Kalimantan

Kalimantan is the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo.[1] It comprises 73% of the island's area. The non-Indonesian parts of Borneo are Brunei and East Malaysia. In Indonesia, "Kalimantan" refers to the whole island of Borneo.[1]

Kalimantan
Location of Kalimantan (Indonesia) in Borneo Island
Location of Kalimantan (Indonesia) in Borneo Island
Country Indonesia
Province West Kalimantan
 Central Kalimantan
 South Kalimantan
 East Kalimantan
 North Kalimantan
Largest CitiesBalikpapan
Banjarmasin
Palangkaraya
Pontianak
Samarinda
Tarakan
Nunukan
Area
 • Total544,150.07 km2 (210,097.52 sq mi)
Elevation
2,278 m (7,474 ft)
Population
(June 2017)
 • Total15,894,524
 • Density29/km2 (76/sq mi)
Time zonesUTC+7 (Indonesia Western Time)
UTC+8 (Indonesia Central Time)
ISO 3166 codeID-KA
Vehicle signDA
KB
KH
KT
KU
HDIIncrease 0.698 (Medium)
Kalimantan2
Map of Kalimantan (light colour) and its component provinces.

Etymology

The name Kalimantan, which is often spelled Klemantan, was derived from the Sanskrit word Kalamanthana, which means "burning weather island", or island with a very hot temperature, to describe its hot and humid tropical climate. It consists of the two words kal[a] (time, season, period) and manthan[a] (boiling, churning, burning). The word Kalamanthana is spelled Kalmantan, and then the indigenous people fixed it into Klemantan.[2]

Area

The Indonesian territory makes up 73% of the island by area, and 69.5% (13,772,543 at the 2010 Census of Indonesia) by population. The non-Indonesian parts of Borneo are of Brunei (400,000) and East Malaysia (5,625,000), the latter comprising the states of Sabah, Sarawak and the federal territory of Labuan. The region within Indonesia is also known as Indonesian Borneo.

Kalimantan's total area is 544,150 square kilometres (210,097 sq mi).[3]

Administration

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1971 5,154,774—    
1980 6,723,086+30.4%
1990 9,099,874+35.4%
1995 10,470,843+15.1%
2000 11,331,558+8.2%
2005 12,541,554+10.7%
2010 14,297,069+14.0%
2015 15,320,017+7.2%
sources:BPS[4]

Kalimantan is divided into five provinces. There were four provinces until 25 October 2012, when North Kalimantan was split off from East Kalimantan.

Provinces of Kalimantan
Province Area (km2) Population (2005C) Pop. (2010C) Pop. (2015C prelim) Pop. density/km2 Provincial capital Largest metro
West Kalimantan
(Kalimantan Barat)
147,307.00 4,042,817 4,393,239 4,783,209 32.5 Pontianak Pontianak
Central Kalimantan
(Kalimantan Tengah)
153,564.50 1,913,026 2,202,599 2,490,178 16.2 Palangkaraya Palangkaraya
South Kalimantan
(Kalimantan Selatan)
38,744.23 3,271,413 3,626,119 3,984,315 102.8 Banjarmasin Banjarmasin
East Kalimantan
(Kalimantan Timur)
129,067 2,840,874 3,550,586 3,422,676* 26.5 Samarinda Balikpapan
North Kalimantan
(Kalimantan Utara)
71,176.72 473,424 524,526 639,639 8.5 Tanjung Selor Tarakan
Total 544,150.07 12,541,554 14,297,069 15,320,017 28 - Banjarmasin

* North Kalimantan split off East Kalimantan with resulting population and area loss for 2015 census.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Kalimantan". Britannica. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
  2. ^ "Central Kalimantan Province". archipelago fastfact. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  3. ^ "Indonesia General Info". Geohive.com. Archived from the original on 2009-10-15. Retrieved 2009-08-11.
  4. ^ "Penduduk Indonesia menurut Provinsi 1971, 1980, 1990, 1995, 2000 dan 2010". Archived from the original on 2013-07-01. Retrieved 2013-07-17.

Further reading

External links

Banjar language

Banjar (Banjar: Bahasa/Basa Banjar, Indonesian: Bahasa Banjar, Jawi: بهاس بنجر) is an Austronesian language spoken by the Banjar people of South Kalimantan province of Indonesia. Since the Banjarese were historically nomadic merchants, Banjarese has been spoken throughout modern Indonesia and the Malay world.

Banjar people

The Banjar or Banjarese (Urang Banjar in Banjarese language; اورڠ بنجر in Jawi script), are a native ethnic group in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Several centuries ago, some of them had travelled to many places in the Malay archipelago.

