Kaliningrad

Kaliningrad (Russian: Калининград, IPA: [kəlʲɪnʲɪnˈɡrat]) is a city in the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.

In the Middle Ages it was the site of the Old Prussian settlement Twangste. In 1255, during the Northern Crusades, a new fortress named Königsberg was built by the Teutonic Knights. Königsberg became the capital of the Duchy of Prussia, a fiefdom of Poland from 1525-1657, and later East Prussia, Germany. It was heavily damaged during World War II, and its population fled or were removed by force. Königsberg became a Russian city, renamed Kaliningrad in 1946. At the 2010 Census, Kaliningrad's population was 431,902.[6]

Kaliningrad

Калининград
Church of the Holy Family; Königsberg Cathedral; "Fishermen's village" in pseudo-historic style; Brandenburg Gate; King's Gate; Pregolya River
Church of the Holy Family; Königsberg Cathedral; "Fishermen's village" in pseudo-historic style; Brandenburg Gate; King's Gate; Pregolya River
Flag of Kaliningrad
Flag
Coat of arms of Kaliningrad
Coat of arms
Anthem: none[2]
Location of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad is located in Russia
Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Location of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad is located in Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad (Kaliningrad Oblast)
Coordinates: 54°42′01″N 20°27′11″E / 54.70028°N 20.45306°ECoordinates: 54°42′01″N 20°27′11″E / 54.70028°N 20.45306°E
CountryRussia
Federal subjectKaliningrad Oblast[1]
Founded1 September 1255[3]
Government
 • BodyCity Council of Deputies[4]
 • Head[4]Alexander Yaroshuk[5]
Area
 • Total223.03 km2 (86.11 sq mi)
Elevation
5 m (16 ft)
Population
 • Total431,402
 • Estimate 
(January 2014)[7]
448,548
 • Rank40th in 2010
 • Density1,900/km2 (5,000/sq mi)
 • Administratively subordinated tocity of oblast significance of Kaliningrad[1]
 • Administrative center ofKaliningrad Oblast[8], city of oblast significance of Kaliningrad[1]
 • Urban okrugKaliningrad Urban Okrug[9]
 • Administrative center ofKaliningrad Urban Okrug[9]
Postal code(s)[11]
236001, 236003–236011, 236013–236017, 236019–236024, 236028, 236029, 236034–236036, 236038–236041, 236043, 236044, 236700, 236880, 236885, 236890, 236899, 236931, 236950, 236960–236962, 236967, 236970, 236980–236983, 236985, 236989, 236999
Dialing code(s)+7 4012
City Day4 July; observed on the first Saturday of July
OKTMO ID27701000001
Websitewww.klgd.ru

History

Sambians

Prussian clans 13th century
Old Prussian clans in the 13th century (Sambia - orange)

Königsberg was preceded by a Sambian (Old Prussian) fort called Twangste (Tuwangste or Tvankste), meaning Oak Forest.[12] During the conquest of the Sambians by the Teutonic Knights in 1255, Twangste was destroyed and replaced with a new fortress named Königsberg. The declining Old Prussian culture finally became extinct around the 17th century, after the surviving Old Prussians were integrated through assimilation and Germanization.

Teutonic Order

Old cathedral of Kaliningrad in Russia
Kneiphof island with cathedral

The settlement at the site of the present day Kaliningrad was founded as a military fortress in 1255 after the Prussian Crusade by the Teutonic Knights against Baltic Prussians, a non-Germanic ethnic group related to the ancestors of the present-day Lithuanians and Latvians. The new town was named in honor of the Bohemian King Ottokar II. The crusade was followed by immigration from Germany and other regions of Western Europe.

East Prussia

Within the following seven centuries, the area became predominantly German, with Polish and Lithuanian minorities. During World War II the city of Königsberg was heavily damaged by a British bombing attack in 1944 and the massive Soviet siege in spring 1945.

Soviet Union

AfterwarKaliningrad
Ruins of Königsberg Castle in the 1950s

At the end of World War II in 1945, the city became part of the Soviet Union pending the final determination of territorial questions at the peace settlement (as part of the Russian SFSR) as agreed upon by the Allies at the Potsdam Conference:

The Conference agreed in principle to the proposal of the Soviet Government concerning the ultimate transfer to the Soviet Union of the city of Königsberg and the area adjacent to it as described above, subject to expert examination of the actual frontier.

The U.S. President Harry Truman and British Prime Minister Clement Attlee declared that they would support the proposal of the Conference at the forthcoming peace settlement.[13]

Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946[14] after the death of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Mikhail Kalinin, one of the original Bolsheviks. The survivors of the German population were forcibly expelled in 1946–1949, and the city was repopulated with Soviet citizens. The city's language of administration was changed from German to Russian.

The city was rebuilt, and as the westernmost territory of the USSR, the Kaliningrad Oblast became a strategically important area during the Cold War. The Soviet Baltic Fleet was headquartered in the city in the 1950s. Because of its strategic importance, Kaliningrad was closed to foreign visitors.

In 1957 an agreement was signed and later came into force which delimited the border between Poland and the Soviet Union.[15][16]

Russia

Kaliningrad 05-2017 img50 Oberpostdirektion building
Baltic Fleet HQ (ex-postal admn. bldg.)
Kaliningrad 05-2017 img12 Rossgarten Gate
Rossgarten Gate, now a restaurant

The town of Baltiysk, just outside Kaliningrad, is the only Russian Baltic Sea port said to be "ice-free" all year round, and the region hence plays an important role in maintenance of the Baltic Fleet.

Due to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Kaliningrad Oblast became an exclave, geographically separated from the rest of Russia. This isolation from the rest of Russia became even more pronounced politically when Poland and Lithuania became members of NATO and subsequently the European Union in 2004. All military and civilian land links between the region and the rest of Russia have to pass through members of NATO and the EU. Special travel arrangements for the territory's inhabitants have been made through the Facilitated Transit Document (FTD) and Facilitated Rail Transit Document (FRTD).

While in the 1990s many Soviet-era city names commemorating Communist leaders were changed (e.g. Leningrad reverting to Saint Petersburg), Kaliningrad remains named as it was.

Since the early 1990s, the Kaliningrad oblast has been a Free Economic Zone (FEZ Yantar). In 2005 the city marked 750 years of existence as Königsberg/Kaliningrad.[17] In July 2007, Russian First Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov declared that if US-controlled missile defense systems were deployed in Poland, then nuclear weapons might be deployed in Kaliningrad. On November 5, 2008, Russian leader Dmitry Medvedev said that installing missiles in Kaliningrad was almost a certainty.[18] These plans were suspended, however, in January 2009.[19]

But during late 2011, a long range Voronezh radar was commissioned to monitor missile launches within about 6,000 kilometres (3,728 miles). It is situated in the settlement of Pionersky (formerly German Neukuhren) in Kaliningrad Oblast.[20]

Even though the current German government has stated it has no claim over Kaliningrad, the former Königsberg, the possibility of such a return to German rule at some future time continues to come up in discussion, creating what is known as "The Kaliningrad question".

