Kaliningrad Oblast

Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: Калинингра́дская о́бласть, Kaliningradskaya oblast), often referred to as the Kaliningrad Region in English[15][16], or simply Kaliningrad, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation that is located on the coast of the Baltic Sea. As an oblast, its constitutional status is equal to each of the other 84 federal subjects. Its administrative center is the city of Kaliningrad, formerly known as Königsberg. It is the only Baltic port in the Russian Federation that remains ice-free in winter. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 941,873.[4]

The oblast is an exclave, bordered by Poland to the south and Lithuania to the east and north, so residents may only travel visa-free to the rest of Russia via sea or air. The territory was formerly the northern part of East Prussia, with the southern part now being Poland's Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. With the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, the territory was annexed by the Soviet Union. Following the post-war migration and Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50), the territory was populated with citizens from the Soviet Union. Today virtually no ethnic Germans remain; most of the several thousand who live there are recent immigrants from other parts of the former Soviet Union.

Early in the 21st century, the hitherto fledgling economy of Kaliningrad Oblast became one of the best performing economies in Russia. This was helped by a low manufacturing tax rate related to its "Special Economic Zone" (SEZ) status. As of 2006, one in three televisions manufactured in Russia came from Kaliningrad. The territory's population was one of the few in Russia that was expected to show strong growth after the collapse of the USSR.[17]

Kaliningrad Oblast
Калининградская область
Flag of Kaliningrad Oblast
Flag
Coat of arms of Kaliningrad Oblast
Coat of arms
Anthem: [1]
Map of Russia - Kaliningrad Oblast
Coordinates: 54°48′N 21°25′E / 54.800°N 21.417°ECoordinates: 54°48′N 21°25′E / 54.800°N 21.417°E
CountryRussia
Federal districtNorthwestern[9]
Economic regionKaliningrad[10]
EstablishedApril 7, 1946[6]
Administrative centerKaliningrad
Government
 • BodyOblast Duma[8]
 • Governor[7]Anton Alikhanov
Area
 • Total15,100 km2 (5,800 sq mi)
Area rank76th
Population
(2010 Census)[4]
 • Total941,873
 • Estimate 
(2018)[12]
994,599 (+5.6%)
 • Rank56th
 • Density62/km2 (160/sq mi)
 • Urban
77.6%
 • Rural
22.4%
ISO 3166 codeRU-KGD
License plates39, 91
Official languagesRussian[14]
OKTMO ID27000000
Websitehttp://www.gov39.ru
Kaliningrad Oblast within Europe
Kaliningrad Oblast (dark green) of Russia (light green) within Europe

History

Middle Ages

During the Middle Ages, the territory of what is now Kaliningrad Oblast was inhabited by tribes of Old Prussians (Sambians) in the western part and by Lithuanians in the eastern part. The tribes were divided by the rivers Pregolya and Alna. The Teutonic Knights conquered the region and established a monastic state. On the foundations of a destroyed Prussian settlement known as Tvanksta, the Order founded the city of Königsberg (modern Kaliningrad). Germans resettled the territory and assimilated the indigenous Old Prussians. The Lithuanian-inhabited areas became known as Lithuania Minor. Speakers of the old Baltic languages became extinct around the 17th century, having been assimilated and Germanised.

Pre-Modern Period

Arms of Brandenburg
Arms of East Prussia

History of Brandenburg and Prussia
Northern March
pre-12th century
Old Prussians
pre-13th century
Margraviate of Brandenburg
1157–1618 (1806)
Teutonic Order
1224–1525
Duchy of Prussia
1525–1618
Royal (Polish) Prussia
1466–1772
Brandenburg-Prussia
1618–1701
Kingdom in Prussia
1701–1772
Kingdom of Prussia
1772–1918
Free State of Prussia
1918–1947
Klaipėda Region
(Lithuania)
1920–1939 / 1945–present
Brandenburg
(Germany)
1947–1952 / 1990–present
Recovered Territories
(Poland)
1918/1945–present
Kaliningrad Oblast
(Russia)
1945–present

In 1525, Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg secularized the Prussian branch of the Teutonic Order and established himself as the sovereign of the Duchy of Prussia. The duchy was nominally a fief of the Polish crown. It later merged with the Margraviate of Brandenburg. Königsberg was the duchy's capital from 1525 until 1701. As the centre of Prussia moved westward, the position of the capital became too peripheral and Berlin became the new Prussian capital city. During the Seven Years' War it was occupied by the Russian Empire. The region was reorganized into the Province of East Prussia within the Kingdom of Prussia in 1773. The territory of the Kaliningrad Oblast lies in the northern part of East Prussia. The annexation of the territory, while supposedly on a temporary basis, was approved by the "Big Three" allied leaders of World War II in the Potsdam Agreement in 1945. Three years after the annexation by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the remaining two-thirds of East Prussia was annexed by Poland and is today organised into the Warmian-Masurian province.

