Kaʻula

Kaʻula Island, also called Kaʻula Rock, is a small, crescent-shaped offshore islet in the Hawaiian Islands.

Kaula-island-P1010936a
Kaʻula Island viewed from the north

Mythology

In the legend of Papa and Wākea, Ka'ula is the seventh-born child.

Geography

Monachus schauinslandi
Hawaiian monk seal at the Five Fathom Pinnacle

It is located 23 mi (37 km) west-southwest of Kawaihoa Point on Niʻihau, and about 150 nmi (278 km) west of Honolulu. The island is actually the very top of a volcanic tuff cone that rests on top of a larger, submerged shield volcano. At its highest point, the island reaches a height of 548 ft (167 m).[1] The ocean has carved large sea cliffs on the sides of the island. There is a large cave on the northwest side of the island called Kahalauaola (Shark Cave).[2]

The United States Census Bureau defines Kaʻula as Census Tract 411 of Kauaʻi County, Hawaiʻi. The 2000 census showed that the uninhabited island had a land area of 158.2 acres (0.640 km2; 0.2472 sq mi).[3] Because of erosion, the island is slowly shrinking.

Kaʻula, which he spelled as "Tahoora", was one of the first five islands sighted by Captain James Cook in 1778.

Lighthouse

A lighthouse was completed on the island in 1932 by the former United States Lighthouse Service. It remained in operation through 1947.

Military use

The island has been used as a bombing range by the United States Navy since at least 1952. Inert ordnance is currently used, although live explosive ordnance has been used in the past. There is a risk of unexploded ordnance on the island. Permission from the U.S. Navy is required to land on the island. In 1978, over the objection of the U.S. Navy, the state of Hawaiʻi claimed ownership of Kaʻula and named the island a State Seabird Sanctuary. A final determination of ownership has not yet been made, and the Navy still uses the southeast point of the island as an aerial bombing and strafing target.[4]

Diving

Kaʻula is uninhabited but fishermen and scuba divers frequently visit the island. Five Fathom Pinnacle, 3 mi (4.8 km) west-northwest of Kaʻula, is also a noted dive spot.[5]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Kaula Volcano John Seach, Volcano Live
  2. ^ Kaʻula Island Archived 2004-09-05 at the Wayback Machine NOAA Ship Townsend Cromwell, Student Connection
  3. ^ Census Tract 411, Kauaʻi County United States Census Bureau
  4. ^ U.S. Coast Pilot 7, Chapter 14, p. 634
  5. ^ Underwater Photos from Five Fathom Pinnacle

References

  • Tabrah, Ruth M. (1987). Niʻihau, the last Hawaiian island. Press Pacifica. ISBN 0-916630-59-5.
  • Tava, Rerioterai; Keale, Moses K. (1998). Niihau, the traditions of a Hawaiian island. Mutual Publishing. ISBN 0-935180-80-X.

External links

Coordinates: 21°39′17″N 160°32′29″W / 21.65472°N 160.54139°W

1955 Hawaiian submarine eruption

The 1955 Hawaiian submarine eruption was a submarine eruption that occurred 90 km (56 mi) northeast of Necker Island on August 20, 1955. Steaming water, water discoloration and an eruption column took place during the eruption. A possible pumice raft was also witnessed. The eruption originated about 4 km (2.5 mi) below sea level from an unnamed submarine volcano. The eruption produced a column of smoke several meters high. It is probably the westernmost historical eruption within the Hawaiian Islands. Another but less certain submarine eruption may have occurred 60 km (37 mi) northwest of Oahu on May 22, 1956.

2014 United States House of Representatives elections in Hawaii

The 2014 United States House of Representatives elections in Hawaii were held on Tuesday, November 4, 2014 to elect the two U.S. Representatives from the state of Hawaii, one from each of the state's two congressional districts. The elections coincided with the elections of other federal and state offices, including an election for Governor of Hawaii and a special election to the United States Senate.

2016 United States House of Representatives elections in Hawaii

The 2016 United States House of Representatives elections in Hawaii occurred on November 8, 2016. The electorate chose two candidates to act in the U.S. House, one from each of the state's two districts. Hawaii is one of 14 states that employ an open primary system, meaning voters do not have to state a party affiliation in the election. The primaries were held on August 13.

Amaranthus brownii

Amaranthus brownii was an annual herb in the family Amaranthaceae. The plant was found only on the small island of Nihoa in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, growing on rocky outcrops at altitudes of 120–215 m (394–705 ft). It was one of nine species of Amaranthus in the Hawaiian Islands, but was the only endemic Hawaiian species of the genus. It was first discovered during the Tanager Expedition in 1923 by botanist Edward Leonard Caum. A. brownii differed from other Hawaiian species of Amaranthus with its spineless leaf axils, linear leaves, and indehiscent fruits.

It was one of 26 vascular plants on Nihoa, 17 of which are indigenous, six alien, and three endemic only to Nihoa, including A. brownii, the Nihoa fan palm or loulu, and the Nihoa carnation. A. brownii was considered the rarest plant on Nihoa and had not been directly observed on the island since 1983, and is now considered to be extinct. Past expeditions collected plant samples and seeds, but no specimens managed to survive ex-situ conservation efforts outside of its native habitat. There are no known plants or seeds from A. brownii in any botanical garden.