In 2018, Kaliningrad hosted some games of the World Cup.

Administrative and municipal status

Kaliningrad is the administrative center of the oblast.[8] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Kaliningrad—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Kaliningrad is incorporated as Kaliningrad Urban Okrug.[9]

City districts

As of 2014, the city was divided into three administrative districts:

City district
Russian name Inhabitants
2010 Census[6]
Notes
Moskovsky Московский 152,165 Named after the Russian capital, Moscow
Leningradsky Ленинградский 159,771 Named after Leningrad, now Saint Petersburg
Tsentralny Центральный 119,966 Lit. central, as it lies to the northwest of the historical city center

Two administrative districts were abolished in June 2009:

City district
Russian name Inhabitants
2002 Census[21]
Notes
Baltiysky Балтийский 68,664 Named after the Baltic Sea
Oktyabrsky Октябрьский 43,252 Named after the October Revolution

Cityscape

Museums

Istoriko-hudozhestvennyMuzey
Museum of History and Arts, formerly Königsberg's Stadthalle

Kaliningrad has many museums. A few examples are the Immanuel Kant museum on the Kneiphof island, the Regional Museum of History and Arts, which has parts of Königsberg Castle's Prussia Museum of local archaeological findings, and the Kaliningrad Amber Museum, which is situated in the Dohna Tower near the Rossgarten Gate. The city is also home to the Kaliningrad State Art Gallery, established in 1988, that is developing as a contemporary art museum.[22] The Museum of the World's Oceans is located on the former research vessel Wityaz on the shore of the Pregel river. The museum displays the newest technologies on sea research and also shows the diversity of the flora and fauna of the world's oceans. An anchored Foxtrot-class submarine next to the museum, the B-413, hosts an exhibit about the Russian submarine fleet.

Theatre

The Kaliningrad Philharmonic Orchestra is accommodated in the former Catholic Church of the Holy Family of Königsberg, built in 1907. The church escaped major damage in World War II and was refurbished afterwards. The building, which has noted acoustics, functions as an organ hall since re-opening in 1980.

The Kaliningrad Regional Drama Theatre is located in the former Königsberg Neues Schauspielhaus, which was opened in 1910. The building was rebuilt after the war using earlier plans for the theatre and opened in 1960. The colonnade in front of the entrance was modeled after the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow.

The regionally notable Kaliningrad Puppet Theatre has had its seat since 1975 in the Queen Louise Remembrance Church. This neo-romantic church, designed by architect Fritz Heitmann, was built in 1901.

Architecture

The pre-war city center (Altstadt and Kneiphof) currently consists of parks, broad avenues, a square on the site of the former Königsberg Castle, and two buildings: the House of Soviets ("Dom Sovyetov"), roughly on the site of the former castle, and the restored Königsberg Cathedral on the Kneiphof island (now "Kant island"). Immanuel Kant's grave is situated next to the cathedral. Many German-era buildings in the historic city center have been preserved and even rebuilt, including the reconstruction of the Königsberg Synagogue. The new city center is concentrated around Victory Square. The Cathedral of Christ the Savior, consecrated in 2005, is located on that square.

The oldest building in Kaliningrad is the Juditten Church (built before 1288). Also worth seeing are the former Stock Exchange, the surviving churches, and the remaining city gates. In counter-clockwise order these gates are: the Sackheim Gate, King's Gate, Rossgarten Gate, Attack Gate (German: Ausfallstor, or Sally Port), Railway Gate (Eisenbahntor), Brandenburg Gate, and Friedland Gate (Friedländer Tor (Kaliningrad)). Apart from the already mentioned Dohna Tower, which houses the Amber Museum, the Wrangel Tower also remains as a reminder of the former Königsberg city walls. Only the gate of the former Fort Friedrichsburg remains.

Monuments

Kant Kaliningrad
Recast Immanuel Kant statue

Notable monuments include the statue of Immanuel Kant in front of the Immanuel Kant State University of Russia. The statue was made by notable sculptor Christian Daniel Rauch and unveiled in 1864. The statue was destroyed in 1945, but was remoulded in 1992 on the initiative of Marion Dönhoff, a native East Prussian who became prominent in the West. Also worth seeing is the Cosmonaut monument, which honours the Kaliningrad cosmonauts Alexei Leonov, Yuri Romanenko and Aleksandr Viktorenko. Other statues and monuments include the statue for Duke Albert, the statue for Friedrich Schiller, the statue for Tsar Peter the Great, Vladimir Vysotsky, the "Mother Russia" monument, and the Monument for the 1200 Guardsmen, remembering the Battle of Königsberg.

Parks

Kaliningrad is a very "green" city with a large number of parks and areas with lots of trees and lawns. Parks range from tiny city squares to massive parks.

Youth Recreation Park is one of the well known and popular parks in the city. The park was established in the '20s-'30s in the English style. It reopened its doors post war and was popular among citizens in the '80s-'90s with its beautiful boat house and tennis courts, as well as merry-go-rounds.[23] The park had a massive reconstruction in 2004 adding to the park a cafe, carting, and various modern entertainments. It is located in the quiet area of the city, in Leningradsky area, and is connected to the Lower Pond. Youth Recreation Park provides entertainment for all age groups. There is also Interpersonal Communications Development Central located in the park. Its beautiful building became a popular backdrop for wedding pictures.

The Kaliningrad Zoo was opened as the Königsberg Zoo in 1896. The collection, which extends over 16.5 ha, comprises 315 species with a total of 2,264 individual animals (as of 2005). The Kaliningrad Zoo is also an arboretum.

Ponds

Centrally located in the city is Lower Pond, an artificial lake. Lower Pond is surrounded by a promenade and is an area for recreation especially in summer. North of the Lower Pond is the larger Upper Pond in northern Kaliningrad.

Bridges

Leonhard Euler's 1736 paper on the puzzle of the Seven Bridges of Königsberg was a seminal work in the fields of graph theory and topology. Only two of the structures from his era survive.

Kaliningrad Arena

In 2018, a new stadium, Kaliningrad Arena, was built on the Oktyabsrky Island, near the embankment of the Staraya Pregolya River. The stadium has a seating capacity of 35,000.

Geography

Kaliningrad is at the mouth of the navigable Pregolya River, which empties into the Vistula Lagoon, an inlet of the Baltic Sea.

