Ka band

The Ka band (pronounced as either "kay-ay band" or "ka band") is a portion of the microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum defined as frequencies in the range 26.5–40 gigahertz (GHz),[1] i.e. wavelengths from slightly over one centimeter down to 7.5 millimeters.[2] The band is called Ka, short for "K-above" because it is the upper part of the original NATO K band, which was split into three bands because of the presence of the atmospheric water vapor resonance peak at 22.24 GHz, (1.35 cm) which made the center unusable for long range transmission. The 30/20 GHz band is used in communications satellite uplinks in either the 27.5 GHz and 31 GHz bands,[3] and high-resolution, close-range targeting radars aboard military airplanes. Some frequencies in this radio band are used for vehicle speed detection by law enforcement.[4] The Kepler Mission used this frequency range to downlink the scientific data collected by the space telescope.

The designation "Ka-band" is from Kurz-above, which stems from the German word "kurz" meaning short.[5]

In satellite communications, the Ka band allows higher bandwidth communication. It is used in the Inmarsat I-5 system[6] and will be used in the Iridium Next satellite series, Kacific K-1 satellite, as well as the James Webb Space Telescope. The Ka band is more susceptible to rain attenuation than is the Ku band, which in turn is more susceptible than the C band.[7]

The frequency is commonly used by cosmic microwave background experiments.

The 5th generation mobile networks will also partially overlap with Ka band (28, 38, and 60 GHz).

IEEE Ka band
Frequency range
26.5 – 40 GHz
Wavelength range
1.11 cm – 7.5 mm
Related bands

References

  1. ^ R. Ludwig, P. Bretchko, RF Circuit Design, Theory and Applications, Prentice Hall NJ, 2000.
  2. ^ "Basics of Space Flight Section I. The Environment of Space".
  3. ^ "Ka Band".
  4. ^ Elert, Glenn. "Frequency of a Police Radar Gun".
  5. ^ http://www.itwissen.info/definition/lexikon/K-Band-K-band.html (german)
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 11, 2013. Retrieved August 6, 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ Miller, Peter. "Ka-Band – the future of satellite communication?" (pdf). Retrieved 2016-07-06.
Astra 4A

Astra 4A is one of the Astra communications satellites owned and operated by SES at the Astra 5°E orbital slot providing digital television and radio broadcasts, data, and interactive services to Nordic countries, eastern Europe and sub-Saharan Africa in the 11.70 GHz-12.75 GHz range of the Ku band and 18.8 GHz-21.75 GHz range of the Ka band.

Ekspress AM6

Ekspress-AM6 (Russian: Экспресс АМ6) is a Russian communications satellite which was launched in 2014. The satellite has replaced the older Ekspress-AM22, at 53° East. Part of the Ekspress series of geostationary communications satellites, it is owned and operated by the Russian State Company for Satellite Communications.

The satellite has 30 C-band, 40 Ku-band, 12 Ka-band and 2 L-band transponders.

Energia-100

Energia-100 (Russian: Энергия-100) is a geostationary communications satellite built by the Russian company RSC Energia for its subsidiary Energia-Telecom (Russian: Энергия-Телеком). The whole bandwidths has been leased to the JSC RTComm.RU (Russian: АО РТКомм.РУ) subsidiary of Rostelecom. Initially, it was planned to be launched in 2018 by a Soyuz-2.1b/Fregat rocket from the Vostochny Cosmodrome.

GSAT-11

GSAT-11 is an Indian geostationary communications satellite. The 5854 kg satellite is based on the new I-6K Bus and carry 40 transponders in the Ku-band and Ka-band frequencies (32 Ka × Ku-Band Forward Link Transponders and 8 Ku × Ka band Return Link Transponders), which are capable of providing up to 16 Gbit/s throughput. GSAT-11 is India's heaviest satellite.

Galaxy 23

Galaxy 23 is the name given to the C-band service of the Galaxy 23/EchoStar 9 communications satellite jointly owned by Intelsat and EchoStar located at 121° W longitude, serving the North American market. It was built by Space Systems/Loral, as part of its FS-1300 line. Galaxy 23 was formerly known as Intelsat Americas 13. The "Galaxy 23" portion of the service provides transponders in the C band. The "EchoStar 9" portion broadcasts Ku band, and Ka band transponders.While the satellite itself is jointly owned through a partnership between Intelsat and Echostar, the Ku band payload is owned and operated by Echostar for international television programming and local television channels. That service is intended for Dish Network customers using a SuperDish system. The C-band payload is owned and operated by Intelsat. The Ka band payload is owned and operated by Echostar for as-yet-undisclosed purposes.

Current clients for Galaxy 23/EchoStar 9 include Dish Network, Direct TV ,Genesis Networks,and Playboy.

