Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics

The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics was founded in 1927 in Berlin, Germany. When confronted with financial demands, the Rockefeller Foundation supported both the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Psychiatry and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics.[1] The Rockefeller Foundation partially funded the actual building of the Institute and helped keep the Institute afloat during the Great Depression.

Freie Universitaet Berlin - Otto-Suhr-Institut - Gebaeude Ihnestrasse 22 - einst KWI-Institut
Former Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Racial Hygiene, at the Free University of Berlin
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1998-0817-502, Berlin, Kundgebung an der Universität
Eugen Fischer during a ceremony at the University of Berlin 1934


In its early years, and during the Nazi era, it was strongly associated with theories of Nazi eugenics and racial hygiene advocated by its leading theorists Fritz Lenz, (first director) Eugen Fischer, and by its second director Otmar von Verschuer.

In the years of 1937–1938, Fischer and his colleagues analysed 600 children in Nazi Germany descending from French-African soldiers who occupied western areas of Germany after First World War; the children were subsequently subjected to sterilization afterwards.[2]

Fischer didn't officially join the Nazi Party until 1940.[3] However, he was influential with National Socialists early on. Adolf Hitler read his two-volume work, Principles of Human Heredity and Race Hygiene (first published in 1921 and co-written by Erwin Baur and Fritz Lenz) while incarcerated in 1923 and used its ideas in Mein Kampf.[4] He also authored The Rehoboth Bastards and the Problem of Miscegenation among Humans (1913) (German: Die Rehobother Bastards und das Bastardierungsproblem beim Menschen), a field study which provided context for later racial debates, influenced German colonial legislation and provided scientific support for the Nuremberg laws.[5]

Under the Nazi regime, Fischer developed the physiological specifications used to determine racial origins and developed the so-called Fischer–Saller scale. He and his team experimented on Romani people and African-Germans, especially those from Namibia, taking blood and measuring skulls to find scientific validation for his theories.

During World War II, the Institute regularly received human body parts, including eyes and skulls, from Nazi party member Karin Magnussen who studied eye colors, and Josef Mengele (at Auschwitz concentration camp) to use in studies intended to prove Nazi racial theories and justify race-related social policies. After the German capitulation in May 1945, most of the thousands of files and lab material of the Institute were moved to an unknown location or destroyed, and never obtained by the Allies to use as evidence in war crimes trials and to prove or dis-prove the Nazi racial ideology which had motivated mass genocide in Europe. Most of the staff of the Institute were able to escape trial.

Efforts to return the Namibian skulls taken by Fischer were started with an investigation by the University of Freiburg in 2011 and completed with the return of the skulls in March 2014.[6][7][8]

See also


  1. ^ Black, Edwin (9 November 2003). "Eugenics and the Nazis -- the California connection". San Francisco Chronicle. SFGate.com. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
  2. ^ Bioethics: an anthology Helga Kuhse,Peter Singer page 232 Wiley-Blackwell 2006
  3. ^ "Human biodiversity: genes, race, and history", Jonathan M. Marks. Transaction Publishers, 1995. p. 88. ISBN 0202020339, 9780202020334.
  4. ^ A. E. Samaan (2013). From a Race of Masters to a Master Race: 1948 To 1848. A.E. Samaan. p. 539. ISBN 1626600007.
  5. ^ Baumel, Judith Tydor (2001). The Holocaust Encyclopedia. Yale University Press. p. 420. ISBN 0-300-08432-3.
  6. ^ "Repatriation of Skulls from Namibia University of Freiburg hands over human remains in ceremony". 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-04-03.
  7. ^ Namibia Press Agency (7 March 2014). "NAMPA: WHK skulls repatriated to Namibia 07 March 2014" – via YouTube.
  8. ^ "Germany to send back 35 skulls". newera.com.na. 28 February 2014.

Further reading

Coordinates: 52°26′56″N 13°16′39″E / 52.44889°N 13.27750°E

Carl Sattler

Carl Sattler (6 November 1877 - 13 January 1966) was a German architect and university lecturer.

Eugen Fischer

Eugen Fischer (5 July 1874 – 9 July 1967) was a German professor of medicine, anthropology, and eugenics, and a member of the Nazi Party. He served as director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics, and also served as rector of the Frederick William University of Berlin.

Fischer's ideas informed the Nuremberg Laws of 1935 which served to justify the Nazi Party's belief in German racial superiority. Adolf Hitler read Fischer's work while he was imprisoned in 1923 and he used Fischer's eugenical notions to support the ideal of a pure Aryan society in his manifesto, Mein Kampf (My Struggle).