Sea vessels can access Gdańsk Bay/Bay of Danzig and the Baltic Sea by way of the Vistula Lagoon and the Strait of Baltiysk.

Until around 1900, ships drawing more than 2 meters (6 ft 7 in) of water could not pass the bar and come into town; larger vessels had to anchor at Pillau (now Baltiysk), where cargo was transferred to smaller vessels. In 1901, a ship canal between Königsberg and Pillau, completed at a cost of 13 million German marks, enabled vessels of a 6.5 meters (21 ft) draught to moor alongside the town (see also Ports of the Baltic Sea).

Kaliningrad 05-2017 img41 Reichsbahn Bridge

The Pregolya River in Kaliningrad

Kaliningrad 05-2017 img07 Fishery Village

The pseudo-historic "Fishermen's village"

Свято-Никольский собор в Калининграде (Юдиттен-кирха Кёнигсберга)

13th century Juditten Church

Climate

Kaliningrad, Baltic Sea, Russia
This photograph from the ISS captures the two large lagoons to the north and south of Kaliningrad. The dark blue features are land. (From an astronaut's perspective in low-Earth orbit, land surfaces usually appear brighter than water. But in this image, reflected sunlight, or sunglint, inverts this pattern.)

Kaliningrad has a humid continental climate (Dfb or Cfb, depending on the isotherm chosen for class C climates), with cold, cloudy, (though moderate compared to most of Russia) winters and mild summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms. Average temperatures range from −1.5 to +18.1 °C (29.3 to 64.6 °F) and rainfall varies from 36.0 millimeters (1.42 in)/month to 97.0 millimeters (3.82 in)/month. In general, it has maritime climate influences and therefore damp, variable and mild, with vast temperature differences between July and January.

The seasons are clearly differentiated. Spring starts in March and is initially cold and windy, later becoming pleasantly warm and often very sunny. Summer, which begins in June, is predominantly warm but hot at times (with temperature reaching as high as +30–+35 °C (86–95 °F) at least once per year) with plenty of sunshine interspersed with heavy rain. The average annual hours of sunshine for Kaliningrad are 1700, similar to other northern cities. Autumn comes in September and is at first warm and usually sunny, turning cold, damp and foggy in November. Winter includes periods of snow. January and February are the coldest months with the temperature sometimes dropping as low as −15 °C (5 °F).

Climate data for Kaliningrad
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.7
(54.9)
15.6
(60.1)
23.0
(73.4)
28.5
(83.3)
30.6
(87.1)
33.5
(92.3)
36.3
(97.3)
36.5
(97.7)
33.8
(92.8)
26.4
(79.5)
19.4
(66.9)
13.3
(55.9)
36.5
(97.7)
Average high °C (°F) 0.7
(33.3)
1.5
(34.7)
5.6
(42.1)
12.3
(54.1)
18.0
(64.4)
20.5
(68.9)
23.0
(73.4)
22.6
(72.7)
17.6
(63.7)
12.1
(53.8)
5.6
(42.1)
1.9
(35.4)
11.8
(53.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.5
(29.3)
−1.1
(30.0)
2.0
(35.6)
7.3
(45.1)
12.5
(54.5)
15.5
(59.9)
18.1
(64.6)
17.6
(63.7)
13.1
(55.6)
8.4
(47.1)
3.3
(37.9)
−0.3
(31.5)
7.9
(46.2)
Average low °C (°F) −3.9
(25.0)
−3.6
(25.5)
−1.1
(30.0)
2.9
(37.2)
7.4
(45.3)
10.9
(51.6)
13.6
(56.5)
13.1
(55.6)
9.2
(48.6)
5.2
(41.4)
1.1
(34.0)
−2.5
(27.5)
4.4
(39.9)
Record low °C (°F) −32.5
(−26.5)
−33.3
(−27.9)
−21.7
(−7.1)
−5.8
(21.6)
−3.1
(26.4)
0.7
(33.3)
4.5
(40.1)
1.6
(34.9)
−2.0
(28.4)
−11.2
(11.8)
−18.7
(−1.7)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−33.3
(−27.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 68
(2.7)
49
(1.9)
52
(2.0)
36
(1.4)
54
(2.1)
79
(3.1)
77
(3.0)
97
(3.8)
74
(2.9)
82
(3.2)
83
(3.3)
73
(2.9)
824
(32.4)
Average rainy days 14 13 14 14 14 16 15 16 17 18 18 16 185
Average snowy days 15 15 10 3 0.1 0 0 0 0 1 7 13 64
Average relative humidity (%) 85 83 78 72 71 74 75 77 81 83 86 87 79
Mean monthly sunshine hours 35 61 120 171 253 264 257 228 158 96 38 26 1,707
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[24]
Source #2: NOAA (sun 1961–1990)[25]

Culture

Education

An important education centre in Kaliningrad is the Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University. It is the successor to the Albertina, which was the old university of Königsberg founded in 1544, and whose faculty included noted scholars as Abraomas Kulvietis, Stanislovas Rapalionis, Immanuel Kant, and Jan Mikulicz-Radecki.

Music

The modern city of Kaliningrad is home to the Kaliningrad Regional Philharmonic and Symphony Orchestra, the Lik male chamber choir and the Garmonika Russian music ensemble,[26] as well as the Kaliningrad Chamber Orchestra.[27]

Cuisine

Koenigsberger
Königsberger Klopse are a Prussian specialty of meatballs in a white sauce with capers that can be found in many restaurants in Kaliningrad.

Kaliningrad has its own vodka and beer brands, Stari Königsberg and Ostmark respectively. Since the early 1990s many new restaurants have opened in the city. These restaurants offer culinary specialities of former East Prussia, like Königsberger Klopse, but also many fish and salad dishes, Italian pizza and sushi, which is as popular in Kaliningrad as in the rest of Russia. Königsberger Fleck, a bovine tripe soup and yet another culinary specialty from former Königsberg, no longer belongs to the culinary culture of Kaliningrad.

The people of Kaliningrad generally imported their respective culinary traditions to the region when they settled in the area after 1945. Borshch and okroshka may be served as in the rest of Russia. Many Italian and Asian restaurants (or fusions of both traditions) are in operation all over the city. Pizza and sushi are among the most popular dishes today. Fast food is widely available from various chains, including those of foreign origin. Shawarma is also gaining considerable prominence.

Transportation

TramKaliningrad
A Kaliningrad tram

Khrabrovo Airport, 24 kilometers (15 mi) north of Kaliningrad, has scheduled and charter services to several destinations throughout Europe. There is the smaller Kaliningrad Devau Airport for general aviation. Kaliningrad is also home to Kaliningrad Chkalovsk naval air base.

