Kali Yuga

Kali Yuga (Sanskrit: कलियुग, translit. kaliyuga, lit. 'age of Kali') in Hinduism is the last of the four stages (or ages or yugas) the world goes through as part of a 'cycle of yugas' (i.e. Mahayuga) described in the Sanskrit scriptures.[1] The other ages are called Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, and Dvapara Yuga.

Kali Yuga is associated with the demon Kali (not to be confused with the goddess Kālī). The "Kali" of Kali Yuga means "strife", "discord", "quarrel" or "contention".

According to Puranic sources,[2] Krishna's departure marks the end of Dvapara Yuga and the start of Kali Yuga, which is dated to 17/18 February 3102 BCE.[3]

Current Kali Yuga and possible starting dates

According to the Surya Siddhanta, Kali Yuga began at midnight (00:00) on 18 February 3102 BCE.[4] This is also considered the date on which Lord Krishna left the earth to return to Vaikuntha.[5] This information is placed at the temple of Bhalka, the place of this incident (see photo).

BHALKA-03
Information kiosk at Bhalka, the place from where Lord Krishna returned to his heavenly abode

According to the astronomer and mathematician Aryabhatta the Kali Yuga started in 3102 BCE. He finished his book "Aryabhattiya" in 499 CE, in which he gives the exact year of the beginning of Kali Yuga. He writes that he wrote the book in the "year 3600 of the Kali Age" at the age of 23. As it was the 3600th year of the Kali Age when he was 23 years old, and given that Aryabhatta was born in 476 CE, the beginning of the Kali Yuga would come to (3600 - (476 + 23) + 1 (As only one year elapses between 1 BCE and 1 CE) = ) 3102 BCE.[6]

According to KD Abhyankar, the starting point of Kali Yuga is an extremely rare planetary alignment, which is depicted in the Mohenjo-Daro seals.[7] Going by this alignment the year 3102 BCE is slightly off. The actual date for this alignment is 7 February of 3104 BCE. There is also sufficient proof to believe that Vrdhha Garga knew of precession at least by 500 BCE. Garga had calculated the rate of precession to within 30% of what the modern scholars estimate.[8][9]

Most interpreters of vedic scriptures, as Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Goswami and his recent disciple Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada believe that Earth is currently in Kali Yuga and lasts 432,000 years. Other authors, such as Swami Sri Yukteswar[10] and Paramhansa Yogananda,[11] believe that it is now an ascending Dvapara Yuga, indicating levels of cycles within each major Yuga period as each being a development, the smaller cycles within cycles eventually leading to full development of the qualities of the ages. The Kali Yuga is thought by some authors to last 6480 years although other durations have been proposed.[12]

Attributes of Kali Yuga

Hindus believe that human civilization degenerates spiritually during the Kali Yuga,[13] which is referred to as the Dark Age because in it people are as far away as possible from God. Hinduism often symbolically represents morality (dharma) as an Indian bull. In Satya Yuga, the first stage of development, the bull has four legs, but in each age morality is reduced by one quarter. By the age of Kali, morality is reduced to only a quarter of that of the golden age, so that the bull of Dharma has only one leg.[14][15]

References in the Mahabharata

The Mahabharata War and the decimation of Kauravas thus happened at the "Yuga-Sandhi", the point of transition from one yuga to another. The scriptures mention Sage Narada to have momentarily intercepted the demon Kali on his way to the Earth when Duryodhana was about to be born in order to make him an embodiment of arishadvargas and adharma in preparation of the era of decay in values and the consequent havoc.