Fritz Lenz

Fritz A Lenz (9 March 1887 in Pflugrade, Pomerania – 6 July 1976 in Göttingen, Lower Saxony) was a German geneticist, member of the Nazi Party, and influential specialist in eugenics in Nazi Germany.

Heinrich Ernst Göring

Heinrich Ernst Göring (31 October 1839 – 7 December 1913) was a German jurist and diplomat who served as colonial governor of German South West Africa. He was the father of five children including Hermann Göring, the Nazi leader and commander of the Luftwaffe.

Index of World War II articles (K)



K-class submarine (Soviet)

K is for Killing

K. P. K. Menon

Kōichi Kido

Kōichi Shiozawa

Kōki Hirota

Kōsō Abe

Kōsaku Aruga

Kōtarō Nakamura



Kaarlo Mäkinen


Kabayama Sukenori

Kadam Kadam Badaye Ja

Kaethe Hoern

Kai Holst

Kai Winding

Kaija Mustonen

Kailash Nath Katju

Kaimingjie germ weapon attack

Kairyu-class submarine


Kaiser Shipyards

Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics

Kaiser Wilhelm Institute

Kaiserwald concentration camp


Kaj Aksel Hansen

Kaj Christiansen

Kaj Munk

Kaju Sugiura

Kakou Senda

Kakuji Kakuta

Kalagon Massacre

Kalev-class submarine

Kalevi Oikarainen


Kalinin Front

Kaliningrad K-5

Kalle Anttila

Kalmi Baruh

Kalmykian Voluntary Cavalry Corps

Kalonymus Kalman Shapira

Kamal Ram

Kamenets-Podolsky pocket

Kamianets-Podilskyi Massacre

Kamikaze-class destroyer (1922)


Kamimura Hikonojō

Kaminski Brigade

Kammhuber Line

Kamp Amersfoort

Kamp Schoorl


Kampfgeschwader 200

Kampfgeschwader 3

Kampfgeschwader 4

Kampfgeschwader 55


Kampfmesser 42

Kan'in Haruhito

Kanchanaburi War Cemetery

Kanga Force

Kangaroo (armoured personnel carrier)

Kanichiro Tashiro

Kanji Ishiwara

Kankō Maru

Kansas World War II Army Airfields

Kantai kessen

Kantarō Suzuki

Kaoru Moto


Kapo (concentration camp)

Karabiner 98k

Karamjeet Singh Judge

Karaya Quartet

Karel Čurda

Karel Ančerl

Karel Appel

Karel Destovnik Kajuh

Karel Doorman

Karel Kuttelwascher

Karel Miljon

Karel Nedvěd

Karel Pavlík

Karel Pešek

Karel Poláček

Karel Treybal

Karelia (historical province of Finland)

Karelian Fortified Region

Karelian Front

Karen Magnussen

Karim Ghani

Karl-Friedrich Höcker

Karl-Friedrich Merten

Karl-Gottfried Nordmann

Karl-Heinz Greisert

Karl-Heinz Moehle

Karl-Heinz Schnibbe

Karl-Jesko von Puttkamer

Karl-Lothar Schulz

Karl-Maria Demelhuber

Karl Albrecht

Karl Allmendinger

Karl Allmenröder

Karl Auer (SS officer)

Karl August Nerger

Karl Barth

Karl Bendetsen

Karl Brandt (Nazi physician)

Karl Dönitz

Karl Decker

Karl Dietrich Bracher

Karl Eberhard Schöngarth

Karl Ehrenbolger

Karl Eibl

Karl Emil Schäfer

Karl Ernst Krafft

Karl Ernst Rahtgens

Karl Ernst

Karl Fiehler

Karl Frenzel

Karl Friedrich Eichhorn

Karl Friedrich von dem Knesebeck

Karl Fritzsch

Karl Gebhardt

Karl Genzken

Karl Gerland

Karl Gorath

Karl Gröger

Karl Hanke

Karl Hass

Karl Haushofer

Karl Heinz Bremer

Karl Henke

Karl Hermann Frank

Karl Herxheimer

Karl Hess

Karl Holz (Gauleiter)

Karl Jäger

Karl Kaufmann

Karl Koller (general)

Karl Löffler

Karl Löwith

Karl Laforce

Karl Lange (Nazi persecutee)