Borneo

Borneo (; Malay: Pulau Borneo, Indonesian: Kalimantan) is the third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia. At the geographic centre of Maritime Southeast Asia, in relation to major Indonesian islands, it is located north of Java, west of Sulawesi, and east of Sumatra.

The island is politically divided among three countries: Malaysia and Brunei in the north, and Indonesia to the south. Approximately 73% of the island is Indonesian territory. In the north, the East Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak make up about 26% of the island. Additionally, the Malaysian federal territory of Labuan is situated on a small island just off the coast of Borneo. The sovereign state of Brunei, located on the north coast, comprises about 1% of Borneo's land area. A little more than half of the island is in the Northern Hemisphere including Brunei and the Malaysian portion, while the Indonesian portion spans both the Northern and Southern hemispheres.

Borneo is home to one of the oldest rainforests in the world.

Central Kalimantan

Central Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Tengah), is a province of Indonesia. It is one of five provinces in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo. Its provincial capital is Palangkaraya and in 2010 its population was over 2.2 million, while the latest official estimate (for January 2014) is 2,368,654.

The population growth rate was almost 3.0% per annum between 1990 and 2000, one of the highest provincial growth rates in Indonesia during that time; in the subsequent decade to 2010 the average annual growth rate slowed markedly to around 1.8%. More than is the case in other province in the region, Central Kalimantan is populated by the Dayaks, the indigenous inhabitants of Borneo.

Dayak people

The Dayak or Dyak or Dayuh are the native people of Borneo. It is a loose term for over 200 riverine and hill-dwelling ethnic subgroups, located principally in the central and southern interior of Borneo, each with its own dialect, customs, laws, territory and culture, although common distinguishing traits are readily identifiable. Dayak languages are categorised as part of the Austronesian languages in Asia. The Dayak were animist in belief; however, many converted to Islam and since the 19th century there has been mass conversion to Christianity. Today most Dayak still follow their ancient animistic traditions, but often state to belong to one of the 6 recognized religions in Indonesia.

East Kalimantan

East Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Timur) is a province of Indonesia. Its territory comprises the eastern portion of Borneo. It has a population of about 3.5 million, and its capital is Samarinda.

East Kalimantan has a total area of 129,066.64 square kilometres (49,832.91 sq mi) and is the second least densely populated province in Kalimantan. The majority of the region shares a maritime border to the east with West Sulawesi and North Sulawesi; its coastline faces the Makassar Strait and the Celebes Sea. Its former northernmost region was split off in October 2012 and is now North Kalimantan Province; to its south, East Kalimantan borders the South Kalimantan province. The province bordered Sabah before the split, but still borders Sarawak.

Two months later, in December 2012, the existing West Kusai Regency was split in two, with the northernmost five districts forming a new Mahakam Ulu Regency. East Kalimantan is now divided into seven regencies and three cities. Isran Noor the current Governor of East Kalimantan and Hadi Mulyadi is its vice governor.

Ethnic groups in Indonesia

There are over 300 ethnic groups in Indonesia including Javanese, Sundanese, and Batak.

Based on ethnic group, the largest ethnic group in Indonesia is the Javanese who make up about 40% of the total population. The Javanese are concentrated on the island of Java but millions have migrated to other islands throughout the archipelago because of the transmigration program. The Sundanese, Malay, and Madurese are the next largest groups in the country. Many ethnic groups, particularly in Kalimantan and Papua, have only hundreds of members. Most of the local languages belong to Austronesian language family, although a significant number, particularly in Papua, speak Papuan languages. Chinese Indonesians population makes up a little less than 1% of the total Indonesian population according to the 2000 census. Some of these Indonesians of Chinese descent speak various Chinese dialects, most notably Hokkien and Hakka.

The classification of ethnic groups in Indonesia is not rigid and in some cases unclear due to migrations, cultural and linguistic influences; for example some may consider Bantenese and Cirebonese to be members of the Javanese people; however, some others argue that they are different ethnic groups altogether since they have their own distinct dialects. This is the same case with Baduy people that share many cultural similarities with the Sundanese people. An example of hybrid ethnicity is the Betawi people, descended not only from marriages between different peoples in Indonesia but also with Arab, Chinese and Indian migrants since the era of colonial Batavia (Jakarta).

List of islands of Indonesia

The islands of Indonesia, also known as the Indonesian archipelago and formerly known as the Indian archipelago, may refer either to the islands comprising the nation-state of Indonesia or to the geographical groups which include its islands. According to the Indonesian Coordinating Ministry for Maritime Affairs, of 17,508 officially listed islands within the territory of the Republic of Indonesia, 16,056 island names have been verified by the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) as of July 2017.

