Kalaniʻōpuʻu

Kalaniʻōpuʻu-a-Kaiamamao (c. 1729 – April 1782) was a Hawaiian monarch, the 6th Aliʻi (chief) of Kohala, 4th Aliʻi of the Kona district and 2nd Aliʻi of the Kaʻū district on the island of Hawaiʻi. He was called Terreeoboo, King of Owhyhee by James Cook and other Europeans. His name has also been written as Kaleiopuu.

Kalaniʻōpuʻu-a-Kaiamamao
Ali'i Nui of Kaʻū
Aliʻi Aimoku of Hawaiʻi
Kalaniʻōpuʻu ʻAhu ʻula and mahiole
The original ʻahu ʻula and mahiole of Kalaniʻōpuʻu that was given to Captain James Cook as a gift in 1779 and now on display at the Bishop Museum in Honolulu Hawaii
Bornc. 1729
DiedApril 1782 (aged 52–53)
Kāʻilikiʻi, WaioʻahukiniKaʻū
SpouseKalola Pupuka-o-Honokawailani
Kalaiwahineuli
Kamakolunuiokalani
Mulehu
Kānekapōlei
Kekupuohi[1]
IssueKīwalaʻō
Kalaipaihala
Pualinui
Keōua Kuahuʻula
Keōua Peʻeale
HouseHouse of Keawe
FatherKalaninuiamamao
MotherKamakaimoku

Biography

Kalaniʻōpuʻu-a-Kaiamamao was born around 1729 as the son of Kalaninuiamamao and his wife Kamākaʻimoku.

Kalaniʻōpuʻu-a-Kaiamamao was the king of the island during the times Captain James Cook came to Hawaiʻi and went aboard his ship on 26 November 1778.[2] After Cook anchored at Kealakekua Bay in January 1779, Kalaniʻōpuʻu-a-Kaiamamao paid a ceremonial visit on 26 January 1779 and exchanged gifts including a ʻahuʻula (feathered cloak)[3] and mahiole (ceremonial helmet),[4] since it was during the Makahiki season. Cook's ships returned on 11 February to repair storm damage. This time relations were not as good, resulting in a violent struggle and Cook's death.

Kalaniʻōpuʻu-a-Kaiamamao died at Kāʻilikiʻi, Waioʻahukini, Kaʻū, in April 1782. He was succeeded by his son, Kīwalaʻō, as king of Hawaiʻi island; and his nephew, Kamehameha I, who was given guardianship of Kū-ka-ili-moku, the god of war. His nephew would eventually overthrow his son at the battle of Mokuʻōhai. The island of Hawaiʻi was then effectively divided into three parts: his nephew Kamehameha ruled the western districts, his younger son Keōua Kuahuula controlled Kaʻū, and his brother Keawemauhili controlled Hilo.

Family tree

Kalaniopuu cape
A feathered cloak associated with Kalaniʻōpuʻu, on display at the de Young Museum in San Francisco

See also

References

  1. ^ http://nupepa-hawaii.com/2015/07/24/miriam-kekupuohi-dies-1836/
  2. ^ William De Witt Alexander (1891). A brief history of the Hawaiian people. American Book Co. pp. 104–116.
  3. ^ "'ahu 'ula (Feathered cloak)". Museum of New Zealand web site. Retrieved 2009-07-19.
  4. ^ "Mahiole (helmet)". Museum of New Zealand web site. Retrieved 2009-07-19.
Preceded by
Alii Kaiʻinamao Kalani-nui-i-a-mamao, 1st Aliʻi of Kau
Aliʻi of Kaʻū
?–1782
Succeeded by
Kīwalaʻō
Preceded by
Alapaʻinuiakauaua
Ruler of Hawaiʻi Island
1754–1782
Succeeded by
Kīwalaʻō
House of Kamehameha

The House of Kamehameha (Hale O Kamehameha), or the Kamehameha dynasty, was the reigning Royal Family of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, beginning with its founding by Kamehameha I in 1795 and ending with the death of Kamehameha V in 1872 and Lunalilo in 1874. The kingdom would continue for another 21 years until its overthrow in 1893 with the fall of the House of Kalakaua.