Karl Leib

Karl Lennart Oesch

Karl Linnas

Karl Litzmann

Karl Magnus Wegelius

Karl Malden

Karl Mander Gravell

Karl Maria Wiligut

Karl Mauss

Karl Mayr

Karl Metzger

Karl Mobius

Karl Otto Koch

Karl Plagge

Karl Röderer

Karl Rankl

Karl Richter (sport shooter)

Karl Ruberl

Karl Ruprecht Kroenen

Karl Sack

Karl Schnörrer

Karl Schranz

Karl Silberbauer

Karl Staaf

Karl Stotz

Karl Targownik

Karl Taylor Compton

Karl von Oberkamp

Karl Weinrich

Karl Wolff

Karla Mayer

Karlrobert Kreiten

Karol Świerczewski

Karol Chmiel

Karol Marian Pospieszalski

Karol Piegza

Karol Rómmel

Karol Sidor

Karol Szwedowski

Karpaty Army

Kasi Maru

Kastner train

Kasuga-class cruiser

Katō Tomosaburō

Kataoka Shichirō

Katarapko (Wood Camp)

Katarina Matanović-Kulenović

Katayama Detachment

Kate ter Horst

Katherine Rawls

Kathie Lee Gifford

Kathleen Best

Kathleen McKane Godfree

Katori-class battleship

Katori-class cruiser

Katoucha Niane

Katsu Kaishū

Katsuo Takaishi

Katsura Tarō

Katyń (film)

Katya Budanova

Katyn massacre

Katyusha (song)

Katyusha rocket launcher

Katzenberger Trial

Katzmann Report

Kaufering concentration camp

Kaunas Ghetto

Kaunas Offensive Operation

Kaunas pogrom

Kawachi-class battleship

Kawaguchi Detachment

Kawakami Soroku

Kawamura Kageaki

Kawamura Sumiyoshi

Kawanishi Baika

Kawanishi H6K

Kawanishi H8K

Kawanishi K-200

Kawanishi N1K

Kawasaki Ki-100

Kawasaki Ki-102

Kawasaki Ki-147 I-Go Type1 - Ko Air to Surface Radio Guidance Missile

Kawasaki Ki-32

Kawasaki Ki-56

Kawasaki Ki-60

Kawasaki Ki-61

Kawasaki Ki-96

Kayaba Ka-1

Kazimierz Bartel

Kazimierz J. Kasperek

Kazimierz Kierzkowski

Kazimierz Leski

Kazimierz Moczarski

Kazimierz Prószyński

Kazimierz Pużak

Kazimierz Sakowicz

Kazimierz Skorupka

Kazimierz Szosland

Kazimierz Zarankiewicz

Kazimierz Zdziechowski

Kazimir Hnatow

Kazumi Onishi

Kazuo Mizutani

Kazuo Otani

Kazuo Sakamaki

Kazushige Ugaki

Kb wz. 98a

Kbk wz. 1929

Kbsp wz. 1938M

Kea Bouman


Kees Kist

Kees Rijvers

Kees Verkerk


Keiji Nakazawa

Keiji Shibazaki

Keisuke Fujie

Keisuke Okada

Keith Arbuthnott, 15th Viscount of Arbuthnott

Keith B. McCutcheon

Keith Douglas

Keith Elliott

Keith Joseph

Keith L. Ware

Keith Mant

Keith Miller

Keith Moffatt

Keith Park

Keith Truscott

Keizō Komura

Keller E. Rockey

Kellogg-Briand Pact

Kelly's Heroes

Kempeitai East District Branch


Ken Adam

Ken Albers

Ken Case

Ken Farnes

Ken Kavanaugh

Ken Reardon

Ken Wallis

Kendall Carl Campbell

Kenji Doihara

Kenji Hatanaka

Kenji Yanagiya

Kenkichi Ueda

Kenkichi Yoshizawa

Kenneth A. Walsh

Kenneth Arthur Noel Anderson

Kenneth Bainbridge

Kenneth Campbell

Kenneth Cecil Bunch

Kenneth Claiborne Royall

Kenneth Cummins

Kenneth D. Bailey

Kenneth E. Gruennert

Kenneth H. Dahlberg

Kenneth Hart Muir

Kenneth Horsfield

Kenneth Jacobs

Kenneth Kendall

Kenneth Konstam

Kenneth Lockwood

Kenneth M. Taylor

Kenneth Martin Willett

Kenneth Nichols

Kenneth Noland

Kenneth R. Harding

Kenneth S. Stern

Kenneth Shelley

Kenneth Smith

Kenneth Stonehouse

Kenneth Thomson, 2nd Baron Thomson of Fleet

Kenneth W. Durant

Kenneth Walker

Kenneth Wolstenholme


Kenny Bowen

Kent Battle of Britain Museum

Kent Courtney

Kent Lee

Kenzo Oshima

Kerberos & Tachiguishi

Kerberos Panzer Cop

Kerberos Panzer Jäger

Kerberos saga characters

Kerberos saga chronicles

Kerberos Saga Rainy Dogs

Kerberos saga

Kerch-Eltigen Operation

Kerestinec prison

Kermit Beahan

Kermit Roosevelt

Kerrville Municipal Airport

Kesago Nakajima

Kesternich (World War II)