Galaxy 28

Galaxy 28 is a communications satellite owned by Intelsat located at 89° W longitude, serving the North American market. It was built by Space Systems/Loral, as part of its FS-1300 line. Galaxy 28 was formerly known as Intelsat Americas 8 and Telstar 8. This satellite provides services in the C band, Ku band, and Ka band.Current clients for Galaxy 28 include HughesNet, Hearst Corporation, Mobile Universe , ABC, and CBS.

Inmarsat-6 F1

Inmarsat-6 F1 is a communications satellite to be operated by the British satellite operator Inmarsat and designed and manufactured by Airbus Defence and Space on the Eurostar 3000EOR platform. Part of the I-6 satellite fleet, it will be Inmarsat's first dual-payload satellite, with capabilities in both L-band and Ka band.

The L-band payload will support a wide variety of purposes including very low cost mobile services and IoT applications, while the Ka band payload will augment the Global Xpress constellation.

Intelsat 20

Intelsat 20 is a geostationary communications satellite which is operated by Intelsat. It was constructed by Space Systems Loral, and is based on the LS-1300 satellite bus. It was launched on 2 August 2012, and replaces the Intelsat 7 and Intelsat 10 spacecraft at 68.5º East longitude. It is fully operational since September 2012.Intelsat 20 carries 24 IEEE C-band (NATO G/H-band), 54 IEEE Ku band (NATO J-band) transponders and 1 Ka band transponder. The C-band covers the Asia-Pacific region, while the Ku band transponders is used for Direct to Home broadcasting to Asia, Africa,Americas and the Middle East. The Ka band payload provides coverage to the Middle East and Central Asia

Intelsat 29e

Intelsat 29e, also known as IS-29e was a high throughput geostationary communications satellite designed and manufactured by Boeing on the BSS-702MP platform. It is the first satellite of the EpicNG service, and covers North America and Latin America from the 50° West longitude, where it is replaced Intelsat 1R. It also replaced Intelsat 805 which was moved from 56.5° West to 169° East. It has a mixed C band, Ku band and Ka band payload with all bands featuring wide and the Ku also featuring spot beams.

Intelsat 33e

Intelsat 33e, also known as IS-33e, is a high throughput geostationary communications satellite operated by Intelsat and designed and manufactured by Boeing on the BSS-702MP platform. It is the second satellite of the EpicNG service, and will cover Europe, Africa and most of Asia from the 60°East longitude, where it is expected to replace Intelsat 904. It has a mixed C band, Ku band and Ka band payload with all bands featuring wide and C and Ku also featuring spot beams.

JCSAT-16

JCSAT-16 is a geostationary communications satellite operated by SKY Perfect JSAT Group and designed and manufactured by SSL on the SSL 1300 platform. It has a launch weight of 4,600 kg (10,100 lb), a power production capacity of 8.5 kW and a 15-year design life. Its payload is composed of Ku band and Ka band transponders. SKY Perfect JSAT Group plans to use JCSAT-16 as an in-orbit backup satellite for the Ku- and Ka-band satellites serving the Japanese market.SpaceX's Falcon 9 Flight 28 propelled JCSAT-16 to a geosynchronous transfer orbit on August 14, 2016.

KA-SAT

KA-SAT is a high-throughput telecommunications satellite owned by Eutelsat. The satellite provides broadband Internet access services across Europe and also a small area of the Middle East, and additionally the Saorsat TV service to Ireland. It is positioned at 9°E, joining the Eurobird 9A Ku band satellite. KA-SAT was manufactured by EADS Astrium, based on the Eurostar E3000 platform, with a total weight of 6 tons. It was launched by Proton in December 2010. The satellite is named after the Ka band frequency, which is used on the spacecraft.

K band (IEEE)

The IEEE K band is a portion of the radio spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies from 18 to 27 gigahertz (GHz). The range of frequencies in the center of the K band between 18 and 26.5 GHz is absorbed by water vapor in the atmosphere due to its resonance peak at 22.24 GHz, 1.35 cm. Therefore these frequencies experience high atmospheric attenuation and cannot be used for long distance applications. For this reason the original K band has been split into three bands, Ka band, K-band, and Ku band as detailed below.

The K stands for Kurz which stems from the German word for short.

N-STAR a

N-STAR a, was a geostationary communications satellite originally ordered by a consortium including NTT DoCoMo and JSAT Corporation, and later fully acquired by JSAT, which was merged into SKY Perfect JSAT Group. It was designed and manufactured by Space Systems/Loral on the SSL 1300 platform. It had a launch weight of approximately 3,400 kg (7,500 lb), and a 10-year design life. Its payload is composed of 6 C band, 11 Ka band, 8 Ku band and 1 S band transponders.

