Kahoʻolawe (Hawaiian: [kəˈhoʔoˈlɐve]) anglicized as Kahoolawe (/kɑːˌhoʊoʊˈlɑːweɪ, -veɪ/[3]) is the smallest of the eight main volcanic islands in the Hawaiian Islands. Kahoʻolawe is located about seven miles (11 km) southwest of Maui and also southeast of Lānaʻi, and it is 11 mi (18 km) long by 6.0 mi (9.7 km) wide, with a total land area of 44.97 sq mi (116.47 km2).[4] The highest point on Kahoʻolawe is the crater of Lua Makika at the summit of Puʻu Moaulanui, which is about 1,477 feet (450 m) above sea level.[5] Kahoʻolawe is relatively dry (average annual rainfall is less than 65 cm or 26 in)[6] because the island's low elevation fails to generate much orographic precipitation from the northeastern trade winds, and Kahoʻolawe is located in the rain shadow of eastern Maui's 10,023-foot-high (3,055 m) volcano, Haleakalā. More than one quarter of Kahoʻolawe has been eroded down to saprolitic hardpan soil, largely on exposed surfaces near the summit.

Kahoʻolawe has always been sparsely populated, due to its lack of fresh water.[7] During World War II, Kahoʻolawe was used as a training ground and bombing range by the Armed Forces of the United States. After decades of protests, the U.S. Navy ended live-fire training exercises on Kahoʻolawe in 1990, and the whole island was transferred to the jurisdiction of the state of Hawaii in 1994. The Hawaii State Legislature established the Kahoʻolawe Island Reserve to restore and to oversee the island and its surrounding waters. Today Kahoʻolawe can be used only for native Hawaiian cultural, spiritual, and subsistence purposes.

The U.S. Census Bureau defines Kahoʻolawe as Block Group 9, Census Tract 303.02 of Maui County, Hawaii. Kahoʻolawe has no permanent residents.[8]

Nickname: The Island of Kanaloa, Kohemalamalama, Hineli'i, and Kahiki Moe[1]
Landsat satellite image of Kaho‘olawe
Map of Hawaii highlighting Kahoolawe
Location in the State of Hawaii
Location20°33′N 156°36′W / 20.550°N 156.600°W
Area44.59 sq mi (115.5 km2)
Area rank8th largest Hawaiian Island
Highest elevation1,483 ft (452 m)
Highest pointPuʻu Moaulanui
on the crater rim of Lua Makika
United States
FlowerHinahina kū kahakai (Heliotropium anomalum var. argenteum)[2]
ColorʻĀhinahina (gray)
Population0 (No permanent population)


Kahoolawe from Makena Maui
The gently sloping flanks of Kahoʻolawe shield volcano (viewed from Makena on the neighboring island Maui)
Haleakala and Kahoolawe
Aerial photo of Kahoʻolawe. In the background is Mount Haleakala on Maui.

Kahoʻolawe is an extinct shield volcano, which formed during the Pleistocene epoch. Most of the island is covered by basaltic lava flows. A caldera is located in the eastern part of the island. The last volcanic activity on the island occurred about one million years ago.[9][10]


Kahoʻolawe experiences a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh).



Sometime around the year 1000, Kahoʻolawe was settled by Polynesians, and small, temporary fishing communities were established along the coast. Some inland areas were cultivated. Puʻu Moiwi, a remnant cinder cone,[13] is the location of the second-largest basalt quarry in Hawaiʻi, and this was mined for use in stone tools such as koʻi (adzes).[14] Originally a dry forest environment with intermittent streams, the land changed to an open savanna of grassland and trees when inhabitants cleared vegetation for firewood and agriculture.[15] Hawaiians built stone platforms for religious ceremonies, set rocks upright as shrines for successful fishing trips, and carved petroglyphs, or drawings, into the flat surfaces of rocks. These indicators of an earlier time can still be found on Kahoʻolawe.

While it is not known how many people inhabited Kahoʻolawe, the lack of freshwater probably limited the population to a few hundred people. As many as 120 people might have once lived at Hakioawa, the largest settlement, which was located at the northeastern end of the island—facing Maui.

Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census; 1832, 1836, & 1866 Hawaiian Censuses
Source: Manoa Library[16]


Violent wars among competing aliʻi (chiefs) laid waste to the land and led to a decline in the population. During the 18th century War of Kamokuhi, Kalaniʻōpuʻu, the ruler of the Big Island of Hawaii, raided and pillaged Kahoʻolawe in an unsuccessful attempt to take Maui from Kahekili II, the King of Maui.[17]


From 1778 to the early 19th century, observers on passing ships reported that Kahoʻolawe was uninhabited and barren, destitute of both water and wood.