Modern period

Historical ethnic and religious structure

In year 1824, shortly before its merger with West Prussia, the population of East Prussia was 1,080,000 people.[18] Of that number, according to Karl Andree, Germans were slightly more than half, while 280,000 (~26%) were ethnically Polish and 200,000 (~19%) were ethnically Lithuanian.[19] As of year 1819 there were also 20,000 strong ethnic Curonian and Latvian minorities as well as 2,400 Jews, according to Georg Hassel.[20] Similar numbers are given by August von Haxthausen in his 1839 book, with a breakdown by county.[21] However, the majority of East Prussian Polish and Lithuanian inhabitants were Lutherans, not Roman Catholics like their ethnic kinsmen across the border in the Russian Empire. Only in Southern Warmia (German: Ermland) Catholic Poles - so called Warmiaks (not to be confused with predominantly Protestant Masurians) - comprised the majority of population, numbering 26,067 people (~81%) in county Allenstein (Polish: Olsztyn) in 1837.[21] Another minority in 19th century East Prussia, were ethnically Russian Old Believers, also known as Philipponnen - their main town was Eckersdorf (Wojnowo).[22][23][24]

In year 1817, East Prussia had 796,204 Evangelical Christians, 120,123 Roman Catholics, 864 Mennonites and 2,389 Jews.[25]

German culture and Germanization

East Prussia was an important centre of German culture. Many important figures, such as Immanuel Kant and E. T. A. Hoffmann, came from this region. Despite being heavily damaged during World War II and thereafter, the cities of the oblast still contain examples of German architecture. The Jugendstil style showcases the rich German history and cultural importance of the area.

By the early 20th century, Lithuanians formed a majority only in rural parts of the north-eastern corner of East Prussia (Memelland and Lithuania Minor). A similar fate befell the Latvian-speaking Kursenieki who had settled the coast of East Prussia between Gdańsk and Klaipėda. The rest of the area, with the exception of the Slavic Masurians in southern Prussia, was overwhelmingly German-speaking.

The Memel Territory (Klaipėda region), formerly part of north-eastern East Prussia as well as Lithuania Minor, was annexed by Lithuania in 1923. In 1938, Nazi Germany radically altered about a third of the place names of this area, replacing Old Prussian and Lithuanian names with newly invented German names. Slavic and Jewish populations under Nazi Germany were classified as subhuman and were the target of a campaign of genocide by the German state, with the eventual goal of their extermination.

Etnoregionai

Historical Lithuania Minor comprises a sizeable part of Prussian region that is now the Kaliningrad Oblast.

Curonians kursenieki in 1649

The Latvian-speaking Kursenieki spit in 1649.

Cranz Damenbad 1900

The East Prussian resort town of Cranz (Zelenogradsk today) as it looked ca. 1900. It was a destination for German artists and intelligentsia.

Conquest by the Soviet Union

On August 29, 1944, Soviet troops reached the border of East Prussia. By January 1945, they had overrun all East Prussia except for the area around Königsberg. Many inhabitants fled west at this time. During the last days of the war, over two million people fled before the Red Army and were evacuated by sea. Under the terms of the Potsdam Agreement, the city became part of the Soviet Union pending the final determination of territorial questions at a peace settlement. This final determination never took place. The excerpt pertaining to the partition of East Prussia including the area surrounding Königsberg is as follows (note that Königsberg is spelt "Koenigsberg" in the original document):

VI. CITY OF KOENIGSBERG AND THE ADJACENT AREA
The Conference examined a proposal by the Soviet Government that pending the final determination of territorial questions at the peace settlement, the section of the western frontier of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics which is adjacent to the Baltic Sea should pass from a point on the eastern shore of the Bay of Danzig to the east, north of Braunsberg - Goldep, to the meeting point of the frontiers of Lithuania, the Polish Republic and East Prussia.

The Conference has agreed in principle to the proposal of the Soviet Government concerning the ultimate transfer to the Soviet Union of the city of Koenigsberg and the area adjacent to it as described above, subject to expert examination of the actual frontier.

The President of the United States and the British Prime Minister have declared that they will support the proposal of the Conference at the forthcoming peace settlement.[26]

Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946 in memory of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Mikhail Kalinin. The remaining German population was forcibly expelled between 1947 and 1948. The conquered territory was populated with citizens of the Soviet Union, mostly ethnic Russians but to a lesser extent by Ukrainians and Belarusians.[27]

The German language was replaced with the Russian language. In 1950, there were 1,165,000 inhabitants, which was only half the number of the pre-war population.

Cold War period

The city was rebuilt during the Cold War. The territory became strategically important as the headquarters of the Soviet Baltic Fleet. Consequently, the city was closed to foreign visitors.

In 1957, an agreement was signed and later came into force which delimited the border between Poland and the Soviet Union.[28][29]

The region was added as an exclave to the Russian SFSR; since 1946 it has been known as the Kaliningrad Oblast. According to some historians, Stalin created it as an oblast separate from the Lithuanian SSR because it further separated the Baltic states from the West.[30] The names of the cities, towns, rivers and other geographical features were changed to Russian names.