Ketil Askildt

Kevin Fagan (doctor)

Kevin Hatchi

Kevin Stoney

Keystone Heights Airport

Khaibakh massacre

Khaled Abdul-Wahab

Khaled Kasab Mahameed

Khalid Abdul Muhammad

Kharkov offensive operation

Khatyn massacre

Khorloogiin Choibalsan


Ki Aldrich


Kichisaburō Nomura

Kidnapping of Polish children by Germany

Kidnapping of Polish children by Nazi Germany

Kielce cemetery massacre

Kiev Archive Museum of Transitional Period

Kigoshi Yasutsuna

Kii-class battleship

Kiichi Hasegawa

Kiichiro Higuchi

Kijiro Nambu

Kilauea-class ammunition ship

Kilo-class submarine

Kilometer Zero

Kim Malthe-Bruun

Kim Suk-won

Kimberley Plan

Kimon Georgiev

Kindertransport (play)


King-Byng Affair

King George V-class battleship (1939)

King Michael's Coup

King of the Texas Rangers

King Rat (1962 novel)

King Rat (film)

Kingdom Identity Ministries

Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946)

Kingdom of Montenegro (1941-1944)

Kingdom of Shadows

Kingman Airport and Industrial Park

Kings Go Forth

Kinmel Park Riots

Kinoaki Matsuo


Kiril Dojčinovski

Kirill Meretskov

Kirino Toshiaki

Kirk Douglas

KIS (weapon)

Kiss Me Goodnight, Sergeant Major

Kite-class minesweeper

Kitsuju Ayabe

Kittelbach Pirates

Kitty Hart-Moxon

Kiyohide Shima

Kiyokazu Abo

Kiyonao Ichiki

Kiyoshi Itō

Kiyoshi K. Muranaga

Kiyoshi Katsuki

Kiyoshi Ogawa

Kiyotake Kawaguchi

Kiyoto Kagawa




KKK auxiliaries

Klamath Falls Airport

Klaus Barbie

Klaus Bargsten

Klaus Bonhoeffer

Klaus Bonsack

Klaus Fuchs

Klaus Hildebrand

Klaus Kinski

Klaus Neumann

Klaus von Pape

Klavdiya Shulzhenko


Klement Gottwald

Klemm Kl 151

Klemm Kl 35

Klemm Kl 36

Kleo Pleyer

Klim (Red Cross)

Kliment Voroshilov tank

Kliment Voroshilov

Klooga concentration camp


Kléber (Paris Métro)

Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross

Knighthood in the Independent State of Croatia

Knights of the White Camelia

Know Your Ally: Britain

Know Your Enemy: Japan

Knud Børge Martinsen

Knud Degn

Knut Hamsun

Knut Haugland

Knut Haukelid

Knut Rød

Knut Schmidt-Nielsen

Ko-hyoteki-class submarine

Ko Willems

Koča Popović

Kočevski Rog massacre

Kobylisy Shooting Range

Kodama Gentarō

Koji Ariyoshi

Koko Tanimoto-Kondo

Kokoda (film)

Kokoda Front Line

Kokoda Track campaign


Kokusai Ku-7

Kokusai Ku-8

Kolberg (film)

Kolesnikov-Tsibin KC-20

Koli Point action


Kolmannen valtakunnan vieraana

Kommando Nowotny



Komsomolets armored tractor

Konfederacja Narodu

Kong Xianrong

Kongō-class battlecruiser

Kongsberg Colt

Konrāds Kalējs

Konrad Dannenberg

Konrad Guderski

Konrad Henlein

Konrad Hirsch

Konrad Huber

Konrad Lorenz

Konrad Nonn

Konrad Rudnicki

Konrad Stäheli

Konrad von Preysing

Konstantin Feoktistov

Konstantin Hierl

Konstantin Leselidze

Konstantin Muraviev

Konstantin Pankov

Konstantin Rakutin

Konstantin Rodzaevsky

Konstantin Rokossovsky

Konstantin von Neurath

Konstantinos Davakis

Konstantinos Koukidis

Konstantinos Logothetopoulos

Konstanty Troczyński


Korczak (film)

