Kagoshima (鹿児島市 Kagoshima-shi, Japanese: [ka̠ɡo̞ɕima̠]) is the capital city of Kagoshima Prefecture at the south western tip of the island of Kyushu in Japan, and the largest city in the prefecture by some margin. It has been nicknamed the "Naples of the Eastern world" for its bay location (Aira Caldera), hot climate, and emblematic stratovolcano, Sakurajima. The city was officially founded on April 1, 1889.


Kagoshima City
Kagoshima City Skyline and Sakurajima
Kagoshima City Skyline and Sakurajima
Flag of Kagoshima

Official seal of Kagoshima

"City of Ishin"
Location of Kagoshima in Kagoshima Prefecture
Location of Kagoshima in Kagoshima Prefecture
Kagoshima is located in Japan
Kagoshima is located in Asia
Kagoshima (Asia)
Kagoshima is located in Earth
Kagoshima (Earth)
Coordinates: 31°36′N 130°33′E / 31.600°N 130.550°ECoordinates: 31°36′N 130°33′E / 31.600°N 130.550°E
PrefectureKagoshima Prefecture
 • MayorHiroyuki Mori
 • Total547.58 km2 (211.42 sq mi)
 (June 1, 2019)
 • Total595,692
 • Density1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
– TreeCamphor
– FlowerKyōchikutō
Phone number099-224-1111
Address11-1 Yamashita-machi, Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima-ken 892-8677
Kagoshima (Chinese characters)
"Kagoshima" in kanji
Japanese name


Bombing of Kagoshima Map - 1863
Map of the Bombardment of Kagoshima on 15 to 18 August 1863
Kagoshima 1914
The city covered deep in ash after the 1914 eruption of the Sakurajima volcano which is seen in the distance across the bay

Kagoshima Prefecture (also known as the Satsuma Domain) was the center of the territory of the Shimazu clan for many centuries. It was a busy political and commercial port city throughout the medieval period and into the Edo period (1603–1868) when it formally became the capital of the Shimazu's fief, the Satsuma Domain. The official emblem is a modification of the Shimazu's kamon designed to resemble the character 市 (shi, "city"). Satsuma remained one of the most powerful and wealthiest domains in the country throughout the period, and though international trade was banned for much of this period, the city remained quite active and prosperous. It served not only as the political center for Satsuma, but also for the semi-independent vassal kingdom of Ryūkyū; Ryūkyūan traders and emissaries frequented the city, and a special Ryukyuan embassy building was established to help administer relations between the two polities and to house visitors and emissaries. Kagoshima was also a significant center of Christian activity in Japan prior to the imposition of bans against that religion in the late 16th and early 17th centuries.

Kagoshima was bombarded by the British Royal Navy in 1863 to punish the daimyō of Satsuma for the murder of Charles Lennox Richardson on the Tōkaidō highway the previous year and its refusal to pay an indemnity in compensation.

Kagoshima was the birthplace and scene of the last stand of Saigō Takamori, a legendary figure in Meiji Era Japan in 1877 at the end of the Satsuma Rebellion.

Japan's industrial revolution is said to have started here, stimulated by the young students' train station. Seventeen young men of Satsuma broke the Tokugawa ban on foreign travel, traveling first to England and then the United States before returning to share the benefits of the best of Western science and technology.[1] A statue was erected outside the train station as a tribute to them.

Kagoshima was also the birthplace of Tōgō Heihachirō. After naval studies in England between 1871 and 1878, Togo's role as Chief Admiral of the Grand Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy in the Russo-Japanese War made him a legend in Japanese military history, and earned him the nickname 'Nelson of the Orient' in Britain. He led the Grand Fleet to two startling victories in 1904 and 1905, completely destroying Russia as a naval power in the East, and thereby contributing to the failed revolution in Russia in 1905.

The Japanese diplomat Sadomitsu Sakoguchi revolutionized Kagoshima's environmental economic plan with his dissertation on water pollution and orange harvesting.