The area was administered by the planning committee of the Lithuanian SSR, although it had its own Communist Party committee.[31] However, the leadership of the Lithuanian SSR (especially Antanas Sniečkus) refused to annex the territory.[27] In 2010, the German magazine Der Spiegel published a report claiming that Kaliningrad had been offered to Germany in 1990 (against payment), but this was denied by Mikhail Gorbachev.[32]

Today

Kaliningrad 05-2017 img31 Christ Saviour Church
The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Kaliningrad is the largest church of Kaliningrad Oblast. The Russian Orthodox cathedral is 70 metres (230 ft) high, and it is the dominant building of the inner city on Ploshchad Pobedy.
Königsberg-Erlöserkirche03
The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Kaliningrad. The church's architect is Oleg Kopylov, and it was completed in September 2006.

Kaliningrad's isolation was exacerbated by the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 when Lithuania became an independent country and even more when both Poland and Lithuania became members of NATO and subsequently the European Union in 2004. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the independence of the Baltic states, Kaliningrad Oblast has been separated from the rest of Russia by other countries instead of by other Soviet republics. Neighboring nations imposed strict border controls when they joined the European Union. All military and civilian land links between the region and the rest of Russia have to pass through members of NATO and the EU. Russian proposals for visa-free travel between the EU and Kaliningrad have so far been rejected by the EU. Travel arrangements, based on the Facilitated Transit Document (FTD) and Facilitated Rail Transit Document (FRTD)[33][34] have been made.[33][34]

The territory's economic situation was badly affected by its geographic isolation and the significant reduction in the size of the Russian military garrison, which had previously been one of the major employers and helped the local economy.

After 1991, some ethnic Germans began to return to the area, such as Volga Germans from other parts of Russia and Kazakhstan, especially after Germany raised the requirements for people from the former Soviet Union to be accepted as ethnic Germans and have a "right of return".

Germans by federal subject 2010
Distribution of Germans in Russia, 2010, demonstrating the higher German presence in the Kaliningrad Oblast compared to other areas in European Russia

These Germans are overwhelmingly Russian-speaking and as such were rejected for resettlement within Germany under Germany's new rules. A similar migration by Poles from the lands of the former Soviet Union to the Kaliningrad Oblast occurred at this time as well. The situation has begun to change, albeit slowly. Germany, Lithuania, and Poland have renewed contact with Kaliningrad Oblast, through town twinning and other projects. This has helped to promote interest in the history and culture of the East Prussian and Lietuvininkai communities.

In July 2005, the 750-year jubilee of the city was widely celebrated.

In July 2007, Russian First Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov declared that if US-controlled missile defense systems were deployed in Poland, then nuclear weapons might be deployed in Kaliningrad. On November 5, 2008, Russian leader Dmitry Medvedev said that installing missiles in Kaliningrad was almost a certainty.[35] These plans were suspended in January 2009,[36] but implemented in October 2016.[37] In 2011, a long range Voronezh radar was commissioned to monitor missile launches within about 6,000 km. It is situated in the settlement of Pionersky (formerly German Neukuhren) in Kaliningrad Oblast.[38]

Geography

KALININGRAD FINAL
Map of Kaliningrad Oblast
Angrapa
Angrapa River, Kaliningrad Oblast

Kaliningrad is the only Russian Baltic Sea port that is ice-free all year round and hence plays an important role in maintenance of the Baltic Fleet. As an exclave of Russia proper, it is surrounded by Poland (Pomeranian Voivodeship and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship), Lithuania (Klaipėda County, Marijampolė County and Tauragė County) and the Baltic Sea. Its largest river is the Pregolya. It starts as a confluence of the Instruch and the Angrapa and drains into the Baltic Sea through the Vistula Lagoon. Its length under the name of Pregolya is 123 km (76 mi), 292 km (181 mi), including the Angrapa.

Notable geographical features include:

Major cities and towns:

Russian German † Lithuanian † Polish †
Baltiysk Балтийск Pillau Piliava Piława
Chernyakhovsk Черняховск Insterburg Įsrutis Wystruć
Gusev Гусев Gumbinnen Gumbinė Gąbin
Kaliningrad Калининград Königsberg Karaliaučius Królewiec
Sovetsk Советск Tilsit Tilžė Tylża

† Pre-1946 (the German-language names were also used in English in this period)

Politics

The current governor (since 2017) of Kaliningrad Oblast is Anton Alikhanov. The latest elections to the region's legislative body, the 40-seat Kaliningrad Oblast Duma, were held in September 2016.

Demographics

Population

Victory Day in Kaliningrad 2017-05-09 51
Local residents in Kaliningrad at «Immortal regiment», carrying portraits of their ancestors who fought in World War II
Vodokreschi in Kaliningrad 2017-01-19 (03)
Epiphany bathing in Kaliningrad
Baltiysk, Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia - panoramio - Anton Yefimov (5)
People on the beach near Baltiysk

According to the 2010 Census, the oblast population was 941,873;[4] down from 955,281 recorded in the 2002 Census.[39] The 1989 Census recorded 871,283 inhabitants.[40] Kaliningrad Oblast was the fourth most densely populated federal subject in Russia, with 62.5 persons/km2 (162 persons/sq mi).