Prophesied events during the Kali Yuga

A discourse by Markandeya in the Mahabharata identifies some of the attributes of Kali Yuga.[16]

In relation to rulers, it lists:

  • Rulers will become unreasonable: they will levy taxes unfairly.
  • Rulers will no longer see it as their duty to promote spirituality, or to protect their subjects: they will become a danger to the world.
  • People will start migrating, seeking countries where wheat and barley form the staple food source.
  • "At the end of Kali-yuga, when there exist no topics on the subject of God, even at the residences of so-called saints and respectable gentlemen of the three higher varnas (guna or temperament) and when nothing is known of the techniques of sacrifice, even by word, at that time the Lord will appear as the supreme chastiser." (Srimad-Bhagavatam (2.7)

With regard to human relationships, Markandeya's discourse says:

  • Avarice and wrath will be common. Humans will openly display animosity towards each other. Ignorance of dharma will occur.
  • People will have thoughts of murder with no justification and will see nothing wrong in that.
  • Lust will be viewed as socially acceptable and sexual intercourse will be seen as the central requirement of life.
  • Sin will increase exponentially, while virtue will fade and cease to flourish.
  • People will become addicted to intoxicating drinks and drugs.
  • Gurus will no longer be respected and their students will attempt to injure them. Their teachings will be insulted, and followers of Kama will wrest control of the mind from all human beings.
  • Women will no longer get married.
  • Traditional castes will disappear and everyone will belong to a single social class.
  • Brahmins will not be learned or honored, Kshatriyas will not be brave, Vaishyas will not be just in their dealings, and the varna system will be abolished.

10,000 year "Golden Age"

The Brahma Vaivarta Purana (related to Rathantara kalpa) mentions a ten thousand-year period, starting from the traditional dating of the Kali Yuga epoch, during which bhakti yogis will be present.[17] Lord Krishna foretold that Kali Yuga will be full of extreme hardships for people with ideals and values.

The Brahma-vaivarta Purana has words spoken by Lord Krishna to Mother Ganga just before the beginning of the Kali Yuga (the age of quarrel and strife). The Kali Yuga began approximately five thousand years ago, and it has a duration of 432,000 years, leaving us with 427,000 years until the end of the present age. Within this 432,000 year period, there is a period of 10,000 years that will be peaceful. That golden age is being described below by Lord Sri Krishna. Predicted in Brahma-vaivarta Purana 4.129. The fourth part of the Brahma-vaivarta is called Kṛṣṇa-janma-khanda. Chapter 129 is called Golokarohanam, because it describes how Krishna returns to His abode. This specific dialogue is between Lord Krishna and Mother Ganga. Verse 49 is a question by Ganga, verses 50–60 are Lord Sri Krishna's answer.

This text is taken from the Brahma-vaivarta Purana [14]

Text 59:

kaler daṣa-sahasrāṇi

madbhaktāḥ santi bhūtale

ekavarṇā bhaviṣyanti

madbhakteṣu gateṣu ca

"For 10,000 years of Kali such devotees of Mine will be present on earth. After the departure of My devotees there will be only one varna."

The above is supported in 4.90.32–33:

kalau daṣa-sahasrāṇi

haris tiṣṭhati medinī

devānām pratimā pūjyā

śāstrāni ca purāṇakam

"(Sri Krisna said:) Lord Hari will stay on this earth for the first ten-thousand years of Kali-yuga. Till then gods will be worshipped and the Puranas and scriptures will also be present."

Hence to protect ourself from Kaliman, it is believed that we should start doing japa, meditation, or any yoga such as Bhakti yoga, karma yoga, Raja yoga, and jnana yoga. But, chanting the holy name of God is the best path in Kali Yuga.

Personification

Kalki1790s
Kalki and his horse, Devadatta.

Kali is the reigning lord of Kali Yuga and his nemesis is Kalki, the tenth and final Avatar of Lord Vishnu. According to the Vishnu Purana, Kali is a negative manifestation working towards the cause of 'the end' or rather towards eventual rejuvenation of the universe.[18] Kali also serves as an antagonistic force in the Kalki Purana. It is said that towards the end of this yuga, Kalki will return riding on a white horse to battle with Kali and his dark forces. The world will suffer a fiery cataclysm that will destroy all evil, and Shiva will destroy the universe. Brahma will create the universe a new, and then a new age (the next Satya Yuga of the following Mahayuga), will begin.