After the arrival of missionaries from New England, the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi under the rule of King Kamehameha III replaced the death penalty with exile, and Kahoʻolawe became a men's penal colony sometime around 1830. Food and water were scarce, some prisoners reportedly starved, and some of them swam across the channel to Maui to find food. The law making the island a penal colony was repealed in 1853.

A survey of Kahoʻolawe in 1857 reported about 50 residents here, about 5,000 acres (2,000 ha) of land covered with shrubs, and a patch of sugarcane growth. Along the shore, tobacco, pineapple, gourds, pili grass, and scrub trees grew. Beginning in 1858, the Hawaiian government leased Kahoʻolawe to a series of ranching ventures. Some of these proved to be more successful than others, but the lack of freshwater was an unrelenting hindrance. Through the next 80 years, the landscape changed dramatically, with drought and uncontrolled overgrazing denuding much of the island. Strong trade winds blew away most of the topsoil, leaving behind red hardpan dirt.

20th century

From 1910 to 1918, the Territory of Hawaii designated Kahoʻolawe as a forest reserve in the hope of restoring the island through a revegetation and livestock removal program. This program failed, and leases again became available. In 1918, the rancher Angus MacPhee of Wyoming, with the help of the landowner Harry Baldwin of Maui, leased the island for 21 years, intending to build a cattle ranch there. By 1932, the ranching operation was enjoying moderate success. After heavy rains, native grasses and flowering plants would sprout, but droughts always returned. In 1941, MacPhee subletted part of the island to the U.S. Army. Later that year, because of continuing drought, MacPhee removed his cattle from the island.

Training grounds

TNT detonation on Kahoolawe Island during Operation Sailoir Hat, sjot Bravo, 1965
Operation "Sailor Hat", 1965, the detonation of the 500-ton TNT explosive charge for test shot "Bravo", first of a series of three test explosions on the southwestern tip of Kahoʻolawe Island, Hawaii, February 6, 1965.

On December 7, 1941, after the Imperial Japanese Navy attacked Pearl Harbor and Oahu, the U.S. Army declared martial law throughout Hawaii, and it used Kahoʻolawe as a place to train American soldiers and Marines headed west to engage in the War in the Pacific. The use of Kahoʻolawe as a bombing range was believed to be critical, since the United States was executing a new type of war in the Pacific Islands. Their success depended on accurate naval gunfire support that suppressed or destroyed enemy positions as U.S. Marines and soldiers struggled to get ashore. Thousands of soldiers, sailors, Marines, airmen, and coastguardsmen prepared on Kahoʻolawe for the brutal and costly assaults on islands such as the Gilbert and Marshall Islands, the Marianas and Pelileu, New Guinea, et cetera, in the Western Pacific.

Military and naval training on Kahoʻolawe continued following World War II. During the Korean War, warplanes from aircraft carriers played a critical role in attacking enemy airfields, convoys, and troop staging areas. Mock-ups of airfields, military camps, and vehicles were constructed on Kahoʻolawe, and while pilots were preparing for war at Barbers Point Naval Air Station on Oʻahu, they practiced spotting and hitting the mock-ups at Kahoʻolawe. Similar training took place throughout the Cold War and during the War in Vietnam, with mock-ups of aircraft, radar installations, gun mounts, and surface-to-air missile sites being placed across this island for pilots and bombardiers to use in their training.

In early 1965, the U.S. Navy conducted Operation Sailor Hat to determine the blast resistance of ships. Three tests off the coast of Kahoʻolawe subjected the island and a target ship to massive explosions, with 500 tons of conventional TNT detonated on the island near the target ship USS Atlanta (CL-104). This warship was damaged, but she was not sunk. The blasts created a crater on the island known as "Sailor Man's Cap" and they might have cracked the island's caprock, causing some groundwater to be lost into the ocean.[18]

Operation Protect Kahoʻolawe ʻOhana (PKO)

Aerial view of Kaho‘olawe, Molokini, and the Makena side of Maui

In 1976, a group of individuals calling themselves the Protect Kahoʻolawe ʻOhana (PKO) filed suit in U.S. Federal Court to stop the Navy's use of Kahoʻolawe for bombardment training, to require compliance with a number of new environmental laws and to ensure protection of cultural resources on the island. In 1977, the U.S. District Court for the District of Hawaii allowed the Navy's use of this island to continue, but the Court directed the Navy to prepare an environmental impact statement and to complete an inventory of historic sites on the island.

The effort to regain Kaho‘olawe from the U.S. Navy began as a new wave of political awareness and activism was inspired within the Hawaiian community.[19] Charles Maxwell and other community leaders began to plan a coordinated effort to land on the island, which was still under Navy control. The effort for the "first landing" began in Waikapu (Maui) on January 5, 1976. Over 50 people from across the Hawaiian islands, including a range of cultural leaders, gathered on Maui with the goal of "invading" Kahoʻolawe on January 6, 1976. The date was selected because of its association with the United States' bicentennial anniversary.