Population-wise, the oblast is thoroughly Russian and Russophone in character, with almost none of the pre–World War II German, Lithuanian (Lietuvininks), Latvian-speaking Kursenieki, or Polish population remaining in today's Kaliningrad Oblast. However, after 1991, some ethnic Germans and Poles began to return to the area, from Kazakhstan, Russia, and other sites in the former Soviet Union.

Ethnic groups

According to the 2010 Census, the ethnic composition of the oblast was as follows:[4]

  • 772,534 Russians (86.4%)
  • 32,771 Ukrainians (3.7%)
  • 32,497 Belarusians (3.6%)
  • 9,769 Lithuanians (1.1%)
  • 9,226 Armenians (1%)
  • 7,349 Germans (0.8%)
  • 4,534 Tatars (0.5%)
  • 3,282 Azeris (0.4%)
  • 2,788 Poles (0.3%)
  • 2,245 Uzbeks (0.3%)
  • 16,857 others (1.9%)
  • 48,021 people were registered from administrative databases and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[41]
Census[42] 1959 1970 1979 1989 2002 2010
Russians 473,861 (77.6%) 564,469 (77.1%) 632,717 (78.3%) 683,563 (78.5%) 786,885 (82.4%) 772,534 (86.4%)
Ukrainians 35,717 (5.8%) 48 044 (6.6%) 54,656 (6.8%) 62,750 (7.2%) 47,229 (4.9%) 32,771 (3.7%)
Belarusians 57,178 (9.4%) 68,808 (9.4%) 72,465 (9.0%) 73,926 (8.5%) 50,748 (5.3%) 32,497 (3.6%)
Lithuanians 21,262 (3.5%) 23,376 (3.2%) 19,647 (2.4%) 18,116 (2.1%) 13,937 (1.5%) 9,769 (1.1%)

Total fertility rate [43]

Year Rate
2000 1.11
2005 1.16
2010 1.46
2013 1.64
2014 1.70
2015 1.75
2016 1.74(e)

Religion

According to a 2012 survey[44] 34 per cent of the population of Kaliningrad Oblast declare themselves to be "spiritual but not religious", 30.9 per cent adhere to the Russian Orthodox Church, 22 per cent are atheist and 11.1 per cent follow other religions or did not give an answer to the question, 1 per cent are unaffiliated generic Christians and 1 per cent adhere to the Catholic Church.[44]

Until 1945, the region was overwhelmingly Lutheran, with a small number of Catholics and Jews. The state church of Prussia was dominant in the region. Although it was both Reformed and Lutheran since 1817, there was an overwhelming Lutheran majority and very few Reformed adherents in East Prussia.

Military

Victory Day in Kaliningrad 2017-05-09 22
Victory Day in Kaliningrad

For some years after the fall of the Soviet Union, Kaliningrad Oblast was one of the most militarized areas of the Russian Federation and the density of military installations was the highest in Europe, as much of the Soviet equipment pulled out of Eastern Europe was left there. As of 2009, there were 11,600 Russian ground troops based in the oblast, plus additional naval and air force personnel.[46] Thus military troops amount to less than 2% of the oblast's population. Kaliningrad is the headquarters of the Russian Baltic Fleet together with Chernyakhovsk (air base), Donskoye (air base) and Kaliningrad Chkalovsk (naval air base).

The Washington Times wrote on January 3, 2001, citing anonymous intelligence reports, that Russia had transferred tactical nuclear weapons into a military base in Kaliningrad for the first time since the end of the Cold War. Russian top-level military leaders denied those claims.[47] A Pentagon spokesperson said that such deployment would violate the Russian pledge to remove nuclear weapons from the Baltics. Russia and the United States announced in 1991 and 1992 a non-binding agreement to reduce arsenals of tactical nuclear weapons.

On November 5, 2008, Russian President Dimitry Medvedev said that Russia would deploy Iskander missiles in the oblast as a response to U.S. plans for basing missile defense missiles in Poland.[48] Equipment to electronically hamper the operation of future U.S. missile facilities in Poland and the Czech Republic would also be deployed, he said.

However, on January 28, 2009, a Russian defense official stated that the deployment of short-range missiles in Kaliningrad Oblast would cease, due to perceived changes in the attitude of the United States government towards the Russian Federation, following the election of United States President Barack Obama.[49] In September 2009, Russia fully scrapped plans to send short-range missiles into the Kaliningrad Oblast in response to Obama's decision to cancel the missile defense system.