In Shaivism

Some Shaivites maintain that the ill effects of Kali Yuga can only be moderated by the manifestation of Lord Shiva Himself. Shastriji, one of the followers of Haidakhan Babaji, gave the following narration:

"Once Parvati asked Lord Shiva, her husband: 'You have done good work for the people in all ages, but I am afraid for the people in the Kali Yuga; how will they safeguard themselves?' Then Lord Shiva told Parvati: 'I will appear in the Kali Yuga and I will create a new state, a new centre of religion - a most important place, where I will live and establish all the Gods there.'"[19]

Shastriji went further to suggest that this promise manifested through the person of Haidakhan Babaji.[20] One of the central tenets of Haidakhan Babaji's teachings is the message of Karma Yoga or hard work. In the context of Kali yuga Haidakhan Babaji explained:

"As I have told you before, the thing needed in this Age is work (karma). In every Age people have reached salvation through different types of action and sadhana (spiritual discipline), but in this Age one can reach liberation only through hard work. I want real, practical human beings and only he is a true human being who lives in accordance with this Age. We need not consider religion or caste, but look only to hard work."[21]

In Sikhism

In Sikhism, Kali Yuga is metaphorically used to describe the state of the world as was commonly understood in the 16th century. It is stressed that one should meditate as much as possible to reach the state of Nirvana and be liberated or be one with God. Guru Granth Sahib Ji on Ang:1185 says:

ab kaloo aaeiou rae : Now, the Dark Age of Kali Yuga has come.

eik naam bovahu bovahu : Plant the Name, the Name of the One Lord.

an rooth naahee naahee : It is not the season to plant other seeds.

math bharam bhoolahu bhoolahu : Do not wander lost in doubt and delusion.[22]

Other usage

The Kali Yuga is an important concept in both Theosophy and Anthroposophy[23] [24], and in the writings of Helena Blavatsky, W.Q. Judge, Rudolf Steiner, and traditionalist ideologues such as René Guénon and Julius Evola, among others. Rudolf Steiner believed that the Kali Yuga ended in 1900.[25] The traditionalists describe modern Western civilization as being in its Kali Yuga phase, in a state of degeneration and eventual collapse.