Korechika Anami

Korematsu v. United States

Koreshige Inuzuka

Korherr Report



Korsun-Cherkassy Pocket


Koshirō Oikawa

Kosovo Operation (1944)

Kosta Mušicki

Kosta Pećanac

Kotoku Sato


Košice attack

Kouji Sakai

Kristian Løken


Krafft Arnold Ehricke


Kragujevac massacre

Kraków-Płaszów concentration camp

Kraków Army

Kraków Cavalry Brigade

Kraków District

Kraków Ghetto

Kraków Uprising (1944)

Kranji War Cemetery

Krasny Kavkaz

Kreisau Circle






Kristiansand Airport, Kjevik

Kristoffer Nilsen

Kronach Lorin

Kronprinz Wilhelm

Kronshtadt-class submarine chaser

Krsto Zrnov Popović

Krupp K5

Krupp Protze

Krupp Trial

Krystyna Skarbek

Krzyż Oświęcimski

Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński

Krzyz Walecznych

Ksawery Wyrozemski

Károly Bartha

Károly Fogl

Károly Kárpáti

Ku Klux Klan

Kuban Shield


Kuehn Family



Kuma-class cruiser

Kumiko Sato

Kuniaki Koiso


Kure Naval Arsenal

Kure Naval District

Kuroda Kiyotaka

Kuroki Tamemoto

Kurt-Bertram von Döring

Kurt Becher

Kurt Blome

Kurt Bühligen

Kurt Brändle

Kurt Daluege

Kurt Diebner

Kurt Dittmar

Kurt Doerry

Kurt Franz

Kurt Freiherr von Liebenstein

Kurt Gerron

Kurt Gerstein

Kurt Grasshoff

Kurt Gruber

Kurt Hahn

Kurt Herbert Adler

Kurt Huber

Kurt Jahn

Kurt Julius Goldstein

Kurt Knispel

Kurt Kuhlmey

Kurt Mahler

Kurt Meyer (Panzermeyer)

Kurt Nehrling

Kurt Plenzat

Kurt Sanderling

Kurt Schlosser

Kurt Schmitt

Kurt Schneider (aviator)

Kurt Schneider

Kurt Student

Kurt Tank

Kurt Ubben

Kurt von Hammerstein-Equord

Kurt von Ruffin

Kurt von Schleicher

Kurt von Tippelskirch

Kurt Vonnegut

Kurt Wahle

Kurt Weill

Kurt Welter

Kurt Wüthrich

Kurt Wolff (aviator)

Kurt Zeitzler

Kustaa Pihlajamäki

Kusunose Yukihiko

Kuzma Nikolaevich Derevyanko

Kvænangen concentration camp


Kwacho Hironobu

Kwantung Army

Kyūjō Incident

Kyushu J7W

Kyushu K11W

Kyösti Karhila

KZ - Nebenlager Bretstein

KZ Gusen

Kåre Olav-Berg

Irawati Karve

Irawati Karve (15 December 1905 – August 11, 1970) was an anthropologist, sociologist, educationist and writer from Maharashtra, India.

Janowska concentration camp

Janowska concentration camp (Polish: Janowska, Russian: Янов or "Yanov", Ukrainian: Янівський табір) was a Nazi German labor, transit and extermination camp established in September 1941 in occupied Poland on the outskirts of Lwów (Second Polish Republic, today Lviv, Ukraine). The camp was labeled Janowska after the nearby street ulica Janowska in Lwów, renamed Shevchenka (Ukrainian: Шевченка) after the city was ceded to the Ukrainian SSR at the end of war in Europe. The camp was liquidated by the Germans in November 1943 ahead of the Red Army's counteroffensive. According to Soviet prosecutor at the Nuremberg Trials, Janowska was a pure death camp, although it also housed a factory. Modern estimates put the total number of prisoners who passed through Janowska at over 100,000. The number of victims murdered at the camp is estimated at 35,000–40,000.:255

Josef Mengele

Josef Mengele ([ˈjoːzɛf ˈmɛŋələ] (listen); 16 March 1911 – 7 February 1979) was a German Schutzstaffel (SS) officer and physician in Auschwitz concentration camp during World War II. He performed deadly human experiments on prisoners and was a member of the team of doctors who selected victims to be killed in the gas chambers. Arrivals that were judged able to work were admitted into the camp, while those deemed unsuitable for labor were sent to the gas chambers to be killed. With Red Army troops sweeping through Poland, Mengele was transferred 280 kilometers (170 mi) from Auschwitz to the Gross-Rosen concentration camp on 17 January 1945, just ten days before the arrival of the Soviet forces at Auschwitz. After the war, he fled to South America where he evaded capture for the rest of his life.