In Baltiysk, one can take a ferry to St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Copenhagen, Riga, and Kiel.

Kaliningrad's international railway station is Kaliningrad Passazhirsky, which in German times was known as Königsberg Hauptbahnhof. Trains depart in the directions of Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Adler and Chelyabinsk. A unique feature of the Kaliningrad railway is that some tracks in the direction of Poland and Berlin have a standard gauge track parallel to the Russian broad gauge of 1520 mm, used mostly for strategic reasons during the Cold War and nowadays for goods traffic. Platform number 6 at the Passazhirsky station can be reached on standard gauge over the former Ostbahn main line from Elbing (Elbląg) making passenger through traffic from Berlin possible.

Regional trains also depart from Kaliningrad-North, the former Königsberg Nordbahnhof, which is situated on Victory Square, the current city center. Trains depart to Zelenogradsk and Svetlogorsk, and also once a day to Sovetsk. The lines to the Zelenogradsk and Svetlogorsk have been electrified. Many local pre-war lines have been broken up or are no longer in use, because the new border with Poland disrupted the former traffic flows.

In 1881, the Königsberg tramway system was opened, and it still functions to this day. In 1975, a trolleybus system was also introduced.

KaliningradBusVictorysquare

Mercedes-Benz bus. Pobedy Square (Victory Square)

Kaliningrad 05-2017 img34 trolley1

VMZ trolley

Port of Kaliningrad

Port of Kaliningrad

Economy

In 1996, Kaliningrad was designated a Special Economic Zone, referred to as FEZ Yantar. Manufacturers based there get tax and customs duty breaks on the goods they send to other parts of Russia. Although corruption was an early deterrent, that policy means the region is now a manufacturing hub. One in three televisions in Russia is made in Kaliningrad (including Ericsson brand by Telebalt Ltd. and Polar by an eponymous firm located in the city of Chernyakhovsk) and it is home to Cadillac, Hummer and BMW related car plants (produced by Avtotor). Currently, Kaliningrad's major industries are manufacturing, shipping, fishing and amber products. In 2006, Moscow declared it would turn the region into "the Russian Hong Kong".[28]

The European Commission provides funds for business projects under its special programme for Kaliningrad. With an average GDP growth of more than 10% per year for three years to 2007, Kaliningrad grew faster than any other region in Russia, even outstripping the success of its EU neighbours. By early 2015, the BBC reported the region's trade with the countries of the EU was increasing, with improved economic growth and industrial output.[29]

In preparation for the 2018 FIFA World Cup, 4 new hotels have been built in the city, including a five star apartment hotel, Crystal House.[30]

Military

Kaliningrad Oblast used to be the most heavily militarized area of what is now the Russian Federation, and the density of military infrastructure was the highest in Europe. It was the headquarters of the former Soviet Baltic Military District. Kaliningrad also functions as the headquarters of Russia's Baltic Fleet, ringed by Chernyakhovsk (air base), Donskoye (air base) and Kaliningrad Chkalovsk (naval air base).

Soviet era

Access and control to the Baltic Sea was imperative because of Soviet perceptions that this meant that the hegemonic power had "influence on European and global affairs". Russia had replaced Sweden as the hegemon since the 18th century, but during the late 19th and early 20th century it was increasingly ousted by Germany's growing naval power.[31] At any point in time during the Soviet era, there would be at least 100,000 troops stationed in Kaliningrad (though there are some estimates that run up to 300,000). Therefore, the population of the city was fluid and almost always temporary. Many military officers and their families would refer to the Kaliningrad Oblast as "the West". The Soviet Union also kept nuclear weapons for use in case a war occurred.[32]

Demographics

The original German population fled or was expelled at the end of World War II when the territory was annexed by the Soviet Union. In October 1945, only about 5,000 Soviet civilians lived in the territory.[33] Between October 1947 and October 1948, about 100,000 Germans were forcibly moved to Germany.[34] About 400,000 Soviet civilians arrived in the Oblast by 1948.[33]

Victory Day in Kaliningrad 2017-05-09 49
Local residents in Kaliningrad at «Immortal regiment», carrying portraits of their ancestors who fought in World War II
Blessing Easter Baskets in Kaliningrad 2017-04-15 15
The blessing of the Easter baskets in Kaliningrad

Today the overwhelming majority Kaliningrad's residents are of Russian ethnicity settled after 1945. A minority of the population are from other Slavic people. Kaliningrad today is home to communities of Ukrainian, Belarusian, Tatar, German, Armenian, Polish, and Lithuanian.

Ethnic composition, Russian 2010 census:

Ethnicity total population % of the population
Russians 351,186 87.4 %
Ukrainians 16,053 4.0 %
Belarusian 15,077 3.7 %
Armenians 3,062 0.8 %
Tatars 2,075 0.5 %
Lithuanians 1,789 0.4 %
Germans 1,676 0.4 %
Polish 1,114 0.3 %
Other ethnicities 10,041 2.5 %
All 401,649 100.0 %

Poles in Kaliningrad

In the 1940s and 1950s the Soviets resettled Poles from Belarus, the Baltic states, Ukraine, and Russia to Kaliningrad.[35] According to Wacław Podbereski after the Second World War and the takeover of the administration in these areas by the Soviets, the development of the Polish element in this region effectively ceased.[36] The oldest church in Königsberg was the Polish church of St. Nicholas, which had been founded with the city in 1255 in the historic district of Steindamm and was dismantled in 1950.[36] Change came with the disintegration of the Soviet Union, due mainly to pastoral activities that began the repolonization of the Poles in Russia. The first steps were made by a Polish priest from Grodno (Hrodna), Fr. Jerzy Steckiewicz.[37]

The "Polish Cultural Community in Kaliningrad" operates as the main Polish organization among Kaliningrad's Polonia, one of six such Polish organizations within Kaliningrad Oblast.[37][38] Wspolnota Polska estimates that it is likely there are between 15,000 and 20,000 Poles living in the entire oblast. The "Polish Cultural Community in Kaliningrad" organizes poetry contests and is the publisher of the local Polish language newspaper "The Voice from the Pregel".[38] The whole Kaliningrad Oblast has witnessed an increase in Polish cultural activity since the fall of the Soviet Union, partly due to the immigration of Polish families from Kazakhstan, who had been deported by Stalin during the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939.[35]

Sports

Kaliningrad is home to the football club FC Baltika Kaliningrad, which plays in the Football Championship of the National League (formerly Russian First Division). It played in the Russian Premier League for 3 seasons between 1996 and 1998.

Kaliningrad was the host of some games in the 2018 FIFA World Cup.