See also

References

  1. ^ Smith, John D. (2009). The Mahābhārata: an abridged translation. Penguin Classics (ISBN 978-0-670-08415-9), p. 200
  2. ^ The Bhagavata Purana (1.18.6), Vishnu Purana (5.38.8), and Brahma Purana (212.8), the day Krishna left the earth was the day that the Dvapara Yuga ended and the Kali Yuga began.
  3. ^ See: Matchett, Freda, "The Puranas", p 139 and Yano, Michio, "Calendar, astrology and astronomy" in Flood, Gavin (Ed) (2003). Blackwell companion to Hinduism. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0-631-21535-2.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  4. ^ The Induand the Rg-Veda, Page 16, By Egbert Richter-Ushanas, ISBN 81-208-1405-3
  5. ^ "Lord Krishna lived for 125 years". The Times of India. September 8, 2004. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  6. ^ H.D. Dharm Chakravarty Swami Prakashanand Saraswati. Encyclopedia Of Authentic Hinduism The True History and the Religion of India, Hardbound, 2nd Edition, 2003, ISBN 0967382319 Retrieved 2015-01-21
  7. ^ Abhyankar, K. D. "Astronomical significance to two Mohenjodaro seals". Astronomical Society of India, Bulletin: 477. Bibcode:1993BASI...21..475A. Retrieved 2016-12-16.
  8. ^ Abhyankar, K. D. "Astronomical significance to two Mohenjodaro seals". Astronomical Society of India, Bulletin: 475. Bibcode:1993BASI...21..475A.
  9. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-02-14. Retrieved 2015-02-02.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ The Holy Science, by Jnanavatar Swami Sri Yukteswar Giri, Yogoda Sat-Sanga Society of India, 1949
  11. ^ Yogananda, Paramhansa. Autobiography of a Yogi. BiblioBazaar. pp. 200–201. ISBN 978-0-554-22466-4.
  12. ^ See the article René Guénon, in particular the section on the Hindu doctrine of cosmic cycles: René Guénon#Hindu doctrine of cosmic cycles.
  13. ^ Dimitri Kitsikis, L'Orocc, dans l'âge de Kali, Editions Naaman,1985, ISBN 2-89040-359-9
  14. ^ "The Mahabharata, Book 3: Vana Parva: Markandeya-Samasya Parva: Section CLXXXIX". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2013-01-20.
  15. ^ Bhāgavata Purāṇa 1.16.20
  16. ^ Mahabharata SECTION CLXXXIX
  17. ^ Ramesh Chaturvedi, Shantilal Nagar. Brahmavaivarta Purana. Parimal Publications. ISBN 81-7110-170-4. Online Book 4, Chapter 129, versus 49–60
  18. ^ "Chap. Vii". Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved 2013-01-20.
  19. ^ The Teachings of Babaji, 25 December 1981.
  20. ^ "Having some doubt, Kartikeya, son of Lord Shiva, once asked what would happen to man during the Kali Yuga when there would be so much trouble in the world. The Holy utterance of Lord Shiva was that he would manifest in the Kali Yuga to uplift the world and liberate those who turn to God. Shiva now lives among us in Shri Babaji, who is doing the services for mankind now from Herakhan Vishwa Mahadham." The Teachings of Babaji. 30 October 1982.
  21. ^ The Teachings of Babaji. 21 March 1983.
  22. ^ "Enabling Gurmat Knowledge". SikhiToTheMAX. Retrieved 2013-01-20.
  23. ^ Christopher Bamford (ed.). Spiritualism, Madame Blavatsky & Theosophy: An Eyewitness View of Occult History : Lectures by Rudolf Steiner.
  24. ^ Kevin T. Dann (2000). Across the Great Border Fault: The Naturalist Myth in America. Rutgers University Press.
  25. ^ Christopher Bamford (ed.). Spiritualism, Madame Blavatsky & Theosophy: An Eyewitness View of Occult History : Lectures by Rudolf Steiner.

Further reading

  • Glass, Marty Yuga: An Anatomy of our Fate (Hillsdale, NY: Sophia Perennis, 2004)
  • Guénon, René The Crisis of the Modern World, translated by Arthur Osborne, Marco Pallis and Richard C. Nicholson (Hillsdale, NY: Sophia Perennis, 2004)
  • Lings, Martin The Eleventh Hour: The Spiritual Crisis of the Modern World in the Light of Tradition and Prophecy (Cambridge, UK: Archetype, 2002)
  • Sotillos, Samuel Bendeck "New Age or the Kali-Yuga?" AHP Perspective, April/May 2013, pp. 15–21.
  • Upton, Charles Legends of the End: Prophecies of the End Times, Antichrist, Apocalypse, and Messiah from Eight Religious Traditions (Hillsdale, NY: Sophia Perennis, 2005)

External links

The dictionary definition of Kali Yuga at Wiktionary

Akilathirattu Ammanai

Akilathirattu Ammanai (Tamil: அகிலத்திரட்டு அம்மானை; akilam ("world"), thirattu ("collection"), ammanai ("ballad")), also called Thiru Edu ("venerable book"), is the main religious text of the Tamil belief system Ayyavazhi. The title is often abbreviated to Akilam or Akilathirattu.

Akilam includes more than 15,000 verses and is the largest collection of Ammanai literature in Tamil as well as one of the largest works in Tamil constructed by a single author.

Chiranjivi

Chiranjivi (Sanskrit nominative sing. ciranjīvi, चिरञ्जीवि) are seven immortal living beings in Hinduism who are to remain alive on Earth until the end of the current Kali Yuga

Dharma Yukam

Dharma Yukam is the state of absolute bliss as per Ayyavazhi mythology. Dharma Yukam is described in the Akilam seventeen in Akilattirattu Ammanai. It is related to Dharmic moksha and to Abrahamic heaven.