The 1914 eruption of the volcano across the bay from the city spread ash throughout the municipality, but relatively little disruption ensued.[2]

World War II

On the night of June 17, 1945 the 314th bombardment wing of the Army Air Corps (120 B-29s) dropped 809.6 tons of incendiary and cluster bombs destroying 2.11 square miles (5.46 km2) of Kagoshima (44.1 percent of the built-up area). Kagoshima was targeted because of its largely expanded naval port as well as its position as a railway terminus. A single B-29 was lost to unknown circumstances. Area bombing was chosen over precision bombing because of the cloudy weather over Japan during the middle of June. The planes were forced to navigate and bomb entirely by radar.[3]

Japanese intelligence predicted that the Allied Forces would assault Kagoshima and the Ariake Bay areas of southern Kyushu to gain naval and air-bases to strike Tokyo.


Kagoshima City is approximately 40 minutes from Kagoshima Airport, and features shopping districts and malls located wide across the city. Transportation options in the city include the Shinkansen (bullet train), local train, city trams, buses, and ferries to-and-from Sakurajima. The large and modern Kagoshima City Aquarium, situated near a shopping district known as "Dolphin Port" and the Sakurajima Ferry Terminal, was established in 1997 along the docks and offers a direct view of Sakurajima. One of the best places to view the city (and Sakurajima) is from the Amuran Ferris wheel atop of Amu Plaza Kagoshima, and the shopping center attached to the central Kagoshima-Chūō Station. Just outside the city is the early-Edo Period Sengan-en Japanese Garden. The garden was originally a villa belonging to the Shimazu clan and is still maintained by descendants today. Outside the garden grounds is a Satsuma "kiriko" cut-glass factory where visitors are welcome to view the glass blowing and cutting processes, and the Shoko Shūseikan Museum, which was built in 1865 and registered as a National Historic Site in 1959. The former Shuseikan industrial complex and the former machine factory were submitted to the UNESCO World Heritage as part of a group list titled Modern Industrial Heritage Sites in Kyushu and Yamaguchi Prefecture.

Administrative division

  • On August 1, 1934 – the Villages of Yoshino, Nakagōriu and Nishitakeda, all from Kagoshima District, were merged into Kagoshima.[4]
  • On October 1, 1950 – the Villages of Ishiki and Higashisakurajima (both from Kagoshima District) were merged into Kagoshima.[4]
  • On April 29, 1967 – the Cities of Kagoshima and Taniyama were merged and became city of new Kagoshima.[5]
  • On November 1, 2004 – the Towns of Yoshida and Sakurajima (both from Kagoshima District); the Towns of Matsumoto and Koriyama (both from Hioki District); and the town of Kiire (from Ibusuki District) were merged into Kagoshima.

Neighboring Municipalities


Kagoshima has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), possessing the highest year average temperature and winter average temperature in mainland Japan. It is marked by mild, relatively dry winters, warm, wet springs, hot, wet summers and mild, and relatively dry falls.


As of 1 June 2019, Kagoshima City has an estimated population of 595,692 and a population density of 1,088 persons per km². The total area is 547.58 km2 (211 sq mi). According to the April 2014 issue of the Kagoshima Prefectural Summary by the Kagoshima Prefecture Department of Planning and Promotion, the population of the prefecture at large was 1,680,319. The city's total area nearly doubled between 2003 and 2005 as a result of five towns: the towns of Kōriyama and Matsumoto (both from Hioki District) the town of Kiire (from Ibusuki District) and the towns of Sakurajima and Yoshida (both from Kagoshima District). All areas were merged into Kagoshima City on 1 November 2004.


An image taken from the International Space Station showing Kagoshima and its surroundings on January 10, 2013


Kagoshima Prefecture has a distinct and rich food culture. The warm weather and diverse environments allow for the agriculture and aquaculture of Kagoshima to thrive and gain nationwide and worldwide recognition for unique and quality products. Numerous restaurants around Kagoshima feature Satsuma Province local cuisine. Popular cuisine incorporating local agriculture include kibinago sashimi (silver-striped herring), buri Amberjack, kampachi yellowtail, "Black Label Products" such as kuro-ushi Wagyu beef, kuro-buta Berkshire pork dishes, and kuro-Satsuma jidori chicken (sometimes served as raw, chicken sashimi); smoked eel, keihan, and miki (fermented rice milk consumed among residents of the Amami Islands).

Satsuma age

Satsuma age, or deep-fried fish cake, comes in great variety in Kagoshima. Though the deep-fried fishcake can be found throughout the country, the Satsuma Domain (modern-day Kagoshima Prefecture) is commonly believed to be the birthplace of the snack. It is said, though, the concept was introduced from the Ryūkyū Kingdom (modern-day Okinawa Prefecture) by Satsuma Lord, Nariakira Shimazu.