In November 2011, Dmitry Medvedev issued another stern warning that Russia would deploy new missiles aimed at U.S. missile defense sites in Europe if Washington went ahead with the planned shield.[50] Then in 2012, Russia chose Kaliningrad as the second region (after Moscow) to deploy the S-400 (SAM) missile system.[51][52] Subsequently, Russian newspaper Izvestia reported in Dec 2013 that the short range Iskander-M 9K720 operational-tactical missile systems had been commissioned by the Western Military District's missile and artillery forces at about the same time.[53]

Economy

Curonian Spit NP 05-2017 img17 aerial view at Epha Dune
Curonian Spit in Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad 05-2017 img10 aerial view
Kaliningrad

According to statistics in 2016 Kaliningrad had Nominal GDP of US$7 billion and US$7,000 per capita.[54]

Kaliningrad Oblast's economy is positively influenced by several factors, such as ice-free ports, the world's largest amber deposits and proximity to European countries. The region also has a developed tourist infrastructure, unique museums and monuments, and tourist attractions. One of these is the Curonian Spit.[55]

To combat the oblast's economic problems such as high unemployment, in 1996 the Russian authorities granted Kaliningrad special economic status and tax advantages intended to attract investors. The oblast's economy has since benefited substantially and in recent years experienced a boom. A US$45 million airport terminal has been opened and the European Commission provides funds for business projects under its special program for the region. The oblast has begun to see increasing trade with the countries of the EU as well as increasing economic growth and rising industrial output.[56]

According to official statistics, the Gross Regional Product in 2006 was 115 billion roubles.[57] GRP per capita in 2007 was 155.669 billion roubles.[58]

Industry

Car and truck assembly (GM, BMW, Kia, Yuejin), and production of auto parts, are major industries in Kaliningrad Oblast. There are shipbuilding facilities in Kaliningrad and Sovetsk. Food processing is a mature industry in the region. OKB Fakel, a world leader in the field of Hall thruster development, as well as a leading Russian developer and manufacturer of electric propulsion systems, is based in Neman. The company employs 960 people.[59][60] General Satellite (GS) is the biggest employer in Gusev city producing satellite receivers, cardboard packaging, nanomaterials etc.

Natural resources

Kaliningrad Oblast possesses more than 90 per cent of the world's amber deposits.[61] Until recently raw amber was exported for processing to other countries, but in 2013 the Russian government banned the export of raw amber in order to boost the amber processing industry in Russia.[62]

There are small oil reservoirs beneath the Baltic Sea not far from Kaliningrad's shore. Small-scale offshore exploration started in 2004. Poland, Lithuania, and some local NGOs, voiced concerns about possible environmental effects.

Fishing

Fishing is an important regional industry, with big fishing ports in Kaliningrad and Pionersky (formerly Neukuhren) and smaller ones in Svetly and Rybachy.

Power generation

Average yearly power consumption in the Kaliningrad Oblast was 3.5 terawatt-hours in 2004 with local power generation providing just 0.235 terawatt-hours. The balance of energy needs was imported from neighboring countries. A new Kaliningrad power station was built in 2005, covering 50% of the oblast's energy needs. A second part of this station was built in 2010, making the oblast independent from electricity imports.

As of 2018, two nuclear power reactors are currently under construction in the eastern part of the region.[63]

See also

References

  1. ^ Article 5 of the Charter of Kaliningrad Oblast states that the oblast may have an anthem, providing a law is adopted to that effect. As of 2015, no such law is in place.
  2. ^ Law #463
  3. ^ "Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia | By Russia Channel". Russia-channel.com. Retrieved February 27, 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  5. ^ http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/population/demo/PrPopul2018.xlsx
  6. ^ Charter of Kaliningrad Oblast, Article 3
  7. ^ Charter of Kaliningrad Oblast, Article 28
  8. ^ Charter of Kaliningrad Oblast, Article 17
  9. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  10. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  11. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
  12. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  13. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  14. ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
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  17. ^ Sheeter, Laura (October 16, 2006). "Kaliningrad erases stains of past". BBC News. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
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  19. ^ Andree, Karl (1831). Polen: in geographischer, geschichtlicher und culturhistorischer Hinsicht (in German). Verlag von Ludwig Schumann. p. 218.
  20. ^ Hassel, Georg (1823). Statistischer Umriß der sämmtlichen europäischen und der vornehmsten außereuropäischen Staaten, in Hinsicht ihrer Entwickelung, Größe, Volksmenge, Finanz- und Militärverfassung, tabellarisch dargestellt; Erster Heft: Welcher die beiden großen Mächte Österreich und Preußen und den Deutschen Staatenbund darstellt (in German). Verlag des Geographischen Instituts Weimar. p. 41.
  21. ^ a b Haxthausen, August (1839). Die Ländliche Verfassung in den Einzelnen Provinzen der Preussischen Monarchie (in German). pp. 75–91.
  22. ^ "Monastery of the Dormition of the Mother of God in Wojnowo (Eckersdorf)". wojnowo.net.
  23. ^ Tetzner, Franz (1902). Die Slawen in Deutschland: beiträge zur volkskunde der Preussen, Litauer und Letten, der Masuren und Philipponen, der Tschechen, Mährer und Sorben, Polaben und Slowinzen, Kaschuben und Polen. Braunschweig: Verlag von F. Vieweg. pp. 212–248.
  24. ^ "Old Believers in Poland - historical and cultural information". Poland's Linguistic Heritage.
  25. ^ Hoffmann, Johann Gottfried (1818). Übersicht der Bodenfläche und Bevölkerung des Preußischen Staates : aus den für das Jahr 1817 mtlich eingezogenen Nachrichten. Berlin: Decker. p. 51.
  26. ^ "THE POTSDAM DECLARATION". Retrieved 2009-04-02.
  27. ^ a b Milan Bufon (2014-04-11). The New European Frontiers: Social and Spatial (Re)Integration Issues in Multicultural and Border Regions. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 98. ISBN 9781443859363.
  28. ^ "Russia (USSR) / Poland Treaty (with annexed maps) concerning the Demarcation of the Existing Soviet-Polish State Frontier in the Sector Adjoining the Baltic Sea 5 March 1957" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-04-02.
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Sources