As the larger group headed towards the island, they were intercepted by military craft. "The Kaho‘olawe Nine" continued and successfully landed on the island. They were Walter Ritte, Emmett Aluli, George Helm, Gail Kawaipuna Prejean, Stephen K. Morse, Kimo Aluli, Ellen Miles, Ian Lind, and Karla Villalba of the Puyallup/Muckleshoot tribe (Washington State).[20] The effort to retake Kaho‘olawe would eventually claim the lives of George Helm and Kimo Mitchell. In an effort to reach Kaho‘olawe, Helm and Mitchell (who were also accompanied by Billy Mitchell, no relation) ran into severe weather and were unable to reach the island. Despite extensive rescue and recovery efforts, they were never recovered. Ritte became a leader in the Hawaiian community, coordinating community efforts including for water rights, opposition to land development, and the protection of marine animals and ocean resources.[21]

Kahoʻolawe Island Archeological District

Kahoʻolawe Island Archeological District
Kahoolawe is located in Hawaii
NRHP reference #81000205[22]
Added to NRHPMarch 18, 1981

On March 18, 1981, the entire island of Kahoʻolawe was added to the National Register of Historic Places. At that time, the Kahoʻolawe Archaeological District was noted to contain 544 recorded archaeological or historic sites and over 2,000 individual features. As part of the soil conservation efforts, Mike Ruppe, an Army Specialist on loan from Schofield Barracks, plus other military personnel, laid lines of explosives, detonating them to break the hardpan so that seedling trees could be planted. Used car tires were taken to Kahoʻolawe and placed in miles of deep gullies to slow the washing of red soil from the barren uplands to the surrounding shores. Ordnance and scrap metal was picked up by hand and then transported by large trucks to a collection site.[23]

End of live-fire training

In 1990, President George H. W. Bush ordered an end to live-fire training on the island. The U.S. Department of Defense Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 1991 established the Kahoʻolawe Island Conveyance Commission to recommend terms and conditions for the conveyance of Kahoʻolawe from the U.S. government to the state of Hawaii.

Transfer of title and UXO cleanup

Starr 030731-0121 Prosopis pallida
Navy sign in Honokanaia

In 1993, Senator Daniel Inouye of Hawaii sponsored Title X of the Fiscal Year 1994 for the Department of Defense appropriation bill, directing that the U.S. government to convey Kahoʻolawe and its surrounding waters to the state of Hawaii. Title X also established the objective of a "clearance or removal of unexploded ordnance (UXO)" and the environmental restoration of the island, to provide "meaningful safe use of the island for appropriate cultural, historical, archaeological, and educational purposes, as determined by the State of Hawaii."[23] In turn, the Legislature of Hawaii created the Kahoʻolawe Island Reserve Commission to exercise policy and management oversight of the Kahoʻolawe Island Reserve. As directed by Title X and in accordance with a required memorandum of understanding between the U.S. Navy and the state of Hawaii, the Navy transferred the title to the land of Kahoʻolawe to the state of Hawaii on May 9, 1994.

As required by Title X, the U.S. Navy retained access control to the island until the clearance and environmental restoration projects were completed, or until November 11, 2003, whichever came first. The state agreed to prepare a use plan for Kahoʻolawe and the Navy agreed to develop a cleanup plan based on that use plan and to implement that plan to the extent Congress provided funds for that purpose.

In July 1997, the Navy awarded a contract to the Parsons/UXB Joint Venture to clear unexploded ordnance from the island to the extent funds were provided by Congress.[24] After the state and public review of the Navy cleanup plan, Parsons/UXB began their work on the island in November 1998.

From 1998 to 2003, the U.S. Navy executed a large-scale, but limited, removal of unexploded ordnance and other environmental hazards from Kahoʻolawe.[25] Since the clearance did not completely remove all the hazardous and dangerous materials from the island, a residual level of danger remains. The Kahoʻolawe Island Reserve Commission developed a plan to manage the residual risk to reserve users and to carry out a safety program, and to establish stewardship organizations to work in conjunction with the commission.[25]

Kahoʻolawe Island Reserve

In 1993, the Hawaiian State Legislature established the Kahoʻolawe Island Reserve, consisting of "the entire island and its surrounding ocean waters in a two mile (three km) radius from the shore". By state law, Kahoʻolawe and its waters can be used only for Native Hawaiian cultural, spiritual, and subsistence purposes; fishing; environmental restoration; historic preservation; and education. All commercial uses are prohibited.