Before the war, Mengele had received doctorates in anthropology and medicine, and began a career as a researcher. He joined the Nazi Party in 1937 and the SS in 1938. He was assigned as a battalion medical officer at the start of World War II, then transferred to the Nazi concentration camps service in early 1943 and assigned to Auschwitz, where he saw the opportunity to conduct genetic research on human subjects. His subsequent experiments focused primarily on twins, with little regard for the health or safety of the victims.Mengele sailed to Argentina in July 1949, assisted by a network of former SS members. He initially lived in and around Buenos Aires, then fled to Paraguay in 1959 and Brazil in 1960, while being sought by West Germany, Israel, and Nazi hunters such as Simon Wiesenthal who wanted to bring him to trial. He eluded capture in spite of extradition requests by the West German government and clandestine operations by the Israeli intelligence agency Mossad. He drowned in 1979 after suffering a stroke while swimming off the Brazilian coast, and was buried under a false name. His remains were disinterred and positively identified by forensic examination in 1985.

Karin Magnussen

Karin Magnussen (9 February 1908 – 19 February 1997) was a German biologist, teacher and researcher at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics during the Third Reich. She is known for her 1936 publication "Race and Population Policy Tools", and her studies of heterochromia iridis (different-colored eyes) using iris specimens, supplied by Josef Mengele, from Auschwitz concentration camp victims.

List of Nazi concentration camps

This article presents a partial list of the most prominent Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps set up across Europe before and during the course of World War II and the Holocaust. A more complete list drawn up in 1967 by the West German Ministry of Justice names about 1,200 camps and subcamps in countries occupied by Germany, while the Jewish Virtual Library writes: "It is estimated that the Germans established 15,000 camps in the occupied countries." Some of the data presented in this table originates from the monograph titled The War Against the Jews by Lucy Dawidowicz among similar others.In 1933–1939, before the onset of war, most prisoners consisted of German Communists, Socialists, Social Democrats, Roma, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, and persons accused of 'asocial' or socially 'deviant' behavior by the Germans. They were not utilized to sustain the German war effort.

Although the term 'concentration camp' is often used as a general term for all German camps during World War II, there were in fact several types of concentration camps in the German camp system. Holocaust scholars make a clear distinction between death camps and concentration camps which served a number of war related purposes including prison facilities, labor camps, prisoner of war camps, and transit camps among others.Concentration camps served primarily as detention and slave labor exploitation centers. An estimated 15 to 20 million people were imprisoned in 42,500 camps and ghettos, and often pressed into slavery during the subsequent years, according to research by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum conducted more recently. The system of about 20,000 concentration camps in Germany and German-occupied Europe played a pivotal role in economically sustaining the German reign of terror. Most of them were destroyed by the Germans in an attempt to hide the evidence of war crimes and crimes against humanity; nevertheless tens of thousands of prisoners sent on death marches were liberated by the Allies afterward.Extermination camps were designed and built exclusively to kill prisoners on a massive scale, often immediately upon arrival. The extermination camps of Operation Reinhard such as Bełżec, Sobibór and Treblinka served as "death factories" in which German SS and police murdered nearly 2,700,000 Jews by asphyxiation with poison gas, shooting, and extreme work under starvation conditions.The concentration camps held large groups of prisoners without trial or judicial process. In modern historiography, the term refers to a place of systemic mistreatment, starvation, forced labour and murder.