N-STAR b

N-STAR b, was a geostationary communications satellite originally ordered by a consortium including NTT DoCoMo and JSAT Corporation, and later fully acquired by JSAT, which was merged into SKY Perfect JSAT Group. It was designed and manufactured by Space Systems/Loral on the SSL 1300 platform. It had a launch weight of approximately 3,400 kg (7,500 lb), and a 10-year design life. Its payload is composed of 6 C band, 11 Ka band, 8 Ku band and 1 S band transponders.

SARAL

SARAL or Satellite with ARgos and ALtiKa is a cooperative altimetry technology mission of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and CNES (Space Agency of France). SARAL will perform altimetric measurements designed to study ocean circulation and sea surface elevation. The payloads of SARAL are The ISRO built satellite with payloads modules (ALTIKA altimeter), DORIS, Laser Retro-reflector Array (LRA) and ARGOS-3 (Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite) data collection system provided by CNES was launched by Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle rocket into the Sun-synchronous orbit (SSO). ISRO is responsible for the platform, launch, and operations of the spacecraft. A CNES/ISRO MOU (Memorandum of Understanding) on the SARAL mission was signed on Feb. 23, 2007.SARAL was successfully launched on 25 February 2013, 12:31 UTC.

SES-17

SES-17, is a high throughput geostationary communications satellite to be operated by SES and to be designed and manufactured by Thales Alenia Space on the all electric Spacebus Neo platform. It will weight more than 6 t (6.6 tons), generate over 15 kW of power and have a design life of at least 15 years.It will have around 200 Ka band spot-beams to offer coverage over North America, South America, the Caribbean, Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean mainly for aircraft connectivity. It will be SES's first pure Ka band satellite in the geostationary orbit and is expected to be launched on an Arianespace Ariane 5 rocket in H1 2021.

Spaceway F1

Spaceway F1 is part of DirecTV’s constellation of direct broadcast satellites. The satellite was launched via a Zenit 3SL rocket from Sea Launch’s Odyssey equatorial platform on April 26, 2005. Its operational position is in geosynchronous orbit 35,800 kilometres (22,200 mi) above the equator at 103.0 degrees west longitude. SPACEWAY-1 is a Boeing 702-model satellite with a 12-year life expectancy. It provides high definition television to DirecTV customers with its Ka-band communications payload. DirecTV is not expected to make use of the broadband capabilities on SPACEWAY-1 even though it was originally built by Boeing for this purpose.

SPACEWAY-1 was the heaviest commercial communications satellite (13,400-lb or 6,080-kg) ever put into orbit until iPSTAR-1 (6,775 kg) was launched by Arianespace on August 11, 2005.

DirecTV-10 is co-located with SPACEWAY-1 in order to use the 500 MHz of unused spectrum for HDTV broadcasting. This spectrum was originally intended for the broadband internet capabilities of the two SPACEWAY satellites which were disabled by Hughes at the request of DirecTV.

Spaceway F2

Spaceway F2 is part of DirecTV’s constellation of direct broadcast satellites. The satellite was launched via an Arianespace Ariane 5 ECA rocket from Kourou, French Guiana on November 16, 2005. Its operational position is in geosynchronous orbit 35,800 kilometres (22,200 mi) above the equator at 99.2 degrees west longitude. SPACEWAY-2 is a Boeing 702-model satellite with a 12-year life expectancy. It is expected to support high definition television to DirecTV customers with its Ka-band communications payload. Although SPACEWAY-2 was originally built by Boeing to be used for broadband Internet access via HughesNet, it has been retrofitted to deliver HD local channels (NBC, ABC, CBS, & Fox) to numerous markets nationwide.

On April 19, 2006 the satellite was delivered to DirecTV's control after successful on-orbit testing. SPACEWAY-2 immediately started broadcasting HD locals to DirecTV customers in eight more markets: Minneapolis, Minnesota; Sacramento and San Diego, California; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Nashville, Tennessee; Kansas City, Missouri.; Columbus, Ohio; and Birmingham, Alabama. Satellites named DirecTV-10 (launched 2007) and DirecTV-11 (launched 2008), constructed by Boeing, also for use in high definition television, are bent-pipe Ka-band satellites instead of regenerative satellites, and are being used to continue the expansion of DirecTV's HD services.

SPACEWAY-2 was originally envisioned as a global Ka-band communications system.

Boeing retrofitted the SPACEWAY-2 satellite for bent-pipe Ka-band communications for use in high definition television and disabled the regenerative on-board processing of the original system that was to be used for the SPACEWAY broadband satellite communications.

DirecTV-11 is co-located with SPACEWAY-2 satellites in order to use the 500 MHz of unused spectrum for HDTV broadcasting. This spectrum was originally intended for the broadband internet capabilities of the two SPACEWAY satellites which were disabled by Hughes at the request of DirecTV.

Visible (optical)
Microwaves
Radio
Wavelength types

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