Joshua Kaeo

Joshua Kaʻeo (c. 1808 – June 27, 1858), was a Hawaiian high chief or nobleman of Hawaii Island descent, the uncle of Queen Emma of Hawaii, and an early Hawaiian politician and advisor of Kamehameha III.

His father was Asa Kaʻeo, a grandson or son of Manoua, the daughter of King Kalaniʻōpuʻu and one of his wives, Mulehu, from a noble family of the Kaʻū district; Mulehu was also the grandmother of Abner Pākī (one of Kaʻeo's own contemporaries) through a second marriage and great-grandmother of Bernice Pauahi Bishop.

His mother is named Paaluanui.

He was distant cousin to Kamehameha I since his great (great) grandfather Kalaniʻōpuʻu was Kamehameha I's half-uncle.

He was member of the King's Privy Council from 1845 to 1850 and a member of House of Nobles from 1845 to 1856. At one time, he was the Judge of the Supreme Court of Hawaii from 1844 to 1848, succeeding Zorobabela Kaʻauwai who resigned in November, 1846.He married Jane Lahilahi Young, the hapa-haole (part-Hawaiian) daughter of John Young and his wife Kaʻōanaʻeha, the niece of Kamehameha I. Kaʻeo and Lahilahi had two sons:

Peter Young Kekuaokalani Kaeo (1836–1880), he was given as a hānai child (adopted) to Jane's brother Keoni Ana and his wife Julia Alapai. Educated at Royal School, he became a member of the House of Nobles but later contracted leprosy and was sent to leper colony at Kalawao.

Keliʻimaikai Kaʻeo, nicknamed "Alebada" (died October 13, 1851), he was given as a hānai child to Jane's other brother James Kanehoa and his wife Sarah Kale Davis. He was named after Jane's ancestor Keliʻimaikaʻi, Kamehameha's only full brother.

Kalaimanokahoʻowaha

Kalaimanokahoʻowaha (also known as Kanaʻina) was an aliʻi high chief of the island of Hawai'i who lived during the period of Captain James Cook's visit and western naming of the Sandwich Islands. He was the chief said to have struck the first blow to Cook when he attempted to kidnap Kalaniʻōpuʻu, the king of the island. He was called Kanaʻina nui ( an aliʻi title) as a birthright from his father, Keaweʻopala, first born son of Alapainui. After his father was killed by Kalaniʻōpuʻu, he would serve the new king as a kaukau aliʻi, a service class of Hawaiian nobility that his mother, Moana Wahine had descended from. This aliʻi service line would continue throughout the Kingdom of Hawaii.

Kalaninuiamamao

Kalaninuiamamao (sometimes called Ka-I-i-Mamao or Kaeamamao) was a prince of the Big Island of Hawaiʻi, or 1st Aliʻi Nui of Kaʻū, an ancestor of the Queen Liliuokalani. He is probably the Hawaiian chief with the most varied spelling of his name.

The Kumulipo was composed in honor of his birth and was passed by him to his daughter Alapaiwahine.

Kalola Pupuka

Kalola Pupuka-o-Honokawailani was a Hawaiian high chiefess. The first Europeans in Hawaii called her Rora-rora.

Kamakaimoku

Kamakaʻīmoku was a chiefess in ancient Hawaii in the early 18th century. She married three powerful men of the time, was mother of the King who would unite the island of Hawaiʻi and meet the first known visitors from Europe, and grandmother of the founder of the Kingdom that united all of the Hawaiian islands.