Notable people

International relations

Diplomatic missions

In 2004, Germany opened a consulate general in Kaliningrad. This consulate allows Kaliningrad residents to get Schengen visas without having to travel to Moscow. An agreement between Gerhard Schröder, Chancellor of Germany, and President of Russia Vladimir Putin established the consulate in light of Lithuania and Poland, which surround Kaliningrad, joining the EU. Russian concerns with Germany wanting the former Königsberg back had stifled earlier plans for a German consulate.[39]

As of 2004 the German consulate was still in the process of getting a new building.[40]

Small border traffic law

Poland and the Russian Federation have an arrangement whereby residents of Kaliningrad and the Polish cities of Olsztyn, Elbląg and Gdańsk may obtain special cards permitting repeated travel between the two countries, crossing the Polish–Russian border. As of July 2013, Poland had issued 100,000 of the cards. That year, Russians visiting Poland to shop at the Biedronka and Lidl supermarkets featured in songs by musical group Parovoz.[41]

Twin towns and sister cities

Kaliningrad is twinned with[42][43]

[55][56]

Partner cities

Kaliningrad is also partnered with:

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Resolution #640
  2. ^ Article 6 of the Charter of Kaliningrad states that the city may have an anthem, providing one is officially adopted. As of 2015, an anthem is not listed among the symbols of the city shown on the official website of Kaliningrad.
  3. ^ a b Official website of Kaliningrad. Passport of Kaliningrad Urban Okrug. (in Russian)
  4. ^ a b Charter of Kaliningrad, Article 25
  5. ^ Official website of Kaliningrad. Head of the City, Alexander Georgiyevich Yaroshuk. (in Russian)
  6. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  7. ^ Kaliningrad Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Оценка численности населения Калининградской области по состоянию на 1 января 2014 года (in Russian)
  8. ^ a b Law #463
  9. ^ a b c Law #397
  10. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  11. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  12. ^ The Monthly Review. R. Griffiths. 1836. p. 609. Retrieved December 29, 2014.
  13. ^ "THE POTSDAM DECLARATION". ibiblio.org. Retrieved 2014-12-29.
  14. ^ Decree of July 4, 1946
  15. ^ "Russia (USSR) / Poland Treaty (with annexed maps) concerning the Demarcation of the Existing Soviet-Polish State Frontier in the Sector Adjoining the Baltic Sea 5 March 1957" (PDF). un.org. Retrieved 2014-12-29.
  16. ^ For other issues of the frontier delimitation see "Maritime boundary delimitation agreements and other material". un.org. Retrieved 2014-12-29.
  17. ^ "The New York Times". nytimes.com. Retrieved 2014-12-29.
  18. ^ "Medvedev Says Russia to Deploy Missiles Near Poland" Associated Press via Yahoo News Template:Dead link fixed
  19. ^ Luke Harding in Moscow (2009-01-28). ""Russia scraps plans to deploy nuclear-capable missiles in Kaliningrad" The". Guardian. Retrieved 2013-12-21.
  20. ^ 28.11.2011 (2011-11-28). ""Russia's new radar to monitor all Europe including Britain" Pravda 28.11.2011". English.pravda.ru. Retrieved 2013-12-21.
  21. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  22. ^ "Kaliningrad State Art Gallery". www.russianmuseums.info. 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-21.
  23. ^ "Новости! Анонсы! Акции! | Парк "Юность", г.Калининград". www.park-unost.ru. Retrieved 2017-08-18.
  24. ^ "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Kaliningrad" (in Russian). Погода и климат. Retrieved April 5, 2016.
  25. ^ "Kaliningrad Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 5, 2016.
  26. ^ "Russia's Daily Online". Kommersant. Archived from the original on August 31, 2009. Retrieved June 27, 2009.
  27. ^ "Shostakovich & Schnittke Concertos". Classicstoday.com. Retrieved 2014-01-31.
  28. ^ Sheeter, Laura (2006-10-16). "'Kaliningrad erases stains of past' 16 October 2006". BBC News. Retrieved 2013-12-21.
  29. ^ "'Regions and territories: Kaliningrad' 18 December 2007". BBC News. 2013-10-05. Retrieved 2013-12-21.\
  30. ^ http://www.poehali.tv/hotels/10368
  31. ^ Knudsen, Olav F. (1999). Stability and Security in the Baltic Sea Region. Portland, OR: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd. p. 38. ISBN 0-7146-4932-5.
  32. ^ Krickus, Richard (2002). The Kaliningrad Question. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. p. 42.
  33. ^ a b Malinkin, Mary Elizabeth (8 February 2016). "Building a Soviet City: the Transformation of Königsberg". Wilson Center. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  34. ^ Berger, Stefan (13 May 2010). "How to be Russian with a Difference? Kaliningrad and its German Past". Geopolitics. 15 (2): 345–366. doi:10.1080/14650040903486967.
  35. ^ a b Wspólnota Polska (2012-12-17). "Stowarzyszenie Wspólnota Polska". Archiwum.wspolnotapolska.org.pl. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  36. ^ a b Wacław Podbereski, Sąsiedzi: Królewiec – Königsberg – Kaliningrad [w:] "Znad Wilii" nr 4(44) 2010, s. 113-117
  37. ^ a b "Placówki Dyplomatyczne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej". Kaliningradkg.polemb.net. Retrieved 2013-12-21.
  38. ^ a b "Consulate General in Kaliningrad". Kaliningradkg.polemb.net. Retrieved 2013-12-21.
  39. ^ "Fischer Establishes German Outpost in Kaliningrad." Deutsche Welle. 12 February 2004. Retrieved on 16 May 2016.
  40. ^ Kovalev, Vladimir. "No Building for German Consulate." The Moscow Times. August 30, 2004. Retrieved on May 16, 2016.
  41. ^ A.C. (2013-10-08). "Poland and Kaliningrad: Small Border Traffic". Economist blog. Archived from the original on 2013-10-08. Retrieved 2014-12-29.
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  43. ^ Luhn, Alec (20 November 2011). "Kaliningrad". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
  44. ^ "Aalborg Twin Towns". Europeprize.net. Archived from the original on September 7, 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
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  46. ^ Korolczuk, Dariusz (January 12, 2010). "Foreign cooperation - Partner Cities". Białystok City Council. City Office in Białystok. Retrieved March 22, 2013.
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  49. ^ "Gdańsk Official Website: 'Miasta partnerskie'". gdansk.pl (in Polish and English). Urząd Miejski w Gdańsku. 2009. Archived from the original on July 23, 2013. Retrieved July 11, 2009.
  50. ^ P.C., Net. "Gdynia - International Gdynia - International co-operation of Gdynia". www.gdynia.pl. Archived from the original on October 19, 2016.
  51. ^ "Groningen - Partner Cities". © 2008 Gemeente Groningen, Kreupelstraat 1,9712 HW Groningen. Archived from the original on September 26, 2007. Retrieved December 8, 2008.
  52. ^ "Miasta partnerskie - Urząd Miasta Łodzi". City of Łódź (in Polish). Archived from the original on June 24, 2013. Retrieved December 29, 2014.
  53. ^ "Vänorter" (in Swedish). Malmö stad. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 6, 2013.
  54. ^ "Miasta bliźniacze Torunia" [Toruń's twin towns]. Urząd Miasta Torunia [City of Toruń Council] (in Polish). Retrieved August 22, 2013.
  55. ^ Kaliningrad and Patras to become twin cities
  56. ^ Russian Sailing Ship Docks in Patras for Twinning with Kaliningrad
  57. ^ "Yerevan - Partner Cities". Yerevan Municipality Official Website. ©2005–2013 www.yerevan.am. Archived from the original on November 5, 2013. Retrieved November 4, 2013.