  • Областная Дума Калининградской области. Закон №30 от 18 января 1996 г. «О вступлении в действие Устава (Основного Закона) Калининградской области», в ред. Закона №483 от 2 декабря 2015 г «О внесении изменения в Устав (Основной Закон) Калининградской области». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального публикования, за исключением пункта 5 статьи 15 и подпункта "б" статьи 22 в части подписания постановлений областной Думы председателем областной Думы, которые введены в действие одновременно со вступлением в силу Федерального закона от 06.10.1999 №184-ФЗ "Об общих принципах организации законодательных (представительных) и исполнительных органов государственной власти субъектов Российской Федерации". Опубликован: "Янтарный край", №20, 26 января 1996 г. (Oblast Duma of Kaliningrad Oblast. Law #30 of January 18, 1996 On the Charter (Basic Law) of Kaliningrad Oblast Taking Effect, as amended by the Law #483 of December 2, 2015 On Amending the Charter (Basic Law) of Kaliningrad Oblast. Effective as of the date ten days after the official publication date, with the exception of item 5 of Article 15 and the portion of subitem "b" of Article 22 dealing with the signing of the resolutions of the Oblast Duma by the Chair of the Oblast Duma, which take effect simultaneously with the Federal Law #184-FZ of October 6, 1999 "On the General Principles of the Organization of the Legislative (Representative) and Executive Organs of the State Power in the Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation".).
  • Калининградская областная Дума. Закон №463 от 27 мая 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Калининградской области», в ред. Закона №450 от 3 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Калининградской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Калининградской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда" (вкладыш "Ведомости Правительства Калининградской области"), №112, 26 июня 2010 г. (Kaliningrad Oblast Duma. Law #463 of May 27, 2010 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Kaliningrad Oblast, as amended by the Law #450 of July 3, 2015 On Amending the Law of Kaliningrad Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Kaliningrad Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Simon Grunau, Preußische Chronik. Hrsg. von M. Perlbach etc., Leipzig, 1875.
  • A. Bezzenberger, Geographie von Preußen, Gotha, 1959
  • Областная Дума Калининградской области. Закон №30 от 18 января 1996 г. «О вступлении в действие Устава (Основного Закона) Калининградской области», в ред. Закона №483 от 2 декабря 2015 г «О внесении изменения в Устав (Основной Закон) Калининградской области». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня официального публикования, за исключением пункта 5 статьи 15 и подпункта "б" статьи 22 в части подписания постановлений областной Думы председателем областной Думы, которые введены в действие одновременно со вступлением в силу Федерального закона от 06.10.1999 №184-ФЗ "Об общих принципах организации законодательных (представительных) и исполнительных органов государственной власти субъектов Российской Федерации". Опубликован: "Янтарный край", №20, 26 января 1996 г. (Oblast Duma of Kaliningrad Oblast. Law #30 of January 18, 1996 On the Charter (Basic Law) of Kaliningrad Oblast Taking Effect, as amended by the Law #483 of December 2, 2015 On Amending the Charter (Basic Law) of Kaliningrad Oblast. Effective as of the date ten days after the official publication date, with the exception of item 5 of Article 15 and the portion of subitem "b" of Article 22 dealing with the signing of the resolutions of the Oblast Duma by the Chair of the Oblast Duma, which take effect simultaneously with the Federal Law #184-FZ of October 6, 1999 "On the General Principles of the Organization of the Legislative (Representative) and Executive Organs of the State Power in the Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation".).