Magnussen may refer to:

Arne Magnussen (1884–1970), Norwegian trade unionist, newspaper editor and politician for the Labour and the Social Democratic Labour parties

Billy Magnussen (born 1985), American actor

Davur Juul Magnussen, Faroese Trombonist from Tórshavn, Faroe Islands, who now lives in Scotland

Einar Magnussen (1931–2004), Norwegian economist and politician for the Labour Party

Fritz Magnussen (1878–1920), Danish film director and screenwriter of the silent era

Harro Magnussen (1861–1908), German sculptor from Hamburg, Germany

James Magnussen (born 1991), swimmer from Australia

Jan Magnussen (born 1973), racing driver from Denmark and a GM factory driver

Jon Magnussen (born 1959), Norwegian Professor in health economics at Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim

Karen Magnussen, OC (born 1952), Canadian figure skater

Karin Magnussen (1908–1997), researcher at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics during Germany's Third Reich

Kevin Magnussen (born 1992), Danish racing driver

Ryan Magnussen, American businessperson and media entrepreneur

Trond Magnussen (born 1973), former professional Norwegian ice hockey player

Ulf Magnussen (born 1946), retired Norwegian handball player who competed in the 1972 Summer Olympics

Charles Augustus Magnussen fictional character from Sherlock (TV series)

Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry

The Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry (German: Max-Planck-Institut für Psychiatrie) is a scientific institute based in the city of Munich in Germany specializing in psychiatry. Currently directed by Elisabeth Binder, Alon Chen and Martin Keck, it is one of the 81 institutes in the Max Planck Society.

Miklós Nyiszli

Miklós Nyiszli (17 June 1901, Szilágysomlyó, Austria-Hungary – 5 May 1956, Oradea, Romania) was a Jewish prisoner at the Auschwitz concentration camp. Nyiszli, his wife, and young daughter, were transported to Auschwitz in June 1944. Upon his arrival, Nyiszli volunteered himself as a doctor and was sent to work at number 12 barracks where he operated on and tried to help the ill with only the most basic medical supplies and tools. He was under the supervision of Josef Mengele, an SS officer and physician.

Mengele decided after observing Nyiszli's skills to move him to a specially built autopsy and operating theatre. The room had been built inside Crematorium II (Crematorium I being in Auschwitz Town camp), and Nyiszli, along with members of the 12th Sonderkommando, was housed there.

Nazi eugenics

Nazi eugenics (German: Nationalsozialistische Rassenhygiene, "National Socialist racial hygiene") were Nazi Germany's racially based social policies that placed the biological improvement of the Aryan race or Germanic "Übermenschen" master race through eugenics at the center of Nazi ideology. In Germany, eugenics were mostly known under the synonymous term racial hygiene. Following the Second World War, both terms effectively vanished and were replaced by Humangenetik (human genetics).

Eugenics research in Germany before and during the Nazi period was similar to that in the United States (particularly California), by which it had been partly inspired. However, its prominence rose sharply under Adolf Hitler's leadership when wealthy Nazi supporters started heavily investing in it. The programs were subsequently shaped to complement Nazi racial policies.Those humans targeted for destruction under Nazi eugenics policies were largely living in private and state-operated institutions, identified as "life unworthy of life" (German: Lebensunwertes Leben), including prisoners, "degenerates", dissidents, people with congenital cognitive and physical disabilities (including people who were "feeble-minded", epileptic, schizophrenic, manic-depressive, cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, deaf, blind) (German: erbkranken), homosexual, idle, insane, and the weak, for elimination from the chain of heredity. More than 400,000 people were sterilized against their will, while up to 300,000 were killed under Action T4, a euthanasia program. In June 1935, Hitler and his cabinet made a list of seven new decrees, number 5 was to speed up the investigations of sterilization.

Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer

Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer (16 July 1896 – 8 August 1969) was a German human biologist and geneticist, who was the Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Münster until his 1965 retirement. A member of the Dutch noble Verschuer family, his title Freiherr is often translated as baron.

He was regarded as a pioneer in the twin methodology in genetics research and in the study of the inheritance of diseases and anomalies, and was a prominent eugenicist with an interest in racial hygiene and an advocate of compulsory sterilization programs in the first half of the 20th century. Among his many students were Josef Mengele.

He successfully redefined himself as a geneticist in the postwar era. During the 1950s and 1960s he was noted for research on the effects of nuclear radiation on humans and for his warnings against the possibility of creating "scientifically improved" human beings offered by genetic science.

Verschuer was the director of the Institute for Genetic Biology and Racial Hygiene from 1935 to 1942 and director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics from 1942 to 1948. From 1951 to 1965 he was Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Münster, where he also served as Dean of the Faculty of Medicine. At Münster he established one of the largest centers of genetics research in West Germany, and remained one of the world's most prominent genetics researchers until his death. He became Professor Emeritus in 1965; he received numerous memberships in learned societies. In 1952 he was elected President of the German Anthropological Association. His son Helmut von Verschuer was a high-ranking official of the European Commission.

