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The decree, which was read by Sukarno at the Merdeka Palace reads as follows:
DECREE OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIAAND COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE NATIONAL ARMED FORCESOn the official reintroduction of the 1945 State Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia
With the Mercy of Almighty God
WE THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA/SUPREME COMMANDER OF THE NATIONAL ARMED FORCES
Hereby declare with respect:
That the proposal of the President and Government to return to the 1945 Constitution as conveyed to the entire Indonesian people with the mandate of the President dated April 22nd, 1959 did not result in a decision from the Constitutional Assembly as stipulated by the Provisional Constitution;
That with the declaration of the majority of the members of the Session to Produce a Constitution to no longer attend sessions, it is no longer possible for the Constitutional Assembly to complete the task entrusted to it by the people;
That this has resulted in a situation that endangers the unity and security of the Nation, Land and People, as well as hampering overall development toward a just and prosperous society;
That with the support of the majority of the Indonesian people and urged on by our own certainty, we are forced to follow the only path to save the Proclaimed Nation:
That we are certain that the Jakarta Charter dated July 22nd, 1945 inspired the 1945 Constitution and is part of the chain of unity with the aforementioned Constitution.
Therefore, based on the above,
WE THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA/SUPREME COMMANDER OF THE NATIONAL ARMED FORCES:
Resolve thus to order the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly,
Resolve that the 1945 Constitution is once again in force for the entire Indonesian people and the entire Indonesian nation, as from the date of this decree and that the Provisional Constitution is no longer in force within the Republic,
Resolve to order the establishment of a Provisional People's Consultative Assembly, which is made up of the members of the House of Representatives with the delegates from the regions and groups, with the establishment of a Provisional Supreme Advisory Council to be organized as speedily as possible, in keeping with the provisions of the aforementioned Constitution.
Resolved in Jakarta
on July 5th, 1959
In the name of the People of Indonesia:
President of the Republic of Indonesia/Supreme Commander of the National Armed Forces
Riklefs (1982), A History of Modern Indonesia, Macmillan Southeast Asian reprint, ISBN 0-333-24380-3
Sekretariat Negara Republik Indonesia (1975) 30 Tahun Indonesia Merdeka: Jilid 2 (1950–1964) (30 Years of Indonesian Independence: Volume 2 (1950–1964))Salakanagara
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Wehali (Wehale, Waihali, Veale) is the name of a traditional kingdom at the southern coast of Central Timor, now in the Republic of Indonesia. It is often mentioned together with its neighbouring sister kingdom, as Wewiku-Wehali (Waiwiku-Wehale). Wehali held a position of ritual seniority among the many small Timorese kingdoms.Youth Pledge
The Youth Pledge (Indonesian: Sumpah Pemuda) was a declaration made on 28 October 1928 by young Indonesian nationalists in the Second Youth Congress (Indonesian: Kongres Pemuda Kedua). They proclaimed three ideals; one motherland, one nation and one language.
Former states in Indonesia
|Lesser Sunda Islands|