There are many types of sweets produced in Kagoshima Prefecture. Kagoshima-based Seika Foods Co., Ltd. (セイカ食品株式会社 Seika shokuhin kabushiki-kaisha) has produced some of Japan's most popular and timeless sweets such as hyōroku mochi Bontan Ame (ボンタンアメ), Satsuma Imo Caramel (さつまいもキャラメル), and green tea-flavored Hyōroku mochi, Minami "shirokuma" shaved ice desserts, etc. Traditional treats outside of Seika Food Co., Ltd. products include karukan (sweet cakes made from steamed yams and rice flour), jambo-mochi, kokutō brown sugar from the Amami Islands, getanha brown sugar cake, etc.


Kagoshima City Hall 1
Kagoshima City Hall

In 1559, at Kōriyama Hachiman Shrine (郡山八幡神社) in Izumi City (伊佐市) a carpenter wrote atop a wooden board "the Shintō Priest of this shrine is too stingy to offer me Shōchū (焼酎) showing an early love for the spirits. Kagoshima Prefecture is officially recognized (by the World Trade Organization) as the home to one of the most traditional beverages of Japan, shōchū. In Kagoshima there are 113+ distilleries, producing about 1,500 highly acclaimed brands, placing Kagoshima in the top for production quantity and shipment. While visiting Kagoshima, one may notice labels reading Honkaku-shōchū (本格焼酎). Honkaku-shōchū is a distilled beverage produced with traditional skills using ingredients such as natural spring water, sweet potatoes, locally-grown sugar cane, and grains. There is a variety of honkaku-shōchū including Imo-jōchū (芋焼酎), shōchū distilled from sweet potatoes), Mugi-jōchū (麦焼酎), distilled from barley), Kome-jōchū (米焼酎), distilled from rice), etc. Another type of shōchū is Kokutō-shōchū (黒糖焼酎), shōchū distilled with brown sugar). Shōchū has long gained international favor and has come to be comparable to Bordeaux for wine, Scotch for whiskey, and Cognac for brandy. Also, the Amami Islands of Kagoshima Prefecture are the only areas sanctioned to bear the label of kokutō-shōchū.

Kurozu (黒酢) or black vinegar is another item of the "Black Label Products" of Kagoshima, the other of which is Kokutō-shōchū. There are a number of kurozu farms around Kagoshima, most of which are located around the Kirishima area. Most kurozu farms produce kurozu bottled vinegar (fermented for a single year, 2+ years) along with other items such as salad dressing, powders, capsules, spices, candy, etc. Kurozu also comes in different flavors such as grape, orange, ume plum, etc. though the most popular flavor by far is apple. The farms are open to visitations and often offer tours.


Today, Kagoshima is home to a distinctive dialect of Japanese known as Satsugū dialect (薩隅方言 Satsugū Hōgen) or Kagoshima dialect (鹿児島弁 Kagoshima-ben), differing from the usual Kyushu dialects with its pronunciations of the yotsugana.

Points of interest

Tenmonkan G3 Kagoshima Japan
Tenmonkan G3

Events and festivals

Ohara Festival 2011
Kagoshima Ōhara Dancing Festival in November


High schools


高見馬場 - panoramio
Kagoshima city tram Taniyama Line


All lines are operated by Kyushu Railway Company (JR Kyushu)




  • Kagoshima City Bus
  • Kagoshima Kotsu
  • Iwasaki Bus Network
  • Nangoku Kotsu
  • JR Kyushu bus
  • MTA Bus


  • Sakurajima Ferry
  • A Line (to southern islands)
  • Marix Line (to southern islands)
  • RKK Line (to Okinawa, cargo only)
  • Toppy (to Tanegashima and Yakushima)
  • Seahawk (to Koshikijima Islands)


Kagoshima Airport in Kirishima (35 km (22 miles) NE of Kagoshima)


Kagoshima was one of the host cities of the official 1998 Women's Volleyball World Championship. Kagoshima is home to Kagoshima United. They play their home games at Kagoshima Kamoike Stadium.