Sources

  • Городской Совет депутатов Калининграда. Решение №257 от 12 июля 2007 г. «О принятии Устава городского округа "Город Калининград"», в ред. Решения №20 от 17 февраля 2017 г. «О внесении изменений и дополнений в Устав городского округа "Город Калининград", утверждённый Решением городского Совета депутатов Калининграда от 12 июля 2007 г. №257». Вступил в силу 22 июля 2007 г. (за исключением отдельных положений). Опубликован: "Гражданин" (специальный выпуск), №12, 21 июля 2007 г. (City Council of Deputies of Kaliningrad. Decision #257 of July 12, 2007 On Adopting the Charter of the Urban Okrug of the "City of Kaliningrad", as amended by the Decision #20 of February 17, 2017 On Amending and Supplementing the Charter of the Urban Okrug of the "City of Kaliningrad", Adopted by Decision #257 by the City Council of Deputies of Kaliningrad Decision on July 12, 2007. Effective as of July 22, 2007 (with the exception of certain clauses).).
  • Калининградская областная Дума. Закон №463 от 27 мая 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Калининградской области», в ред. Закона №450 от 3 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Калининградской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Калининградской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда" (вкладыш "Ведомости Правительства Калининградской области"), №112, 26 июня 2010 г. (Kaliningrad Oblast Duma. Law #463 of May 27, 2010 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Kaliningrad Oblast, as amended by the Law #450 of July 3, 2015 On Amending the Law of Kaliningrad Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Kaliningrad Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Правительство Калининградской области. Постановление №640 от 30 августа 2011 г. «Об утверждении реестра объектов административно-территориального деления Калининградской области», в ред. Постановления №877 от 21 ноября 2011 г «О внесении изменения в Постановление Правительства Калининградской области от 30 августа 2011 г. №640». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда" (вкладыш "Официально"), №170, 15 сентября 2011 г. (Government of Kaliningrad Oblast. Resolution #640 of August 30, 2011 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Objects of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of Kaliningrad Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #877 of November 21, 2011 On Amending the Resolution of the Government of Kaliningrad Oblast #640 of August 30, 2011. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Калининградская областная Дума. Закон №397 от 15 мая 2004 г. «О наделении муниципального образования "Город Калининград" статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №370 от 1 июля 2009 г «О составе территорий муниципальных образований Калининградской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская газета" ("Запад России"), №115, 3 июня 2004 г. (Kaliningrad Oblast Duma. Law #397 of May 15, 2004 On Granting the Urban Okrug Status to the Municipal Formation of the "City of Kaliningrad", as amended by the Law #370 of July 1, 2009 On the Composition of the Territories of the Municipal Formations of Kaliningrad Oblast. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Vesilind, Priit J. "Kaliningrad: Coping with a German Past and a Russian Future", National Geographic, March 1997.
  • Berger, Stefan "A City and Its Past. Popular Histories in Kaliningrad between Regionalization and Nationalization", in: Popularizing National Past. 1800 to Present, Edited by Stefan Berger, Chris Lorenz, and Billie Melman, Routledge 2012, pp. 288–307.
  • Kaliningrad Region, General Information Kommersant, Russia's daily On-line
  • Президиум Верховного Совета СССР. Указ от 4 июля 1946 г. «О переименовании города Кёнигсберга в город Калининград и Кёнигсбергской области в Калининградскую область». (Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Decree of July 4, 1946 On Changing the Name of the City of Kyonigsberg to the City of Kaliningrad and the Name of Kyonigsberg Oblast to Kaliningrad Oblast. ).

Further reading

External links

Administrative divisions of Kaliningrad Oblast

Cities and towns under the oblast's jurisdiction:

Kaliningrad (Калининград) (administrative center)

administrative districts:

Leningradsky (Ленинградский)

Moskovsky (Московский)

Tsentralny (Центральный)

Baltiysk (Балтийск)

Urban-type settlements under the town's jurisdiction:

Primorsk (Приморск)

Pionersky (Пионерский)

Sovetsk (Советск)

Svetlogorsk (Светлогорск)

Urban-type settlements under the town's jurisdiction:

Yantarny (Янтарный)

Svetly (Светлый)

Districts:

Bagrationovsky (Багратионовский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Bagrationovsk (Багратионовск)

Ladushkin (Ладушкин)

Mamonovo (Мамоново)

with 11 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Chernyakhovsky (Черняховский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Chernyakhovsk (Черняховск)

with 7 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Guryevsky (Гурьевский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Guryevsk (Гурьевск)

with 9 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Gusevsky (Гусевский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Gusev (Гусев)

with 7 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Gvardeysky (Гвардейский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Gvardeysk (Гвардейск)

with 6 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Krasnoznamensky (Краснознаменский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Krasnoznamensk (Краснознаменск)

with 7 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Nemansky (Неманский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Neman (Неман)

with 9 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Nesterovsky (Нестеровский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Nesterov (Нестеров)

with 7 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Ozyorsky (Озёрский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Ozyorsk (Озёрск)

with 6 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Polessky (Полесский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Polessk (Полесск)

with 6 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Pravdinsky (Правдинский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Pravdinsk (Правдинск)

Urban-type settlements under the district's jurisdiction:

Zheleznodorozhny (Железнодорожный)

with 8 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Slavsky (Славский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Slavsk (Славск)

with 7 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Zelenogradsky (Зеленоградский)

Towns under the district's jurisdiction:

Zelenogradsk (Зеленоградск)

with 9 rural okrugs under the district's jurisdiction.