Kahoolawe vegetation
Kahoʻolawe vegetation

The legislature also created the Kahoʻolawe Island Reserve Commission to manage the reserve while it is held in trust for a future Native Hawaiian sovereign entity.[26] The restoration of Kahoʻolawe will require a strategy to control erosion, re-establish vegetation, recharge the water table, and gradually replace alien plants with native species. Plans will include methods for damming gullies and reducing rainwater runoff. In some areas, non-native plants will temporarily stabilize soils before planting of permanent native species. Species used for revegetation include ʻaʻaliʻi (Dodonaea viscosa), ʻāheahea (Chenopodium oahuense), kuluʻī (Nototrichium sandwicense), Achyranthes splendens, ʻūlei (Osteomeles anthyllidifolia), kāmanomano (Cenchrus agrimonioides var. agrimonioides), koaiʻa (Acacia koaia), and alaheʻe (Psydrax odorata).[27]

Kahoolawe restoration work
Irrigation tubing running atop the red soil of Kahoʻolawe as a crew works to plant new life in the hard-packed ground.

Traditional subdivisions

Traditionally, Kahoʻolawe has been an ahupuaʻa of Honuaʻula,[28] one of the twelve moku of the island (mokupuni) of Maui,[29] and was subdivided into twelve ʻili that were later combined to eight. [30][31] The eight ʻili are listed below, in counterclockwise sequence, and original area figures in acres, starting in the northeast:[32]

Kahoolawe - Map of the Administrative Divisions
Topographical map of Kahoʻolawe with traditional ʻili subdivisions

The boundaries of all but the two westernmost ʻili converge on the crater rim of Lua Makika, but do not include it. The crater area of Lua Makika is not considered an ʻili and does not belong to any ʻili.

According to other sources, the island was subdivided into 16 ahupuaʻa that belonged to three moku, namely Kona, Ko’olau and Molokini.[33]

See also


  1. ^ "Kahoʻolawe". Kumukahi. Retrieved 2018-03-06.
  2. ^ Shearer, Barbara Smith (2002). "Chapter 6 - State and Territory Flowers". State Names, Seals, Flags, and Symbols: a Historical Guide (3 ed.). Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-313-31534-3.
  3. ^ Dictionary.com
  4. ^ "Table 5.08 - Land Area of Islands: 2000" (PDF). 2004 State of Hawaii Data Book. State of Hawaii. 2004. Retrieved 2007-07-23.
  5. ^ "Table 5.11 - Elevations of Major Summits" (PDF). 2004 State of Hawaii Data Book. State of Hawaii. 2004. Retrieved 2007-07-23.
  6. ^ "Kahoolawe" (PDF). Hawaii's Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy. Hawaii Division of Land and Natural Resources.
  7. ^ Robert C. Schmitt and Carol L. Silva: Population Trends on Kahoolawe
  8. ^ Block Group 9, Census Tract 303.02, Maui County United States Census Bureau
  9. ^ Sherrod, David R.; Sinton, John M.; Watkins, Sarah E.; Brunt, Kelly M. (2007). Geologic Map of the State of Hawai‘i, Sheet 6—Island of Kaho‘olawe (PDF). USGS.
  10. ^ Sherrod, David R.; Sinton, John M.; Watkins, Sarah E.; Brunt, Kelly M. (2007). Geologic Map of the State of Hawai‘i (PDF). USGS ; Open-File Report 2007-1089.
  11. ^ "KAHOOLAWE 499.6, HAWAII (512558)". Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved September 27, 2019.
  12. ^ "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  13. ^ Macdonald, Gordon Andrew; Agatin Townsend Abbott; Frank L. Peterson (1983). Volcanoes in the Sea: the Geology of Hawaii (2 ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 401. ISBN 978-0-8248-0832-7.
  14. ^ McGregor, Davianna (2007). "Chapter 6 - Kahoolawe: Rebirth of the Sacred". Nā Kuaʻāina: Living Hawaiian Culture. University of Hawaii Press. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-8248-2946-9.
  15. ^ Merlin, Mark D.; James O. Juvik (1992). Charles P. Stone; Clifford W. Smith; J. Timothy Tunison (eds.). Alien Plant Invasions in Native Ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and Research (PDF). p. 602.CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
  16. ^ "Population Trends on Kahoolawe" (PDF). Census.gov. Retrieved September 27, 2019.
  17. ^ Fornander, Abraham (1880). An Account of the Polynesian Race: Its Origins and Migrations, and the Ancient History of the Hawaiian People to the Times of Kamehameha I. London: Trübner & Co. pp. 156–157.
  18. ^ Sarhangi, Sheila (November 2006). "Saving Kahoolawe". Honolulu Magazine. PacificBasin Communications.
  19. ^ Luci Yamamoto (2006). Kaua'i. Lonely Planet. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-74059-096-9.
  20. ^ "Kahoolawe 9". firstlandingmovie.com. Retrieved June 15, 2014.
  21. ^ Mooallem, Jon (May 8, 2013). "Who Would Kill a Monk Seal?". The New York Times. Retrieved June 15, 2014.
  22. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. April 15, 2008.
  23. ^ a b U. S. Navy, “Kaho`olawe Island Reserve UXO Clearance Project Cleanup Plan”
  24. ^ "Navy Concludes Operations on Hawaiian Island of Kaho'olawe". From Commander, Navy Region Hawaii Public Affairs. U.S. Navy. April 16, 2004. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
  25. ^ a b "Stewardship Agreement" (PDF). Kahoʻolawe Island Reserve USGS Open File Reports. Kahoʻolawe Island Reserve Commission. April 7, 2009. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
  26. ^ Kahoolawe Island Reserve Commission
  27. ^ Enomoto, Kekoa Catherine (February 17, 2008). "Volunteers visit regreened Kahoolawe". The Maui News. Retrieved November 29, 2016.
  28. ^ "Native Hawaiian Land Division - Haleakalā National Park". Nps.gov. Retrieved 2012-06-17.
  29. ^ http://www.kumupono.com/library%20selections/Kaeo-Honuaula/kaeo-honuaula.pdf
  30. ^ Kaho`olawe Island Reserve Commission: Volunteer Packet, page 4
  31. ^ Scott Broadbent: Kaho‘olawe Uncovered. Part one in a series about Maui County’s most mysterious isle. Maui Weekly, November 11, 2010 Archived November 14, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  33. ^ Aha Kiole Advisory Committee (2008-12-29). "Report to the Twenty-Fifth Legislature, 2009 Regular Session, Final Report" (PDF). p. 43. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2018-04-05. Retrieved 2018-04-05.