Kamehameha I

Kamehameha I (Hawaiian pronunciation: [kəmehəˈmɛhə]; c. 1758? – May 8 or 14, 1819 ), also known as Kamehameha the Great (full Hawaiian name: Kalani Paiʻea Wohi o Kaleikini Kealiʻikui Kamehameha o ʻIolani i Kaiwikapu kauʻi Ka Liholiho Kūnuiākea), was the founder and first ruler of the Kingdom of Hawaii. A statue of him was given to the National Statuary Hall Collection in Washington, D.C. by the state of Hawaii as one of two statues it is entitled to give.

Kanealai

Kaneʻalai (also known as Kane-a-Laʻe) was a Queen regnant of the Hawaiian island of Molokai, who lived in the 18th century. She ruled as Alii nui of Molokai.

She was a daughter of Luahiwa II (of the reigning family of Kauai) and Ka-hoʻoia-a-Pehu.Kaneʻalai planted a mountain apple tree.She married Keaweʻīkekahialiʻiokamoku, the king of Hawaiʻi. They had four children.

After Keaweʻīkekahialiʻiokamoku died, Kaneʻalai became a wife of Kekaulike, the king of Maui. With him she had one daughter, Luahiwa, who married her half-brother Kahekili II.

It is probably because of Kaneʻalai that Kamehameha-nui, the son of Kekaulike and Kekuiapoiwa I, was raised as a young boy at Waialua, Molokaʻi, and because of her connection with Kekaulike that her son and grandsons and other chiefs of Molokaʻi went to the help of Kamehameha-nui in his fight with Kalaniʻōpuʻu.

Kealakekua Bay

Kealakekua Bay is located on the Kona coast of the island of Hawaiʻi about 12 miles (19 km) south of Kailua-Kona.

Settled over a thousand years ago, the surrounding area contains many archeological and historical sites such as religious temples (heiaus) and also includes the spot where the first documented European to reach the Hawaiian islands, Captain James Cook, was killed. It was listed in the National Register of Historic Places listings on the island of Hawaii in 1973 as the Kealakekua Bay Historical District.

The bay is a marine life conservation district, a popular destination for kayaking, scuba diving, and snorkeling.

Keawemauhili

Keawemaʻuhili (1710–1790) was an important member of the Hawaiian nobility at the time of the founding of the Kingdom of Hawaii.

He was a son of Kalaninuiamamao and his half-sister Kekaulike-i-Kawekiuonalani.He first married Ululani, the Aliʻi Nui of Hilo, and then Kekikipaʻa, the daughter of Kameʻeiamoku and former wife of Kamehameha I. With his first wife he had sons Keaweokahikiona and Elelule Laʻakeaelelulu, and with his second wife, famous daughter Kapiʻolani (c. 1791) and son Koakanu.His half-brother, King Kalaniʻōpuʻu, died in 1781. He joined with his nephew Keōua Kuahuʻula in the Battle of Mokuʻōhai to fight Kamehameha I. He escaped the defeat and returned to Hilo.

Keaweʻōpala

Keaweʻōpala is the first born son of Alapainui (the usurping Aliʻi nui of Hawaii Island) and his wife Keaka, who cared for Kamehameha the Great in his youth along with her sister Hākau. He would inherit his father's position after being named heir by Alapainui shortly before his death.His was a short rule of just 1 year beginning around 1754. He was overthrown by Kalaniʻōpuʻu.Keaweʻopala would father a child with Moana Wahine, named Kalaimanokahoʻowaha also known as Kanaʻina, who would be taken into the new king's court to serve as a royal attendant as a new aliʻi line of secondary chiefs serving the supreme ruler of the island and the kingdom. Kanaʻina would cohabitate with his half sister from his mother Moana Wahine, Hākau. Her father was Heulu. The couple would have a child named Hao, the grandson of Keaweʻopala. Hao's daughter was Luahine. Luahine's daughter was Kōnia, who was the mother of Bernice Pauahi Bishop, the three times great granddaughter of Keaweʻopala.With Namoe he had a son Kanekoa. With Keoua he had a daughter Peleuli. With Kaukuhakuonana he had two sons Kanehiwa and Kuapuu. Kanehiwa married a cousin named Kaulunae and were the parents of Lipoa and Julia Moemalie. Kanekoa's grandson was Joseph Heleluhe, who was the private secretary of Queen Liliuokalani.