Amber Coast

The Amber Coast is the name given to a coastal strip of the Baltic Sea in the northwest of Kaliningrad (Russia, Kaliningrad Oblast, Sambia Peninsula, formerly northern East Prussia in Germany). In this area amber (Baltic amber) has been excavated since the mid-19th century and up to today in open-pit mining. Two deposits – Palmnikenskoe and Primorskoe, containing 80% of world amber reserves, were found near Yantarny on the Western coast of the Sambia Peninsula in 1948-1951’s.

Avtotor

Avtotor (Russian: Автотор) is an automobile manufacturing company located in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. It was created in 1996, and was one of the largest producers and assemblers of cars by 2008, including brands like BMW, Chevrolet, Hummer, and Kia.In 2006, it was ranked 69th in Forbes magazine's list of the 200 largest private companies in Russia. The company's revenue for 2011 was reported to be approximately 4 billion euros and it was said, in 2016, to employ 3,500.

Baltic Fleet

The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Baltic Sea.

Established 18 May 1703, under Tsar Peter the Great as part of the Imperial Russian Navy, the Baltic Fleet is the oldest Russian Navy formation. In 1918 the fleet was inherited by the Russian SFSR then the Soviet Union in 1922, where it was eventually known as the Twice Red Banner Baltic Fleet as part of the Soviet Navy, as during this period it gained the two awards of the Order of the Red Banner. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Baltic Fleet was inherited by the Russian Federation and reverted to its original name as part of the Russian Navy.

The Baltic Fleet is headquartered in Kaliningrad and its main base in Baltiysk, both in Kaliningrad Oblast, and another base in Kronshtadt, Saint Petersburg in the Gulf of Finland.

Baltiysk

Baltiysk (Russian: Балти́йск), before 1946 known by its German name Pillau (Polish: Piława; Lithuanian: Piliava; Yiddish: פּילאַווע, Pilave), is a seaport town and the administrative center of Baltiysky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the northern part of the Vistula Spit, on the shore of the Strait of Baltiysk separating the Vistula Lagoon from the Gdańsk Bay. Population: 32,697 (2010 Census); 33,252 (2002 Census); 27,070 (1989 Census).Baltiysk, the westernmost town in Russia, is a major base of the Russian Navy's Baltic Fleet and a ferry-port on the route to St. Petersburg.

Central European Summer Time

Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year. It corresponds to UTC+2, which makes it the same as Central Africa Time, South African Standard Time and Kaliningrad Time in Russia.

East Prussia

East Prussia (German: Ostpreußen, pronounced [ˈɔstˌpʁɔʏsən] (listen); Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Lithuanian: Rytų Prūsija; Latin: Borussia orientalis; Russian: Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945. Its capital city was Königsberg (present-day Kaliningrad). East Prussia was the main part of the region of Prussia along the southeastern Baltic Coast.The bulk of the ancestral lands of the Baltic Old Prussians were enclosed within East Prussia. During the 13th century, the native Prussians were conquered by the crusading Teutonic Knights. After the conquest the indigenous Balts were gradually converted to Christianity. Because of Germanization and colonisation over the following centuries, Germans became the dominant ethnic group, while Masurians and Lithuanians formed minorities. From the 13th century, East Prussia was part of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. After the Second Peace of Thorn in 1466 it became a fief of the Kingdom of Poland. In 1525, with the Prussian Homage, the province became the Duchy of Prussia. The Old Prussian language had become extinct by the 17th or early 18th century.Because the duchy was outside of the core Holy Roman Empire, the prince-electors of Brandenburg were able to proclaim themselves King beginning in 1701. After the annexation of most of western Royal Prussia in the First Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1772, eastern (ducal) Prussia was connected by land with the rest of the Prussian state and was reorganized as a province the following year (1773). Between 1829 and 1878, the Province of East Prussia was joined with West Prussia to form the Province of Prussia.

The Kingdom of Prussia became the leading state of the German Empire after its creation in 1871. However, the Treaty of Versailles following World War I granted West Prussia to Poland and made East Prussia an exclave of Weimar Germany (the new Polish Corridor separated East Prussia from the rest of Germany), while the Memel Territory was detached and annexed by Lithuania in 1923. Following Nazi Germany's defeat in World War II in 1945, war-torn East Prussia was divided at Joseph Stalin's insistence between the Soviet Union (the Kaliningrad Oblast became part of the Russian SFSR, and the constituent counties of the Klaipėda Region in the Lithuanian SSR) and the People's Republic of Poland (the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship). The capital city Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946. The German population of the province was largely evacuated during the war or expelled shortly afterwards in the expulsion of Germans after World War II. An estimated 300,000 (around one fifth of the population) died either in war time bombing raids, in the battles to defend the province, or through mistreatment by the Red Army.

FC Baltika Kaliningrad

FC Baltika is an association football club based in Kaliningrad, Russia. Currently the club plays in the Russian Football National League, the second tier of the Russian football pyramid.

K-5 (missile)

The Kaliningrad K-5 (NATO reporting name AA-1 Alkali), also known as RS-1U or product ShM, was an early Soviet air-to-air missile.

K-8 (missile)

The Kaliningrad K-8 (R-8) (NATO reporting name AA-3 'Anab') was a medium-range air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union for interceptor aircraft use.Developed by OKB-339/NII-339 (currently Phazotron NIIR). The infrared seeker was developed by TsKB-589 GKOT (currently TsKB Geofizika), who also developed the seeker for 9M31 missile of 9K31 Strela-1.

Kaliningrad Oblast

Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: Калинингра́дская о́бласть, Kaliningradskaya oblast), often referred to as the Kaliningrad Region in English, or simply Kaliningrad, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation that is located on the coast of the Baltic Sea. As an oblast, its constitutional status is equal to each of the other 84 federal subjects. Its administrative center is the city of Kaliningrad, formerly known as Königsberg. It is the only Baltic port in the Russian Federation that remains ice-free in winter. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 941,873.The oblast is an exclave, bordered by Poland to the south and Lithuania to the east and north, so residents may only travel visa-free to the rest of Russia via sea or air. The territory was formerly the northern part of East Prussia, with the southern part now being Poland's Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. With the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, the territory was annexed by the Soviet Union. Following the post-war migration and Flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50), the territory was populated with citizens from the Soviet Union. Today virtually no ethnic Germans remain; most of the several thousand who live there are recent immigrants from other parts of the former Soviet Union.

Early in the 21st century, the hitherto fledgling economy of Kaliningrad Oblast became one of the best performing economies in Russia. This was helped by a low manufacturing tax rate related to its "Special Economic Zone" (SEZ) status. As of 2006, one in three televisions manufactured in Russia came from Kaliningrad. The territory's population was one of the few in Russia that was expected to show strong growth after the collapse of the USSR.

Kaliningrad Time

Kaliningrad Time is the time zone two hours ahead of UTC (UTC+02:00) and 1 hour behind Moscow Time (MSK−1). It is used in Kaliningrad Oblast.