  • Coffman, Tom (2003). The Island Edge of America: A Political History of Hawai'i. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2662-0.
  • Juvik, Sonia P.; James O. Juvik; Thomas R. Paradise (1998). Atlas of Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2125-8.
  • Levin, Wayne; Roland B. Reeve (1995). Kaho'olawe Na Leo O Kanaloa: Chants and Stories of Kaho'olawe. ʻAi Pohaku Press. ISBN 1-883528-01-1.
  • MacDonald, Peter (1972). "Fixed in Time: A Brief History of Kahoolawe". Hawaiian Journal of History. Honolulu: Hawaiian Historical Society. 6: 69–90. hdl:10125/6328.
  • Napier, A. Kam (November 2006). "On Kahoʻolawe". Honolulu Magazine. PacificBasin Communications.
  • Ritte, Jr., Walter; Sawyer, Richard (1978). Na Manaʻo Aloha o Kahoʻolawe: Hawaiʻi Warriors Love for Land and Culture. Honolulu, HI, USA: Aloha 'Aina o na Kupuna, Inc. ASIN B0006Y07P8. OCLC 8661294.
  • Sano, H; Sherrod, D; Tagami, T (2006). "Youngest volcanism about 1 million years ago at Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii". Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. PacificBasin Communications. 152 (1–2): 91–96. Bibcode:2006JVGR..152...91S. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2005.10.001.
  • Tavares, Hannibal M.; Noa Emmett Aluli; A. Frenchy DeSoto; James A. Kelly; H. Howard Stephenson (1993). Kaho'olawe Island: Restoring a Cultural Treasure. Final Report of the Kaho'olawe Island Conveyance Commission to the Congress of the United States. Kaho'olawe Island Conveyance Commission.

External links

Coordinates: 20°33′N 156°36′W / 20.550°N 156.600°W


Ahupuaʻa is a Hawaiian term for a large traditional socioeconomic, geologic, and climatic subdivision of land (comparable to the tapere in the Southern Cook Islands).

George Helm

George Jarrett Helm, Jr. (born March 23, 1950 – disappeared March 7, 1977) was a Native Hawaiian activist and musician from Kalamaʻula, Molokaʻi, Hawaii. He graduated from St. Louis High School on Oʻahu, about which he said, "I came to Honolulu to get educated. Instead I lost my innocence." While at St. Louis, he studied under Hawaiian cultural expert John Kahauanu Lake, and achieved mastery in vocal performance and guitar.

Hawaiian Islands

The Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian: Mokupuni o Hawai‘i) are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some 1,500 miles (2,400 kilometers) from the island of Hawaiʻi in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll. Formerly the group was known to Europeans and Americans as the Sandwich Islands, a name chosen by James Cook in honor of the then First Lord of the Admiralty John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. The contemporary name is derived from the name of the largest island, Hawaii Island.

Although Hawaii is now a U.S. state, it is only a part of the U.S. politically and not geographically connected to North America. The state of Hawaii occupies the archipelago almost in its entirety (including the uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands), with the sole exception of Midway Island, which instead separately belongs to the United States as one of its unincorporated territories within the United States Minor Outlying Islands.

The Hawaiian Islands are the exposed peaks of a great undersea mountain range known as the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, formed by volcanic activity over a hotspot in the Earth's mantle. The islands are about 1,860 miles (3,000 km) from the nearest continent.