Dvapara Yuga

The Dvapara Yuga, also spelled as Dwapara Yuga, is the third out of four Yugas, or ages, described in the scriptures of Hinduism. Dvapara in Sanskrit literally means "two ahead", that is, something in the third place. The Dvapara Yuga follows the Treta Yuga and precedes the Kali Yuga. According to the Puranas, this yuga ended at the moment when Krishna returned to his eternal abode of Vaikuntha. According to the Bhagavata Purana, the Dvapara Yuga lasts 864,000 years.There are only two pillars of religion during the Dvapara Yuga: compassion and truthfulness. Vishnu assumes the colour yellow and the Vedas are categorized into four parts: Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda. During these times, the Brahmins are knowledgeable of two or three of these but rarely have studied all the four Vedas thoroughly. Accordingly, because of this categorization, different actions and activities come into existence.

Hindu cosmology

In Hindu cosmology, the universe is cyclically created and destroyed. Its cosmology divides time into four epochs or Yuga, of which the current period is the Kali Yuga.

Hindu eschatology

Hindu eschatology is linked in the Vaishnavite tradition to the figure of Kalki, or the tenth and last avatar of Vishnu or Shiva names of the Supreme Being in Hinduism and before the age draws to a close, and Harihara simultaneously dissolves and regenerates the universe.

The current period is Kali Yuga, the last of four Yuga that make up the current age. Each period has seen a progressive decline in morality, to the point that in Kali Yuga quarrel and hypocrisy are norm. In Hinduism, time is cyclic, consisting of cycles or "kalpas". Each kalpa lasts 8.64 billion years, which is a period of one full day and night for Brahma, who in turn will live for 311 trillion, 40 billion years. The cycle of birth, growth, decay, and renewal at the individual level finds its echo in the cosmic order, yet is affected by the vagaries of divine intervention in Vaishnavism. Some Shaivites hold the view that he is incessantly destroying and creating the world.

After this larger cycle, all of creation will contract to a singularity and then again will expand from that single point, as the ages continue in a religious fractal pattern.

Hindu units of time

Hindu texts describe units of Kala measurements, from microseconds to Trillions of years. According to these texts, time is cyclic, which repeats itself forever.

Kali Yuga (song)

"Kali Yuga" is the third and final single of Echobelly's fourth album People Are Expensive. It reached 175 in the UK Singles Chart.

The 2 b-sides are re-recorded versions of the b-sides to Bellyache.

Kali Yuga Bizarre

Kali Yuga Bizarre is the first full length studio album by the Italian industrial black metal band Aborym. It was released in 1999 on Scarlet records. A picture LP was also re-released in 2000 and was limited to 1000 copies.

Vocals on this album were performed by original vocalist Yorga SM as well as guest vocalist Attila Csihar.

Kalki

Kalki, also called Kalkin or Karki, is the tenth avatar of Hindu god Vishnu to end the Kali Yuga, one of the four periods in the endless cycle of existence (krita) in Vaishnavism cosmology. He is described in the Puranas as the avatar who rejuvenates existence by ending the darkest and destructive period to remove adharma and ushering in the Satya Yuga, while riding a white horse with a fiery sword. The description and details of Kalki are inconsistent among the Puranic texts. He is, for example, only an invisible force destroying evil and chaos in some texts, while an actual person who kills those who persecute others, and some texts portrayed him as someone leading an army of Brahmin warriors to eliminate adharma from the world. His mythology has been compared to the concepts of Messiah, Apocalypse, Frashokereti and Maitreya in other religions.Kalki is also found in Buddhist texts. In Tibetan Buddhism, the Kalachakra-Tantra describes 25 rulers, each named Kalki who rule from the heavenly Shambhala. The last Kalki of Shambhala destroys a barbarian Muslim army, after which Buddhism flourishes. This text is dated to about 10th-century CE.