Until 2011, Kaliningrad Time was identical to Eastern European Time (UTC+02:00; UTC+03:00 with daylight saving time). On 27 March 2011, Russia moved to permanent DST, so that clocks would remain on what had been the summer time all year round, making Kaliningrad time permanently set to UTC+03:00. On 26 October 2014, this law was reversed, but daylight saving time was not reintroduced, so Kaliningrad is now permanently set to UTC+02:00.Main cities:

Kaliningrad

Sovetsk

Chernyakhovsk

Khrabrovo Airport

Khrabrovo Airport (Russian Аэропорт Храброво) (IATA: KGD, ICAO: UMKK), also appearing in historical documents as Povunden Airfield, is the airport of Kaliningrad, located 24 kilometers (15 mi) north of the city near the village of Khrabrovo. While it mostly serves scheduled domestic destinations, part of it is still a military base of the Russian Air Force.

Königsberg

Königsberg (German pronunciation: [ˈkøːnɪçsˌbɛɐ̯k]; Polish: Królewiec) is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia. Originally a Sambian or Old Prussian city, it later belonged to the State of the Teutonic Order, the Duchy of Prussia, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany until 1945. After being largely destroyed in World War II by Allied bombing and

Soviet forces and annexed by the Soviet Union thereafter, the city was renamed Kaliningrad. Few traces of the former Königsberg remain today.

The literal meaning of Königsberg is 'King’s Mountain'. In the local Low German dialect, spoken by many of its German former inhabitants, the name was Kenigsbarg (pronounced [ˈkʰeːnɪçsbarç]). Further names included Russian: Кёнигсберг, Королевец, tr. Kyonigsberg, Korolevets, Old Prussian: Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg, Lithuanian: Karaliaučius, Polish: Królewiec and Yiddish: קעניגסבערג Kenigsberg.

Königsberg was founded in 1255 on the site of the ancient Old Prussian settlement Twangste by the Teutonic Knights during the Northern Crusades, and was named in honour of King Ottokar II of Bohemia. A Baltic port city, it successively became the capital of their monastic state, the Duchy of Prussia (1525–1701) and East Prussia. Königsberg remained the coronation city of the Prussian monarchy, though the capital was moved to Berlin in 1701.

A university city, home of the Albertina University (founded in 1544), Königsberg developed into an important German intellectual and cultural centre, being the residence of Simon Dach, Immanuel Kant, Käthe Kollwitz, E. T. A. Hoffmann, David Hilbert, Agnes Miegel, Hannah Arendt, Michael Wieck and others.

Between the thirteenth and the twentieth centuries, the inhabitants spoke predominantly German, but the multicultural city also had a profound influence on the Lithuanian and Polish cultures. The city was a publishing centre of Lutheran literature, including the first Polish translation of the New Testament, printed in the city in 1551, the first book in the Lithuanian language and the first Lutheran catechism, both printed in Königsberg in 1547.

Königsberg was the easternmost large city in Germany until World War II. The city was heavily damaged by Allied bombing in 1944 and during the Battle of Königsberg in 1945; it was then captured and occupied by the Soviet Union on 9 April 1945. Its German population was expelled, and the city was repopulated with Russians and others from the Soviet Union. Briefly Russified as Kyonigsberg (Кёнигсберг), it was renamed "Kaliningrad" in 1946 in honour of Soviet leader Mikhail Kalinin. It is now the capital of Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast, an exclave bordered in the north by Lithuania and in the south by Poland.

There has been some discussion of the territory's current legal status, although this is largely academic. The Potsdam Agreement placed it provisionally under Soviet administration, but did not mention an explicit right of annexation. In the Final Settlement treaty of 1990, Germany renounced all claim to it, but without specifically transferring its former title to any other party.

Ordensburg

Ordensburgs (plural in German: Ordensburgen, literally: castles of orders) were fortresses built by crusading German military orders during the Middle Ages. The term "Ordensburgen" was also used during Nazi Germany to refer to training schools for Nazi leaders.

Patriarch Kirill of Moscow

Kirill or Cyril (Russian: Кирилл, Church Slavonic: Ст҃ѣ́йшїй патрїа́рхъ кѷрі́ллъ, secular name Vladimir Mikhailovich Gundyayev, Russian: Владимир Михайлович Гундяев; born 20 November 1946) is a Russian Orthodox bishop. He became Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus' and Primate of the Russian Orthodox Church on 1 February 2009.

Prior to becoming Patriarch, Kirill was Archbishop (later Metropolitan) of Smolensk and Kaliningrad beginning on 26 December 1984, and also Chairman of the Russian Orthodox Church's Department for External Church Relations and a permanent member of the Holy Synod beginning in 1989.

In cultural and social affairs the Church under Kirill has collaborated closely with the Russian state under President Vladimir Putin. Patriarch Kirill has backed the expansion of Russian power into Crimea and eastern Ukraine. During the Ukrainian Orthodox Church autocephaly controversy, Patriarch Kirill was the presiding chairman of the Holy Synod of the Russian Orthodox Church when the decision was made to break Eucharistic communion with the Ecumenical Patriarchate on 15 October 2018.

Rossitten Bird Observatory

The Rossitten Bird Observatory (Vogelwarte Rossitten in German) was the world's first ornithological observatory. It was sited at Rossitten, East Prussia (now Rybachy, Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia), on the Curonian Spit on the south-eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. It was established by German ornithologist Johannes Thienemann and operated until 1944. In 1945 East Prussia was divided between Poland, Russia and Lithuania, and most ethnic Germans expelled.

Sambia Peninsula

Sambia (Russian: Самбийский полуостров, Sambiysky poluostrov, literally the Sambiysky Peninsula;Lithuanian: Sembos pusiasalis) or Samland (Russian: Земландский полуостров, Zemlandsky poluostrov, literally the Zemlandsky Peninsula) or Kaliningrad Peninsula (official name, Russian: Калининградский полуостров, Kaliningradsky poluostrov) is a peninsula in the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, on the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea. The peninsula is bounded by the Curonian Lagoon (to the north-east), the Vistula Lagoon (on the southwest), the Pregel River (on the south), and the Deyma River (on the east). As Samland is surrounded on all sides by water, it is technically an island. Prior to 1945 it formed an important part of East Prussia.

Sovetsk, Kaliningrad Oblast

Sovetsk (Russian: Сове́тск), before 1946 known as Tilsit (Lithuanian: Tilžė; Polish: Tylża) in East Prussia, is a town in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the south bank of the Neman River. Population: 41,705 (2010 Census); 43,224 (2002 Census); 41,881 (1989 Census).

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