Keōua Kūʻahuʻula

Keōua Kūʻahuʻula was an Aliʻi (member of the royal class) during the time of the unification of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi.

Kidnapping of Kalaniʻōpuʻu by James Cook

Captain James Cook's 1779 attempted kidnapping of Kalaniʻōpuʻu, the ruling chief of the island of Hawaii and the decision to hold him in exchange for a stolen long boat (lifeboat) was the fatal error of Cook's final voyage, and ultimately led to his death.

Cook's arrival in Hawaii was followed by mass migrations of Europeans and Americans to the islands that gave rise to the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, the aboriginal monarchy of the islands, beginning in 1893.

Kānekapōlei

Kānekapōlei was a Native Hawaiian of high noho aliʻi (chiefly hierarchy) status and wife of Kalaniʻōpuʻu, aunt of Kamehameha I and present at the time Captain Cook's death.

She called attention to the kidnapping of her husband by Cook and his sailors. A group of men from among those attracted to the beach to answer her calls for help, grabbed Cook and stabbed him to death.

Kīwalaʻō

Kīwalaʻō (1760-1782) was the aliʻi nui of the Island of Hawaii in 1782 when he was defeated in battle and overthrown by Kamehameha I.

Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole

Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole was a Hawaiian high chief of Hilo and father of Queen Kapiʻolani.

He was born to Aliʻi Elelule Laʻakeaelelulu and his wife Poʻomaikelani, daughter of Aliʻi Kanekoa, of Waimea, by his first wife, Kalani-kau-lelei-awi, daughter of Kepoʻomahoe. His father was the son of Keawemauhili, the brother of King Kalaniʻōpuʻu of Hawaii Island, and joint ruler of the District of Hilo with his wife ʻUlulani. His father's mother ʻUlulani was the most renowned poet of her day, and his father's sister was Kapiʻolani who defied the volcano goddess Pele. He served as steward for his aunt Kapiʻolani and her husband Naihe and Kūhiō converted to Christianity alongside them.

He married the Princess Kinoiki Kekaulike of Kauai, daughter of King Kaumualiʻi of Kauaʻi and Niʻihau. He and his wife had three daughters who were all members of the Royal Court of King Kalākaua in 1883. His daughters were Kapiʻolani, named after her aunt, Poʻomaikelani, named after Kūhiō's own mother, and Victoria Kinoiki Kekaulike, named after her mother. All of his daughters died issueless, except Victoria who gave birth to three sons: David Kawānanakoa, Edward Abnel Keliʻiahonui and Jonah Kūhiō Kalaniana'ole, his namesake.

Mahiole

Hawaiian feather helmets, known as mahiole in the Hawaiian language, were worn with feather cloaks (ʻahu ʻula). These were symbols of the highest rank reserved for the men of the aliʻi, the chiefly class of Hawaii. There are examples of this traditional headgear in museums around the world. At least sixteen of these helmets were collected during the voyages of Captain Cook. These helmets are made from a woven frame structure decorated with bird feathers and are examples of fine featherwork techniques. One of these helmets was included in a painting of Cook's death by Johann Zoffany.

Pauli Kaōleiokū

Pauli Kaʻōleiokū (abt 1767–1818) was a Prince of Hawaii.

The Death of Captain James Cook (Zoffany)

The Death of Captain James Cook, 14 February 1779 is a painting by Johann Zoffany. The painting records the loss of the British explorer Captain James Cook. The painting was completed in 1794 some years after the death of Cook in 1779. Other paintings of the death of Cook were painted earlier. The Mahiole (Feathered Helmet) that was included in the painting of Cook's death by Zoffany is said to be the helmet given to Cook when he first landed in Hawaii.

Kalaniʻōpuʻu, Kamehameha, Kānekapōlei and Peleuli family tree

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