Hawaiian religion

Hawaiian religion encompasses the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of Native Hawaiians. It is polytheistic and animistic, with a belief in many deities and spirits, including the belief that spirits are found in non-human beings and objects such as other animals, the waves, and the sky.

Hawaiian religion originated among the Tahitians and other Pacific islanders who landed in Hawaiʻi between 500 and 1300 AD. Today, Hawaiian religious practices are protected by the American Indian Religious Freedom Act. Traditional Hawaiian religion is unrelated to the modern New Age practice known as "Huna."

Hawaiian sovereignty movement

The Hawaiian sovereignty movement (Hawaiian: ke ea Hawaiʻi) is a grassroots political and cultural campaign to gain sovereignty, self-determination and self-governance for Hawaiians of whole or part Native Hawaiian ancestry with an autonomous or independent nation or kingdom. Some groups also advocate some form of redress from the United States for the 1893 overthrow of Queen Liliʻuokalani, and for what is described as a prolonged military occupation beginning with the 1898 annexation. The movement generally views both the overthrow and annexation as illegal. Palmyra Island and the Stewart Islands were annexed by the Kingdom in the 1860s and are regarded by the movement as being under illegal occupation along with the Hawaiian Islands. The Apology Resolution passed by the United States Congress in 1993 acknowledged that the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1893 was an illegal act.Sovereignty advocates have attributed problems plaguing native communities including homelessness, poverty, economic marginalization, and the erosion of native traditions to the lack of native governance and political self-determination. They have pursued their agenda through educational initiatives and legislative actions. Along with protests throughout the islands, at the capitol itself as well as the places and locations held as sacred to Hawaiian culture, sovereignty activists have challenged United States forces and law.

Hawaiian tropical dry forests

The Hawaiian tropical dry forests are a tropical dry broadleaf forest ecoregion in the Hawaiian Islands. They cover an area of 6,600 km2 (2,500 sq mi) on the leeward side of the main islands and the summits of Niʻihau and Kahoʻolawe. These forests are either seasonal or sclerophyllous. Annual rainfall is less than 127 cm (50 in) and may be as low as 25 cm (9.8 in); the rainy season lasts from November to March. Dominant tree species include koa (Acacia koa), koaiʻa (A. koaia), ʻakoko (Euphorbia spp.), ʻōhiʻa lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha), lonomea (Sapindus oahuensis), māmane (Sophora chrysophylla), loulu (Pritchardia spp.), lama (Diospyros sandwicensis), olopua (Nestegis sandwicensis), wiliwili (Erythrina sandwicensis), and ʻiliahi (Santalum spp.). Endemic plant species in the dry forests include hau heleʻula (Kokia cookei), uhiuhi (Caesalpinia kavaiensis), and Gouania spp. The palila (Loxioides bailleui), a Hawaiian honeycreeper, is restricted to this type of habitat.


In Hawaiian mythology, Ka-moho-aliʻi is a shark god and a brother of Kāne Milohai, Pele, Kapo, Nāmaka and Hiʻiaka.

Ka-moho-aliʻi swam in the area around the islands of Maui and Kahoʻolawe. When a ship was lost at sea, Ka-moho-aliʻi shook his tail in front of the fleet and the kahuna would feed him "awa" (a name for kava, a narcotic drink), and Ka-moho-aliʻi would guide the men home. He is sometimes said to have guided the ships of the original inhabitants of Hawaii from the mainland to their island home in this way.

Ka-moho-aliʻi had the power to take on the form of any fish.

King Kamehameha I Day

King Kamehameha I Day on June 11 is a public holiday in the U.S. state of Hawaii. It honors Kamehameha the Great, the monarch who first established the unified Kingdom of Hawaiʻi—comprising the Hawaiian Islands of Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe, Maui, and Hawaiʻi. In 1883 a statue of King Kamehameha was dedicated in Honolulu by King David Kalākaua (this was a duplicate, because the original statue was temporarily lost at sea but was recovered and is now located in North Kohala, island of Hawaiʻi). There are duplicates of this statue in Emancipation Hall at the Capitol Visitor Center in Washington, D.C. and in Hilo, island of Hawaiʻi.

Lahaina Roads

Lahaina Roads, also called the Lahaina Roadstead is a channel of the Pacific Ocean in the Hawaiian Islands. The surrounding islands of Maui, and Lānaʻi (and to a lesser extent, Molokaʻi and Kahoʻolawe) make it a sheltered anchorage.

Through the 1940s, Lahaina Roads was an alternative anchorage to Pearl Harbor. While planning for the attack on the U.S. Pacific Fleet, Japanese planners hoped that some significant units would be at anchor there. With Lahaina's deep water, any elements of the Pacific Fleet that were sunk there in all likelihood would never have been recovered.

It is located around the area 20°52′0″N 156°44′0″W, off the coast of the town of Lahaina.