External links

Administrative divisions of Kaliningrad Oblast

Cities and towns under the oblast's jurisdiction:

Kaliningrad (Калининград) (administrative center)

administrative districts:

Leningradsky (Ленинградский)

Moskovsky (Московский)

Tsentralny (Центральный)

Baltiysk (Балтийск)

Urban-type settlements under the town's jurisdiction:

Primorsk (Приморск)

Pionersky (Пионерский)

Sovetsk (Советск)

Svetlogorsk (Светлогорск)

Urban-type settlements under the town's jurisdiction:

Yantarny (Янтарный)

Svetly (Светлый)

Districts:

Bagrationovsky (Багратионовский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Bagrationovsk (Багратионовск)

Ladushkin (Ладушкин)

Mamonovo (Мамоново)

with 11 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Chernyakhovsky (Черняховский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Chernyakhovsk (Черняховск)

with 7 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Guryevsky (Гурьевский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Guryevsk (Гурьевск)

with 9 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Gusevsky (Гусевский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Gusev (Гусев)

with 7 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Gvardeysky (Гвардейский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Gvardeysk (Гвардейск)

with 6 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Krasnoznamensky (Краснознаменский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Krasnoznamensk (Краснознаменск)

with 7 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Nemansky (Неманский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Neman (Неман)

with 9 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Nesterovsky (Нестеровский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Nesterov (Нестеров)

with 7 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Ozyorsky (Озёрский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Ozyorsk (Озёрск)

with 6 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Polessky (Полесский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Polessk (Полесск)

with 6 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Pravdinsky (Правдинский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Pravdinsk (Правдинск)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Zheleznodorozhny (Железнодорожный)

with 8 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Slavsky (Славский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Slavsk (Славск)

with 7 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Zelenogradsky (Зеленоградский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Zelenogradsk (Зеленоградск)

with 9 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Amber Coast

The Amber Coast is the name given to a coastal strip of the Baltic Sea in the northwest of Kaliningrad (Russia, Kaliningrad Oblast, Sambia Peninsula, formerly northern East Prussia in Germany). In this area amber (Baltic amber) has been excavated since the mid-19th century and up to today in open-pit mining. Two deposits – Palmnikenskoe and Primorskoe, containing 80% of world amber reserves, were found near Yantarny on the Western coast of the Sambia Peninsula in 1948-1951’s.

Bagrationovsky District

Bagrationovsky District (Russian: Багратио́новский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the fifteen in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Bagrationovsky Municipal District. It is located in the southwest of the oblast. The area of the district is 1,146 square kilometers (442 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Bagrationovsk. Population: 32,352 (2010 Census); 45,672 (2002 Census); 39,724 (1989 Census). The population of Bagrationovsk accounts for 19.8% of the district's total population.

Chernyakhovsky District

Chernyakhovsky District (Russian: Черняховский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the fifteen in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Chernyakhovsky Municipal District. It is located in the center of the oblast. The area of the district is 1,285.75 square kilometers (496.43 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Chernyakhovsk. Population: 51,936 (2010 Census); 57,521 (2002 Census); 12,806 (1989 Census). The population of Chernyakhovsk accounts for 77.9% of the district's total population.

Curonian Spit

The Curonian Spit (Lithuanian: Kuršių nerija; Russian: Ку́ршская коса́ (Kurshskaya kosa); German: Kurische Nehrung, German pronunciation ; Latvian: Kuršu kāpas) is a 98 km long, thin, curved sand-dune spit that separates the Curonian Lagoon from the Baltic Sea coast. Its southern portion lies within Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia and its northern within southwestern Lithuania. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site shared by the two countries.

Flag of Kaliningrad Oblast

The flag of the exclave of Kaliningrad Oblast is a rectangle with a ratio of 2:3 divided into three horizontal stripes. The upper stripe is red having in the canton a silver-and-black stylized medieval castle with open gates and the monogram of Empress Elizabeth Petrovna (under which reign parts of the region were shortly under Russian control during the Seven Years' War), a thin (1/3 of the upper strip) yellow stripe in the middle and a dark blue stripe of the same size as the red bar.

The law does not state what the colours stand for. In the Russian press it was stated that the silver fortress with open gates stands for hospitality, the dark blue for the Baltic Sea and tranquility, the yellow for the wealth of amber and the red for active man principle ("цвет активного мужского начала"). (Other sources state that red stands for the bellicose past of Prussia, the Red Army, the Hanseatic League, or the historical connections with Brandenburg and Poland.)

The law about the flag and the coat of arms went into effect on 9 June 2006. Previously this westernmost Russian region had no flag. When plans were made to adopt a flag another proposal was a tricolour with 3 horizontal stripes in green, white and dark blue similar to the flag of Sierra Leone. Another proposal was similar to the flag of Scotland, but with a yellow St. Andrew's Cross.

Guryevsky District, Kaliningrad Oblast

Guryevsky District (Russian: Гу́рьевский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the fifteen in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Guryevsky Urban Okrug. It is located in the west of the oblast. The area of the district is 1,284 square kilometers (496 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Guryevsk. Population: 52,988 (2010 Census); 47,330 (2002 Census); 39,148 (1989 Census). The population of Guryevsk accounts for 23.5% of the district's total population.

Gusev, Kaliningrad Oblast

Gusev (Russian: Гу́сев), previously known by its German name Gumbinnen (Lithuanian: Gumbinė; Polish: Gąbin), is a town and the administrative center of Gusevsky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Pissa and Krasnaya Rivers, near the border with Poland and Lithuania, east of Chernyakhovsk. Population: 28,260 (2010 Census); 28,467 (2002 Census); 27,031 (1989 Census).