Peter Emil Becker

Peter Emil Becker (23 November 1908 – 7 October 2000) was a German neurologist, psychiatrist and geneticist. He is remembered for his studies of muscular dystrophies. Becker's muscular dystrophy (OMIM 300376) and Becker myotonia (OMIM 255700) are named after him. Since 1998, the Gesellschaft für Neuropädiatrie (GNP) grants Peter-Emil-Becker-Preis for special achievements in the field of child neurology.He studied medicine in Marburg, Berlin, Munich, Vienna and Hamburg, graduating in 1933. Afterwards he trained in neurology and psychiatry in Hamburg and Freiburg. Between 1934 and 1936 he was attached to the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics (KWI-A), working under the guidance of Eugen Fischer. While at the KWI-A, Becker also worked with the prominent geneticist, eugenics specialist, and Nazi Party member Dr. Fritz Lenz.Becker was a member of the SA (Sturmabteilung) since 1934, and in 1940 he joined the Nazi Party. After the war he was dismissed from the University of Freiburg because of the membership in these organisations; however, in 1947 he was formally de-Nazified and has obtained venia legendi at the University of Freiburg. In 1957 he was appointed professor of human genetics at the University of Göttingen, the post he held until his retirement in 1975.

Rhineland Bastard

Rhineland Bastard (German: Rheinlandbastard) was a derogatory term used in Nazi Germany to describe Afro-Germans, believed fathered by French Army personnel of African descent who were stationed in the Rhineland during its occupation by France after World War I. There is evidence that other Afro-Germans, born from unions between German men and African women in former German colonies in Africa, were also referred to as Rheinlandbastarde.

After 1933, under racist Nazi policies, Afro-Germans deemed to be Rheinlandbastarde were persecuted. They were rounded up in a campaign of compulsory sterilization.

Rockefeller Foundation

The Rockefeller Foundation is a private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. It was established by the six-generation Rockefeller family. The Foundation was started by Standard Oil owner John D. Rockefeller ("Senior"), along with his son John D. Rockefeller Jr. ("Junior"), and Senior's principal oil and gas business and philanthropic advisor, Frederick Taylor Gates, in New York State on May 14, 1913, when its charter was formally accepted by the New York State Legislature. Its stated mission is "promoting the well-being of humanity throughout the world."As of 2015, the Foundation was ranked as the 39th largest U.S. foundation by total giving. By year-end 2016 assets were tallied at $4.1 billion (unchanged from 2015), with annual grants of $173 million.

Wolfgang Abel

Wolfgang Abel (13 May 1905 – 1 November 1997) was an Austrian anthropologist and one of Nazi Germany's racial biologists. He was the son of the Austrian paleontologist Othenio Abel.

From 1931 Wolfgang Abel was engaged at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics. In 1933 he became a member of the NSDAP. He was involved in compulsory sterilization of children, who resulted from relationships between German women and dark-skinned French soldiers. In 1934 he wrote an article, which was published in the German newspaper "Neues Volk", with the title "Bastarde am Rhein" (Rhineland Bastards). In 1935 he joined the SS. In 1942 Abel was successor to Eugen Fischer for the professorship of racial biology at the University of Berlin.

Wolfgang Abel delivered in 1938 a speech at the "Congres International des Sciences Anthropologiques et Ethnologiques, Deuxieme Session, Copenhague 1938". The topic was: Die Rasse der rumänischen Zigeuner. Meaning, On the Race of the Romanian Gypsies.

In the same year Abel was in addition to his work at the KWI lecturer in anthropology, as well as Deputy Head of the Department of racial hygiene of the German High School for Politics. After joining the SS in 1935, he worked as an expert for the Race and Settlement Main Office (RuSHA) of the SS and as Chief Appraiser for the Imperial Family Office. At the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, Wolfgang Abel rose in 1940 to the head of Department of Ethnography. In July 1941, he was appointed extraordinary Professor. Previously already Assistant of Eugenics to Eugen Fischer, he was from 1943 to 1945 his successor to the Chair of professorship in the University of Berlin. At the same time, he worked at this time for the high command of the German Army (OKH). In the framework of the General Plan East, Abel worked out a plan for a "progressive elimination" of the "Russian race' with which he wanted all "Russian Nordic types "Germanized" and the rest deported to Siberia, in May 1942.

In addition to his teaching Wolfgang Abel assumed the management of the Institute Awards of the German High School for Politics in 1943. In 1945, Abel was dismissed from the University of Berlin. From 1945 to 1947 he was interned. He then lived as a portrait painter in Austria.

After World War II, he lived in Austria until his death in 1997.

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