The possibility that elements of the Pacific Fleet would be at Lahaina Anchorage was taken seriously in the plan of the Kido Butai (the Japanese naval strike force) for the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. Scout planes were dispatched from the fleet, and I class submarines were sent to Lahaina Roads to reconnoiter the anchorage.The name is also used for a vacation condominium complex in Lahaina.

Lynn DeCoite

Lynn DeCoitte (born May 9, 1964) is a member of the Hawaii House of Representatives for District 13 appointed by Governor David Ige to fill the vacancy left by the resignation of the late Representative Mele Carroll after the 2015 legislative session began. A former member of the Hawaii State Board of Agriculture, she resigned her position when appointed.

District 13 is a rural district encompassing parts of Maui on three inhabited islands:

Parts of Maui island: Haiku, Hāna, Kaupo, Kīpahulu, Nahiku, Pāʻia

All of Lānaʻi, and

All of MolokaʻiThe district also represents the uninhabited islands of Kahoʻolawe and Molokini.

DeCoite is a resident of Hoolehua, Molokai and owns L&R Farm Enterprises and RJ Snacks.DeCoitte has been appointed to five House committees:


Economic Development & Business



Veterans, Military, & International Affairs, & Culture and the Arts

Makena State Park

Mākena State Park comprises 165 acres (0.7 km2) in Makena, south of Wailea on the island of Maui, Hawaii. It contains three separate beaches and a dormant volcanic cinder cone.

Big Beach, also known as "Oneloa Beach" and "Mākena Beach", is a popular spot for sunbathing and bodyboarding by both tourists and locals. Big Beach is 1.5 miles (2.4 km) long and more than 100 feet (30 m) wide. The shore is fairly protected from wind. The "Makena cloud" that stretches from the top of Haleakalā to Kahoʻolawe is often overhead, cooling the sand.

Little Beach, also known as "Puʻu Ōlaʻi Beach" is a small beach just North of Big Beach separated by a steep lava outcropping (the tip of Puʻu Ōlaʻi) and a 5-minute hike. On Sunday afternoons/evenings Little Beach is host to celebratory drumming and fire dancing. The beach is only 660 feet (200 m) long and can seem crowded at peak times. Little Beach is one of the few Hawaiian beaches where local police tolerate nude sunbathing, though the proliferation of video cameras and cell phones has greatly reduced the number of people who take it all off. (Another is Red Sand Beach near Hāna).

Oneʻuli Beach or Naupaka Beach is a black sand beach on the northern end of the park, closest to Makena.Puʻu Ōlaʻi is a dormant volcanic cinder cone in the center of the park with a height of 360 feet (110 m).

It is located on Mākena Road at 20°37′52″N 156°26′46″W.

Just to the south is the ʻAhihi Kinaʻu Natural Area Reserve.


The island of Maui (; Hawaiian: [ˈmɐwwi]) is the second-largest of the Hawaiian Islands at 727.2 square miles (1,883 km2) and is the 17th largest island in the United States. Maui is part of the State of Hawaii and is the largest of Maui County's four islands, which include Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, and unpopulated Kahoʻolawe. In 2010, Maui had a population of 144,444, third-highest of the Hawaiian Islands, behind that of Oʻahu and Hawaiʻi Island. Kahului is the largest census-designated place (CDP) on the island with a population of 26,337 as of 2010 and is the commercial and financial hub of the island. Wailuku is the seat of Maui County and is the third-largest CDP as of 2010. Other significant places include Kīhei (including Wailea and Makena in the Kihei Town CDP, the island's second-most-populated CDP), Lahaina (including Kāʻanapali and Kapalua in the Lahaina Town CDP), Makawao, Pukalani, Pāʻia, Kula, Haʻikū, and Hāna.

Maui Nui

Maui Nui or Greater Maui, is a modern geologists' name given to a prehistoric Hawaiian Island built from seven shield volcanoes. Nui means "great/large" in the Hawaiian language.

1.2 million years ago, Maui Nui was 14,600 square kilometres (5,600 sq mi), 40% larger than the present-day island of Hawaiʻi. Sea levels were lower than today's, due to distant glaciation locking up the Earth's water during ice ages, thus exposing more land. As the volcanoes slowly settled by subsidence, due to the weight of the shield volcanoes and erosion, the saddles between them slowly flooded, forming four islands: Maui, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, and Kahoʻolawe by about 200,000 years ago. Another former volcanic island lying west of Molokaʻi was completely submerged, and covered with a cap of coral; it is now known as Penguin Bank.

The sea floor between these four islands is relatively shallow, about 500 metres (1,600 ft) deep, and all of the islands except Kahoʻolawe were joined during the low sea levels of the last glacial maximum, about 20,000 years ago. But at the outer edges of former Maui Nui, as with the edges of all Hawaiian Islands, the sea floor plummets to the abyssal ocean floor of the Pacific Ocean. The steep slopes can result in massive landslides due to flank collapse, including one which removed most of the northern half of East Molokaʻi.