Gvardeysky District

Gvardeysky District (Russian: Гварде́йский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the fifteen in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the center of the oblast. The area of the district is 783 square kilometers (302 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Gvardeysk. Population: 29,926 (2010 Census); 32,101 (2002 Census); 27,299 (1989 Census). The population of Gvardeysk accounts for 46.4% of the district's total population.

Kaliningrad

Kaliningrad (Russian: Калининград, IPA: [kəlʲɪnʲɪnˈɡrat]) is a city in the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.

In the Middle Ages it was the site of the Old Prussian settlement Twangste. In 1255, during the Northern Crusades, a new fortress named Königsberg was built by the Teutonic Knights. Königsberg became the capital of the Duchy of Prussia, a fiefdom of Poland from 1525 to 1657, and later East Prussia, Germany. It was heavily damaged during World War II, and its population fled or were removed by force. Königsberg became a Russian city, renamed Kaliningrad in 1946. At the 2010 Census, Kaliningrad's population was 431,902.

Ordensburg

Ordensburgs (plural in German: Ordensburgen, literally: castles of orders) were fortresses built by crusading German military orders during the Middle Ages. The term "Ordensburgen" was also used during Nazi Germany to refer to training schools for Nazi leaders.

Ozyorsk, Kaliningrad Oblast

Ozyorsk (Russian: Озёрск), known prior to 1938 by its German name Darkehmen (Lithuanian: Darkiemis; Polish: Darkiejmy), and from 1938 to 1946 as Angerapp, is a town and the administrative center of Ozyorsky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Angrapa River near the border with the Polish Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, 120 kilometers (75 mi) southeast of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 4,740 (2010 Census); 5,801 (2002 Census); 6,219 (1989 Census).

Ozyorsky District, Kaliningrad Oblast

Ozyorsky District (Russian: Озёрский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the fifteen in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the southeast of the oblast. The area of the district is 877 square kilometers (339 sq mi). Its administrative center is the town of Ozyorsk. Population: 15,316 (2010 Census); 17,239 (2002 Census); 16,089 (1989 Census). The population of Ozyorsk accounts for 30.9% of the district's total population.

Primorsk, Kaliningrad Oblast

Primorsk (Russian: Примо́рск), prior to 1946 known by its German name Fischhausen (Lithuanian: Žuvininkai/Skanavikas; Polish: Rybaki), is a town in Baltiysky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the Vistula Lagoon.

Its population is 1,956 (2010 Census); compared to 2,150 (2002 Census); 1,792 (1989 Census)..

Rossitten Bird Observatory

The Rossitten Bird Observatory (Vogelwarte Rossitten in German) was the world's first ornithological observatory. It was sited at Rossitten, East Prussia (now Rybachy, Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia), on the Curonian Spit on the south-eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. It was established by German ornithologist Johannes Thienemann and operated until 1944. In 1945 East Prussia was divided between Poland, Russia and Lithuania, and most ethnic Germans expelled.

Sambia Peninsula

Sambia (Russian: Самбийский полуостров, Sambiysky poluostrov, literally the Sambiysky Peninsula;Lithuanian: Sembos pusiasalis) or Samland (Russian: Земландский полуостров, Zemlandsky poluostrov, literally the Zemlandsky Peninsula) or Kaliningrad Peninsula (official name, Russian: Калининградский полуостров, Kaliningradsky poluostrov) is a peninsula in the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, on the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea. The peninsula is bounded by the Curonian Lagoon (to the north-east), the Vistula Lagoon (on the southwest), the Pregel River (on the south), and the Deyma River (on the east). As Samland is surrounded on all sides by water, it is technically an island. Prior to 1945 it formed an important part of East Prussia.

Sovetsk, Kaliningrad Oblast

Sovetsk (Russian: Сове́тск), before 1946 known as Tilsit (Lithuanian: Tilžė; Polish: Tylża; German: Tilsit) in East Prussia, is a town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the south bank of the Neman River.

Svetlogorsk, Kaliningrad Oblast

Svetlogorsk (Russian: Светлого́рск​ ), prior to 1947 known by its German name Rauschen (Polish: Ruszowice; Lithuanian: Raušiai)), is a coastal resort town and the administrative center of Svetlogorsky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the coast of the Baltic Sea on the Sambia Peninsula, 39 kilometers (24 mi) northwest of Kaliningrad, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 10,772 (2010 Census); 10,950 (2002 Census); 11,881 (1989 Census).

Zheleznodorozhny, Kaliningrad Oblast

Zheleznodorozhny (Russian: Железнодоро́жный, lit. railway (town); until 1946 German: Gerdauen; Polish: Gierdawy; Lithuanian: Girdava), is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) in Pravdinsky District of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located 69 km (43 miles) south-east of Kaliningrad, near the border with Poland, and had a population in 2017 of 2,728.

Districts
Cities and towns
Urban-type settlements of
oblast significance
Urban-type settlements

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