Kalki Purana

The Kalki Purana (Sanskrit: कल्कि पुराण Kalki purāṇa) is a prophetic work in Sanskrit that details the life and times of Kalki, the tenth and final of the Dashavatara (the ten Avatars) of the Hindu deity Lord Vishnu. The narrative is set in near the end of the Kali Yuga or Dark Age, as revealed by the storyteller Suta.

The extant text comprises three aṃśas (sections) consisting 7, 7 and 21 chapters respectively. Although it is considered an Upapurana or 'Lesser Purana', it is derived from passages taken directly from the 18 'Major' Puranas, including the Vishnu Purana and the Bhagavata Purana ascribed to Vyasa. The dating of the text ranges from 9th century to later centuries.

Koka and Vikoka

Koka and Vikoka are figures from Hindu mythology, twin generals who will aid the demon Kali in his battle against Kalki, the 10th and final avatar of the god Vishnu, whose coming will herald the end of the age. The story is told in the Kalki Purana.The names and deeds of these demon brothers are comparable to Gog and Magog in the Bible and Ya'jooj Wa Ma'jooj (يأجوج و مأجوج) of Muslim tradition as they are mentioned in the Qur'an.The prophesy of Kalki and his battle with Kali appears in the Kalki Purana, a collection of predictions concerning when, where and why Kalki will manifest himself and what he will do. According to Hindu cosmology the world will experience four immensely long ages, or yuga, of which the Kali Yuga is the last. The Kali Yuga began in 3102 BCE and has 4270 centuries to left; Kali, the demon-king of the Kali Yuga, will be assisted by his generals, the twin brothers Koka and Vikoka, who will threaten to defeat Kalki by raising themselves from the dead faster than he can kill them. The god Brahma eventually appears to Kalki and reveals to him that no earthly or celestial weapon can kill the brothers if they are allowed to hold on to one another; the only way Kalki can defeat them is to separate and attack them both simultaneously. Kalki then forces himself between the two and lands crushing blows to each demon’s temple at the same time. They both die, this time for ever.

The Kalki Purana states Koka and Vikoka are the grandsons of Shakuni and sons of Bakasura, who are not to be confused with the Shakuni and Bakasura from the Mahabharata - former are father and son, whereas the latter are unrelated. The etymology of Koka's name is obscure, and the Monier-Williams Sanskrit dictionary gives no ready definition; Vikoka's name is formed by adding Vi-, used to form names from other names, to "Koka".

Renukacharya

Reṇukācārya (also known as Revaṇārādhya or Revaṇasiddha) was one of the five acharyas who came in the Kali Yuga to teach and preach Vīraśaivism. He is said to have been born from the Someśvara linga, but to have travelled all over India to teach Vīraśaivism. The Someśvara temples is located in Kollipāki.

Texts date this mythical saint to the time of the Rāmāyaṇa since he was the teacher of the great sage Agastya of Pañcāvati. This saint is said to have consecrated 30 million liṇgas at the behest of Rāvaṇā's brother, Vibhīṣaṇa, after Rāvaṇa's death.

He finally established the Rambhāpuri maṭha. The Reṇuka gotra of the Vīraśaivas is named after him.

Saptarishi

The Saptarishi (seven great yogis) (from Sanskrit: सप्तर्षी (saptarshi), a Sanskrit dvigu meaning "seven sages") are the seven rishis in ancient India, who are extolled at many places in the Vedas and Jivan literature. The Vedic Samhitas never enumerate these rishis by name, though later Vedic texts such as the Brahmanas and Upanisads do so. They are regarded in the Vedas as the patriarchs of the Vedic religion.

The earliest list of the Seven Rishis is given by Jaiminiya Brahmana 2.218-221: Agastya, Atri, Bhardwaja, Gautam, Jamadagni, Vashistha and Vishvamitra followed by Brihadaranyaka Upanisad 2.2.6 with a slightly different list: Gautama and Bharadvaja, Vishvamitra and Jamadagni, Vashistha and Kashyapa and Atri, Bhrigu. The late Gopatha Brahmana 1.2.8 has Vashistha, Vishvamitra, Jamadagni, Gautama, Bharadvaja, Gungu, Agastya, Bhrigu and Kashyapa.