International relations

Twin towns and sister cities

Kagoshima is twinned with:[7]



  • Changsha, China (friendship relationship, since 30 October 1982)[7]
  • Miami, United States (since 1 November 1990)[7]
  • Naples, Italy (since 3 May 1960)[7]
  • Perth, Australia (since 23 April 1974)[7]
Napoli Street in Kagoshima

Naples Street in Kagoshima

Perth Street at Kagoshima, Japan

Perth Street in Kagoshima

Miami Street in Kagoshima

Miami Street in Kagoshima

Kyougetsu-Tei Kagoshima Japan

Kyogetsu-Tei (Changsha)

Shimazu clan (Satsuma domain)

1st Family Head- Shimazu Tadahisa – Japanese daimyō, founder of the Shimazu clan, a son of Minamoto no Yoritomo.

Notable people from Kagoshima Prefecture

See also


  1. ^ Blacker, Carmen; Cortazzi, Hugh (1 September 1999). "Collected Writings of Modern Western Scholars on Japan: Carmen Blacker, Hugh Cortazzi and Ben-Ami Shillony". Psychology Press – via Google Books.
  2. ^ "Kagoshima", Illustrated London News. 24 January 1914.
  3. ^ Headquarters, XXI Bomber Command APO 234, "Tactical Mission Report Mission No. 206-209." June 18, 1945.
  4. ^ a b 角川日本地名大辞典 46 鹿児島県 p.678
  5. ^ 角川日本地名大辞典 46 鹿児島県 p.417
  6. ^ 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値). Japan Meteorological Agency.
  7. ^ a b c d e f 姉妹・友好・兄弟都市 [Twin cities]. Kagoshima International Affairs Division (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2013-06-02. Retrieved 2013-08-08.

External links

Amami Ōshima

Amami Ōshima (奄美大島, Okinawan: Uushima (ウーシマ); Amami: Ushima (ウシマ)) is the largest island in the Amami archipelago between Kyūshū and Okinawa. It is one of the Satsunan Islands.The island, 712.35 km2 in area, has a population of approximately 73,000 people. Administratively it is divided into the city of Amami, the towns of Tatsugō, Setouchi, and the villages of Uken and Yamato in Kagoshima Prefecture. Much of the island is within the borders of the Amami Guntō National Park.

Japan National Route 224

National Route 224 is a national highway of Japan connecting Tarumizu, Kagoshima and Kagoshima, Kagoshima in Japan, 14.2 km (8.82 mi) in length.

Japan National Route 3

National Route 3 is a major highway on the island of Kyūshū in Japan. It connects the prefectural capital cities of Kagoshima (Kagoshima Prefecture, Kumamoto (Kumamoto Prefecture), and Fukuoka (Fukuoka Prefecture), passing through Kurume as well.

Its northern terminus is Moji-ku, Kitakyushu, where it meets National Route 2.

The total length of Route 3 is 392.1 km.

Japan National Route 58

National Route 58 (国道58号) is a highway in Japan. This very unusual road has continuous numbering over disconnected segments on the islands of Kyūshū, Tanegashima, Amami Ōshima, and Okinawa. The road has a total of 255.5 km on land. It originates in the prefectural capital of Kagoshima in Kagoshima Prefecture and terminates in Naha, the capital of Okinawa Prefecture.

At the northern terminus, Route 58 meets Routes 3 and 10. The segment in the city of Kagoshima measures only about 700 m. The next segment links Nishinoomote, Nakatane, and Minamitane. On Amami Ōshima, the highway connects Amami, Tatsugo, and Setouchi. The final segment starts in Kunigami at the northern tip of Okinawa Island and runs along the west coast to the southern terminus in Naha.

Kagoshima-Chūō Station

Kagoshima-Chūō Station (鹿児島中央駅, Kagoshima-Chūō-eki, lit: Kagoshima Central Station) is a major railway station in Kagoshima, Japan, operated by Kyushu Railway Company (JR Kyushu). It is the southern terminus of the Kyushu Shinkansen and is located on the Kagoshima Main Line and Ibusuki-Makurazaki Line. Before the Kyushu Shinkansen opened in 2004, the station was called Nishi-Kagoshima Station (lit: West Kagoshima Station).

Kagoshima Airport

Kagoshima Airport (鹿児島空港, Kagoshima Kūkō) (IATA: KOJ, ICAO: RJFK) is an airport located in Kirishima, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, 29.6 km (18.4 mi) northeast of Kagoshima-Chūō Station in Kagoshima City. It is the second-busiest airport in Kyushu after Fukuoka Airport.