List of regencies and cities of Indonesia

This is the list of regencies and cities of Indonesia. Both regencies and cities are second-level administrative subdivision in Indonesia, immediately below the provinces, and above the districts. They are roughly equivalent to American counties.In Indonesia, both regency and city are at the same administration level, each having their own local government and legislative body. The difference between a regency and a city lies in demography, size, and economy. Generally, a regency comprises a rural area larger than a city, but also often includes various towns. A city usually has non-agricultural economic activities.

A regency (Indonesian: kabupaten) is headed by a regent, known locally as bupati, while a city (Indonesian: kota) is headed by a mayor (walikota). All regents, mayors, and members of legislatures are directly elected via elections to serve for a five-year term which can be renewed once. Each regency or city is divided further into districts more commonly known as kecamatan, or distrik in Papua.

An administrative city is a city without its own local legislatures (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah). The mayor of an administrative city is directly appointed by the Governor. This type of city in Indonesia is only found in Jakarta which consisted of 5 administrative cities and 1 administrative regency.

Following the implementation of decentralization beginning on 1 January 2001, regencies and city municipalities became the key administrative units responsible for providing most governmental services.The list below groups regencies and cities in Indonesia by provinces. Each regency has an administrative centre, the regency seat.

North Kalimantan

North Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Utara) is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. The territory now comprising the province had a population of approximately 525,000 according to the 2010 census; the latest official estimate (for December 2013) is 628,331.

North Kalimantan borders the Malaysian states of Sabah to the north and Sarawak to the west, and by the Indonesian province of East Kalimantan to the south.

Formed on 25 October 2012, it is the newest province in Indonesia. It covers 72,275.12 square kilometres. The province's territory had been part of East Kalimantan.It was the fastest growing province in the nation for 2015 census, edging Papua and Riau which had phenomenal growth the prior 5-year period.

North Kalimantan Communist Party

The North Kalimantan Communist Party (abbreviated NKCP), also known as the Sarawak Communist Organisation (SCO) or the Clandestine Communist Organisation (CCO), was a communist political party based in the Malaysian state of Sarawak in northern Borneo. It was formally founded on 30 March 1971. Before that, the group had been operating under the name Sarawak People's Guerrillas. The chairman of the NKCP was Wen Min Chyuan and the party enjoyed close links with the People's Republic of China. The NKCP's membership was predominantly ethnically Chinese. The two military formations of the NKCP were the Sarawak People's Guerilla Force (SPGF) or Pasukan Gerilya Rakyat Sarawak (PGRS), and the North Kalimantan People's Army (NKPA) or the Pasukan Rakyat Kalimantan Utara (PARAKU). The NKCP participated in the Sarawak Communist Insurgency (1962–1990). On 17 October 1990, the North Kalimantan Communist Party signed a peace agreement with the Sarawak state government, formally ending the Sarawak Communist Insurgency.

Pontianak, Indonesia

Pontianak is the capital of the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan, founded by Syarif Abdurrahman Alkadrie as a capital of Sultanate of Kadriyah on 23 October 1771 / 14 Rajab 1185 AH. Syarif Abdurrahman Alkadrie developed Pontianak as a trading port on the island of Borneo, occupying an area of 107.82 km² in the delta of the Kapuas River. It is located on the equator, hence it is widely known as Kota Khatulistiwa (Equatorial City). The city center is less than 3 kilometres (2 mi) south of the equator. Pontianak is the 26th largest city in Indonesia in terms of population, as well as the fifth largest city on the island of Borneo in terms of population after Samarinda, Banjarmasin, Kuching and Balikpapan.

The city was founded as a small Malay fishing village at the bank of the Kapuas River. It then became the seat of the Pontianak Sultanate for several centuries. Pontianak was then incorporated into the Dutch East Indies after an agreement between the Pontianak Sultanate and the Dutch Government. During the colonial era, Pontianak was the seat of the Residentie Westerafdeeling van Borneo, one of the residencies of the Dutch East Indies. When the Japanese occupied the Dutch East Indies, Pontianak became the site of the Pontianak massacre, in which many Malay aristocrats and sultans as well as people from other ethnic groups were massacred by the Imperial Japanese Army. After the Japanese surrendered, Pontianak became part of the Republic of Indonesia and was designated as the capital city of the province of West Kalimantan.

Pontianak is a multicultural city, as different ethnic groups such as the Dayak, Malay and Chinese live in the city. This has created a unique culture that cannot be found in other parts of Indonesia. Different languages are spoken in Pontianak, such as Pontianak Malay, Dayak language and different dialects of Chinese.