In post-Vedic texts, different lists appear; some of these rishis were recognized as the 'mind-born sons' (Sanskrit: मनस पुत्र, manasputra) of Brahma, the representation of the Supreme Being as Creator. Other representations are Mahesh or Shiva as the Destroyer and Vishnu as the Preserver. Since these seven rishis were also among the primary seven rishis, who were considered to be the ancestors of the Gotras of Brahmins, the birth of these rishis was mythicized.

In ancient Indian astronomy, the constellation of the Big Dipper (Ursa Major) is called saptarishi, with the seven stars representing seven rishis, namely "Vashistha", "Marichi", "Pulastya", "Pulaha", "Atri", "Angiras" and "Kratu". There is another star slightly visible within it, known as "Arundhati". Arundhati is the wife of Vashistha. Vashishtha and Arundhati together form the Mizar double.

As per legend, the seven Rishis in the next Manvantara will be Diptimat, Galava, Parashurama, Kripa, Drauni or Ashwatthama, Vyasa and Rishyasringa.

Satya Yuga

The Satya Yuga (Sanskrit: सत्य युग), also called Satyug, or Kṛta Yuga (Sanskrit: कृत युग) in Hinduism, is the first of the four Yugas, the "Yuga (Age or Era) of Truth", when humanity is governed by gods, and every manifestation or work is close to the purest ideal and humanity will allow intrinsic goodness to rule supreme. It is sometimes referred to as the "Golden Age". The Satya Yuga lasts 1,728,000 years. The goddess Dharma (depicted in the form of a cow), which symbolises morality, stood on all four legs during this period. Later on in the Treta Yuga, it would become three, followed by two in the Dvapara Yuga. Currently, in the immoral age of Kali, it stands on one leg.

Shuddhadvaita

Shuddadvaita (Sanskrit: śuddhādvaita "pure non-dualism") is the "purely non-dual" philosophy propounded by Vallabhacharya (1479-1531 CE), the founding philosopher and guru of the Vallabha sampradāya ("tradition of Vallabha") or Puṣṭimārga ("The path of grace"), a Hindu Vaishnava tradition focused on the worship of Krishna. Vallabhacharya's pure form (nondualist) philosophy is different from Advaita. The Shrinathji temple at Nathdwara, and compositions of eight poets (aṣṭachap), including Sur, are central to the worship by the followers of the sect.

Sirius B (album)

Sirius B is the twelfth full-length musical album by the symphonic metal band Therion. The album title refers to the star Sirius B. It was released simultaneously with Lemuria. The cover artwork was by Thomas Ewerhard.

Treta Yuga

Treta Yuga (Sanskrit: त्रेता युग) is the second out of the four yugas, or ages of mankind, in the religion of Hinduism. It follows the Satya Yuga and is followed by the Dvapara Yuga and Kali Yuga. Treta means 'a collection of three arousing things' in Sanskrit, and is so called because during the Treta Yuga, there were two Avatars of Vishnu that were seen, the sixth and seventh incarnations as Parashurama and Rama respectively. The name could also be derived from the fact that the Treta Yug lasted 3,600 divine years, or 1,296,000 human years. The bull of Dharma symbolises that mortality stood on three legs during this period. It had all four legs in the Satya Yuga and two in the succeeding Dvapara Yuga. Currently, in the immoral age of Kali, it stands on one leg.

Yuga

Yuga in Hinduism is an epoch or era within a four-age cycle. A complete Yuga starts with the Satya Yuga, via Treta Yuga and Dvapara Yuga into a Kali Yuga. Our present time is a Kali Yuga, which started at 3102 BCE with the end of the Kurukshetra War (or Mahabharata war).

Time

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