Japan Air Commuter, a regional affiliate of Japan Airlines, and New Japan Aviation have their headquarters at the airport.

Kagoshima Main Line

The Kagoshima Main Line (鹿児島本線, Kagoshima-honsen) is a major railway line operated by the Kyushu Railway Company (JR Kyushu) between Mojikō in Kitakyushu, and Kagoshima Station in Kagoshima City, at the southern end of Kyushu. Until March 13, 2004, it extended 393 km between its two termini; however, with the opening of the Kyushu Shinkansen on March 13, the section between Yatsushiro and Sendai was transferred to the third-sector Hisatsu Orange Railway Company. The line is an important line in Kyushu, connecting Fukuoka (Hakata Station) to many other major cities. It is the main line through the Fukuoka urban district, and as such many long-distance express trains from all parts of Kyushu use the section between Kokura Station (Kitakyushu) and Tosu Station, where the Nagasaki Main Line meets the Kagoshima Main Line.

Kagoshima Prefecture

Kagoshima Prefecture (鹿児島県, Kagoshima-ken) is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyushu. The capital is the city of Kagoshima.

Kagoshima Rebnise

Kagoshima Rebnise is a Japanese professional basketball team located in Kagoshima, Kagoshima. The team currently competes in the B.League. Some players were not paid in 2016-17.

Kagoshima Station

Kagoshima Station (鹿児島駅) is a railway station in Kagoshima, Kagoshima Prefecture. It is the notional southern terminus of the Kyushu Railway Company's Kagoshima and Nippo Main Lines, although services on both lines in fact start and terminate at the neighboring Kagoshima-Chūō Station.

Kagoshima United FC

Kagoshima United FC (鹿児島ユナイテッドFC, Kagoshima Yunaiteddo FC) is a football club in Japan that was formed from the merger of the old Volca Kagoshima and FC Kagoshima clubs, both have been playing in Kyushu Soccer League before the merger. The top team currently play in J2 League, and their secondary team play in Kyushu Soccer League.

Kyushu Shinkansen

The Kyushu Shinkansen (九州新幹線, Kyūshū Shinkansen) is a Japanese high-speed railway line between the cities of Fukuoka and Kagoshima in Kyushu, running parallel to the existing Kagoshima Main Line and operated by JR Kyushu. It is an extension of the San'yō Shinkansen from Honshu. The southern 127 km (79 mi) was constructed first because the equivalent section of the former Kagoshima Main Line is single track, and thus a significant improvement in transit time was gained when this dual track section opened on 13 March 2004, despite the need for passengers to change to a Relay Tsubame narrow gauge train at Shin-Yatsushiro for the remainder of the journey to Hakata. The northern 130 km (81 mi) section opened on 12 March 2011 (although opening ceremonies were canceled due to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami), enabling through-services to Shin-Osaka (and with a change of train, Tokyo).The construction of the first section (from Takeo-Onsen to Isahaya) of the West Kyushu Shinkansen route to Nagasaki, approximately 45.7 km (28.4 mi) in length, began in 2008, with construction of the 21 km (13 mi) section from Isahaya to Nagasaki commencing in 2012. The entire line is due to open by March 2023. Service was proposed to be provided by Gauge Change Train (GCT) trainsets, which are designed to operate on both existing narrow gauge lines and standard gauge Shinkansen lines; however, technical issues with the bogies is likely to delay GCT introduction until 2025, and initial service options are now being investigated, such as a 'relay' service.

Nippō Main Line

The Nippō Main Line (日豊本線, Nippō-honsen) is a railway line in Kyushu, in southern Japan, operated by Kyushu Railway Company (JR Kyushu). The line connects Kokura Station in Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, and Kagoshima Station in Kagoshima via the east coast of Kyushu, passing through the prefectural capitals of Ōita and Miyazaki.

Saigō Takamori

Saigō Takamori (Takanaga) (西郷 隆盛 (隆永), January 23, 1828 – September 24, 1877) was one of the most influential samurai in Japanese history and one of the three great nobles who led the Meiji Restoration. Living during the late Edo and early Meiji periods, he has been dubbed the last true samurai. He was born Saigō Kokichi (西郷 小吉), and received the given name Takamori in adulthood. He wrote poetry under the name Saigō Nanshū (西郷 南洲). His younger brother was Gensui The Marquis Saigō Jūdō.