Pontianak is connected by air to other cities of Indonesia as well as some cities in Malaysia such as Kuala Lumpur and Kuching. Well paved roads connect Pontianak to other towns such as Ketapang and Singkawang as well as other provinces. As Pontianak lies on the Trans Kalimantan Highway, it is possible to travel to East Malaysia and Brunei by land using the Trans Kalimantan Highway. Several bus routes operate from Pontianak to Kuching in Malaysia and Bandar Seri Begawan in Brunei.

Provinces of Indonesia

The Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 largest subdivisions of the country and the highest tier of the local government (formerly called Daerah Tingkat I – level 1 region). Provinces are further divided into regencies and cities (formerly called Daerah Tingkat II – level 2 regions), which are in turn subdivided into subdistricts (kecamatan).

Samarinda

Samarinda is the capital of the Indonesian province of East Kalimantan on the island of Borneo. The city lies on the banks of the Mahakam River. It is the most populous city on the entire Borneo island, with an estimated population of 842,691, up from 726,223 at the 2010 Census. Although it is the capital of East Kalimantan, some government institutions such as the Police, Indonesian Army District VI Of Tanjung Pura, and Pelabuhan Indonesia (Port Transportation) are also located in the city. Samarinda is known for its traditional food amplang, as well as the cloth sarung samarinda. The city also has a bridge connecting its river banks, Mahakam Bridge. The city center is on one side and the other side is named Samarinda Seberang.

South Kalimantan

South Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Selatan) is a province of Indonesia. It is located in Kalimantan, the Indonesian territory of Borneo. The provincial capital is Banjarmasin. The population of South Kalimantan was recorded at just over 3.625 million people at the 2010 Census; the latest official estimate (for 2017) is 4,119,794.

One of five Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan, it is bordered by the Makassar Strait in the east, Central Kalimantan in the west and north, the Java Sea in the south, and East Kalimantan in the north.

Tarakan, North Kalimantan

Tarakan is the largest city of the Indonesian province of North Kalimantan. The island of Tarakan is located in northern Borneo, just across the border from Sabah, Malaysia. Once a major oil-producing region during the colonial period, Tarakan had great strategic importance during the Pacific War and was among the first Japanese targets early in the war. It is the sole city within the newly established (in 2012) Indonesian province of North Kalimantan.

Telephone numbers in Indonesia

Telephone numbers in Indonesia have different systems for land lines and mobile phones: land lines use area codes, while mobile phones do not.

For land line area codes, the digit "0" is added in front when dialing domestic long distance from within Indonesia, but is always omitted when calling from abroad. Instead, callers would use the Indonesian country code +62, followed by the area code, without the "0". Domestic phone numbers in large cities have 8 digits, and in other areas 7 digits. Mobile phone numbers have a total of 10 or 11 digits for postpaid depending on the operator, whereas prepaid services get 11 to 12 digits determined by the operator.

Until October 1999, East Timor was included in the Indonesian telephone numbering plan, using the area codes 0390 (for Dili) and 0399 for (Baucau).

To make a phone call to Indonesia from abroad, the following formats are used:

For calls to landlines, callers dial +62, followed by the area code and subscriber's number, omitting the '0', hence a number in Jakarta would be dialled as +62 21 xxx xxxx.

For calls to mobile wireless phone (GSM) from abroad, callers dial +62, followed by the subscriber's number, omitting the '0', hence +62 95410537962

Tjilik Riwut Airport

Tjilik Riwut Airport (IATA: PKY, ICAO: WAGG), formerly Panarung Airport, is an airport in Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. This airport is named after Tjilik Riwut, the second Governor of Central Kalimantan. The airport served about 1 million passengers in 2018..

West Kalimantan

West Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Barat) is a province of Indonesia. It is one of five Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its capital city is Pontianak. The province has an area of 147,307 km² with a recorded 2010 census population of 4,395,983 . Ethnic groups include the Dayak, Malay, Chinese, Javanese, Bugis, and Madurese. The latest official estimate (as of January 2014) is 4,546,439. The borders of West Kalimantan roughly trace the mountain ranges surrounding the watershed of the Kapuas River, which drains most of the province. The province shares land borders with Central Kalimantan to the southeast, East Kalimantan to the east, and the Malaysian territory of Sarawak to the north.

West Kalimantan is an area that could be dubbed "The Province of a Thousand Rivers". The nickname is aligned with the geographical conditions that have hundreds of large and small rivers that which can be and often are navigable. Several major rivers are still the main route for freight to the hinterland, despite road infrastructure now reaching most districts.

Although a small part of West Kalimantan region is sea water, West Kalimantan has dozens of large and small islands (mostly uninhabited) spread along the Karimata Strait and Natuna Sea that borders the province of Riau Islands. The total population in the province, according to the 2000 census totaled 4,073,430 inhabitants (1.85% of Indonesia's population).

Sumatra
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Kalimantan
Lesser Sunda
Sulawesi
Maluku
Papua

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