Administratively, the current islands remaining from Maui Nui comprise Maui County (except a tiny part of Molokaʻi, which comprises Kalawao County).

Mayor of Maui County

The Mayor of Maui County is the chief executive officer of the County of Maui in the state of Hawaii. He or she has municipal jurisdiction over the islands of Kahoolawe, Lanai, Maui and Molokai. The Mayor of Maui County is the successor of the Royal Governor of Maui of the Kingdom of Hawaii.

The current mayor of Maui County is former Maui County Council member Michael Victorino, who was first elected in November 2018. He was preceded by Alan Arakawa, who was first elected in November 2003, then voted out of office in 2006, and re-elected in 2010. Prominent former mayors include Linda Lingle, the sixth governor of Hawaii and first woman governor, who was mayor from 1991 to 1999.

Michael D. Wilson

Michael D. Wilson was appointed to the Hawaii Supreme Court on April 14, 2014, for a term set to expire on April 16, 2024. Prior to being appointed to the Hawaii Supreme Court, Wilson served as a Circuit Court judge for the Hawaii First Circuit. He previously served as the director of the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, chair of the Board of Land and Natural Resources, chair of the State Water Commission and a trustee of the Kahoolawe Island Reserve Commission.


Molokini is a crescent-shaped, partially submerged volcanic crater which forms a small, uninhabited islet located in ʻAlalākeiki Channel between the islands of Maui and Kahoʻolawe, within Maui County in Hawaiʻi.

It is the remains of one of the seven Pleistocene epoch volcanoes that formed the prehistoric Maui Nui island, during the Quaternary Period of the Cenozoic Era.

The islet has an area of 23 acres (9.3 ha), a diameter of about 0.4 miles (0.6 km), is 161 feet (50 m) at its highest point and is located about 2.5 miles (4.0 km) west of Makena State Park and south of Maʻalaea Bay.

The islet is a Hawaiʻi State Seabird Sanctuary.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Hawaii

This is a list of properties and historic districts in Hawaii listed on the National Register of Historic Places. More than 340 listings appear on all but one of Hawaii's main islands (Niihau being the exception) and the Northwestern Islands, and in all of its five counties. Included are houses, schools, archeological sites, ships, shipwrecks and various other types of listings. These properties and districts are listed by island, beginning at the northwestern end of the chain.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted October 18, 2019.

Operation Sailor Hat

Operation Sailor Hat was a series of explosives effects tests, conducted by the United States Navy Bureau of Ships under the sponsorship of the Defense Atomic Support Agency. The tests consisted of two underwater explosions at San Clemente Island, California in 1964 and three surface explosions at Kahoʻolawe, Hawaii in 1965. They were non-nuclear tests employing large quantities of conventional explosives (i.e. TNT) to determine the effects of a nuclear weapon blast on naval vessels, and the first major test of this kind since Operation Crossroads in July 1946.

Each "Sailor Hat" test at Kahoʻolawe consisted of a dome-stacked 500-short-ton (454 t) charge of TNT high explosive detonated on the shore close to the ships under test. However, since a TNT detonation releases energy more slowly than a nuclear explosion, the blast effect was equivalent to a 1 kiloton of TNT (4.2 TJ) nuclear weapon. The main ship used for testing was the former Cleveland-class light cruiser USS Atlanta. In addition, the guided-missile frigates USS England and USS Dale, the guided-missile destroyers USS Cochrane, USS Benjamin Stoddert, and USS Towers, and the Royal Canadian Navy's escort destroyer HMCS Fraser all participated in the trial. These were a mixture of the obsolete, Atlanta being built during WWII, and the recently constructed Cochrane. The highly complex operation yielded data useful for determining and improving blast resistance of naval ships.

Osteomeles anthyllidifolia

Osteomeles anthyllidifolia, commonly called ʻŪlei, eluehe, uʻulei, Hawaiian rose, or Hawaiian hawthorn, is a species of flowering shrub in the rose family, Rosaceae, that is indigenous to Hawaiʻi (all islands but Kahoʻolawe and Niʻihau), the Cook Islands, Tonga, Pitcairn Island, and Rapa Iti, Taiwan and the Ryukyu islands of Japan.

Climate data for Kahoʻolawe
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 89
Mean maximum °F (°C) 78.2
Average high °F (°C) 73.8
Average low °F (°C) 64.9
Mean minimum °F (°C) 61.6
Record low °F (°C) 59
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.44
Source #1: [11]
Source #2: [12]
 State of Hawaii
Main islands
Sovereignty Movement
Islands, municipalities, and communities of Maui County, Hawaii, United States
Notable eruptions
and vents


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