Sakurajima (Japanese: 桜島, literally "Cherry blossom Island") is an active composite volcano, formerly an island and now a peninsula, in Kagoshima Prefecture in Kyushu, Japan. The lava flows of the 1914 eruption connected it with the Ōsumi Peninsula. It is the most active volcano in Japan.The volcanic activity still continues, dropping volcanic ash on the surroundings which continues as of March 2019. Earlier eruptions built the white sand highlands in the region. The most recent eruption started on May 2, 2017. On September 13, 2016 a team of experts from Bristol University and the Sakurajima Volcano Research Centre in Japan suggested that the volcano could have a major eruption within 30 years.Sakurajima is a stratovolcano. Its summit has three peaks, Kita-dake (northern peak), Naka-dake (central peak) and Minami-dake (southern peak) which is active now.

Kita-dake is Sakurajima's highest peak, rising to 1,117 m (3,665 ft) above sea level. The mountain is in a part of Kagoshima Bay known as Kinkō-wan. The former island is part of the city of Kagoshima. The surface of this volcanic peninsula is about 77 km2 (30 sq mi).

Satsuma Domain

Satsuma Domain (薩摩藩, Satsuma-han), officially Kagoshima Domain, was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It is associated with the provinces of Satsuma, Ōsumi and Hyūga in modern-day Kagoshima Prefecture and Miyazaki Prefecture on the island of Kyūshū.

In the han system, Satsuma was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area. This was different from the feudalism of the West.

The domain was ruled from Kagoshima Castle, the core of what later became the city of Kagoshima. Its kokudaka was assessed at 770,000 koku, the second highest kokudaka after that of Kaga Domain.

Satsumasendai, Kagoshima

Satsumasendai (薩摩川内市, Satsumasendai-shi) is a city located in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan.

The modern city of Satsumasendai was established on October 12, 2004, from the merger of the city of Sendai, the towns of Hiwaki, Iriki, Kedōin and Tōgō, and the Koshikijima Islands (which consisted of the villages of Kamikoshiki, Kashima, Sato and Shimokoshiki, all from Satsuma District).

As of May 2017, the city has an estimated population of 96,411 and a population density of 140 persons per km2. The total area is 683.50 km2.

The city has regular Shinkansen services to Kagoshima City and Yatsushiro.

The city is also home to Kagoshima Immaculate Heart University, founded in 1994, which has a small population of foreign students.

A major employer is the Sendai nuclear power station.

Sendai Station (Kagoshima)

Sendai Station (川内駅, Sendai-eki) is a railway station in Satsumasendai, Kagoshima, Japan. Operated by Kyushu Railway Company (JR Kyushu) and Hisatsu Orange Railway.

Uchinoura Space Center

The Uchinoura Space Center (内之浦宇宙空間観測所, Uchinoura Uchū Kūkan Kansokusho) is a space launch facility close to the Japanese town of Kimotsuki, in Kagoshima Prefecture. Before the establishment of the JAXA space agency in 2003, it was simply called the Kagoshima Space Center (鹿児島宇宙空間観測所) (KSC). All of Japan's scientific satellites were launched from Uchinoura prior to the M-V launch vehicles being decommissioned in 2006. It continues to be used for suborbital launches, and has also been used for the Epsilon orbital launch vehicle. Additionally, the center has antennas for communication with interplanetary space probes.

Climate data for Kagoshima, Kagoshima (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 23.9
Average high °C (°F) 12.8
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.5
Average low °C (°F) 4.6
Record low °C (°F) −5.7
Average precipitation mm (inches) 77.5
Average snowfall cm (inches) 3
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 8.9 8.8 12.9 10.4 10.0 14.6 11.2 10.5 10.2 7.2 7.3 7.7 119.8
Average snowy days 2.3 1.8 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 5.4
Average relative humidity (%) 65 66 69 71 71 78 76 76 73 70 69 69 71
Mean monthly sunshine hours 136.9 129.1 145.7 160.5 171.0 122.4 191.1 206.7 168.8 183.4 152.0 151.3 1,918.9
Source: [6]
Core city
2,000,000 and more


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