Conservation and recovery plans for A. brownii had been proposed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) which administers the island of Nihoa as part of the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. In 1996, the plant was listed by the FWS as an endangered species. In 2003, the FWS designated the island of Nihoa as a critical habitat for the plant and it was classified as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List. Following a lack of sightings for over 35 years despite intensive surveys, the species was classified as extinct on the IUCN Red List in 2018.

Hawaii

Hawaii ( (listen) hə-WY-ee; Hawaiian: Hawaiʻi [həˈvɐjʔi]) is a state of the United States of America. It is the only state located in the Pacific Ocean and the only state composed entirely of islands.

The state encompasses nearly the entire Hawaiian archipelago, 137 islands spread over 1,500 miles (2,400 km). The volcanic archipelago is physiographically and ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are, in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe, Maui, and Hawaiʻi. The last is the largest island in the group; it is often called the "Big Island" or "Hawaiʻi Island" to avoid confusion with the state or archipelago.

Hawaii is the 8th smallest geographically and the 11th least populous, but the 13th most densely populated of the 50 states. It is the only state with an Asian American plurality. Hawaii has over 1.4 million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U.S. military personnel. The state capital and largest city is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. The state's ocean coastline is about 750 miles (1,210 km) long, the fourth longest in the U.S., after the coastlines of Alaska, Florida, and California. Hawaii is the most recent state to join the union, on August 21, 1959. It was an independent nation until 1898.

Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, and active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers, biologists, and volcanologists. Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is strongly influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture.

Hawaii Belt Road

The Hawaiʻi Belt Road is a modern name for the Māmalahoa Highway and consists of Hawaiʻi state Routes 11, 19, and 190 that encircle the Island of Hawaiʻi. The southern section, between Hilo and Kailua-Kona is numbered as Route 11. The section between Hilo and Waimea is Route 19. Between Waimea and Kailua-Kona, the road is split in two: the original "mauka" route (now Route 190) and a "makai" Route 19, completed in 1975, which serves as access to the Kona and Kohala Coast resorts. In the Hawaiian language, mauka means "towards the mountain" and makai means "towards the sea". These terms are commonly used in travel directions.

Parts of the southern half of the Hawaiʻi Belt Road were known during the Territorial days as the Kaʻū Belt Road. The names "Hawaiʻi Belt Road" and "Māmalahoa Highway" refer to the road system that encircles the entire island; many sections are also referenced by local names.

Hawaiian monk seal

The Hawaiian monk seal (Neomonachus schauinslandi, formerly Monachus schauinslandi), is an endangered species of earless seal in the family Phocidae that is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands.The Hawaiian monk seal is one of two remaining monk seal species; the other is the Mediterranean monk seal. A third species, the Caribbean monk seal, is extinct.The Hawaiian monk seal is the only seal native to Hawaii, and, along with the Hawaiian hoary bat, is one of only two mammals endemic to the islands.These monk seals are a conservation reliant endangered species. The small population of about 1,400 individuals is threatened by human encroachment, very low levels of genetic variation, entanglement in fishing nets, marine debris, disease, and past commercial hunting for skins. There are many methods of conservation biology when it comes to endangered species; translocation, captive care, habitat cleanup, and educating the public about the Hawaiian monk seal are some of the methods that can be employed.

Kauai

Kauaʻi, (Hawaiian: [kɐwˈwɐʔi]) anglicized as Kauai (English: kow-EYE(-ee)), is geologically the oldest of the main Hawaiian Islands. With an area of 562.3 square miles (1,456.4 km2), it is the fourth-largest of these islands and the 21st largest island in the United States. Known also as the "Garden Isle", Kauaʻi lies 105 miles (169 km) across the Kauaʻi Channel, northwest of Oʻahu. This island is the site of Waimea Canyon State Park.

The United States Census Bureau defines Kauaʻi as census tracts 401 through 409 of Kauai County, Hawaiʻi, which comprises all of the county except for the islands of Kaʻula, Lehua and Niʻihau. The 2010 United States Census population of the island was 67,091. The most populous town was Kapaʻa.

Kauai County, Hawaii

Kauaʻi County is a county in the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi. It consists of the islands of Kauaʻi, Niʻihau, Lehua, and Kaʻula. As of the 2010 Census the population was 67,091. The county seat is Līhuʻe.The Kapa'a Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Kauai County.

List of counties in Hawaii

The five counties of Hawaii on the Hawaiian Islands enjoy somewhat greater status than many counties on the United States mainland. Counties in Hawaii are the only legally constituted government bodies below that of the state. No formal level of government (such as city governments) exists below that of the county in Hawaii. (Even Honolulu is governed as the City and County of Honolulu, a county that covers the entire island of Oahu.)

Unlike the other 49 states, Hawaii does not delegate educational responsibility to local school boards; public education is carried out by the Hawaii State Department of Education. Hawaiian counties collect property taxes and user fees in order to support road maintenance, community activities, parks (including life guards at beach parks), garbage collection, police (the state police force, called the Hawaii Department of Public Safety, is limited in scope), ambulance, and fire suppression services.All the counties were created in 1905 from unorganized territory, seven years after the Territory of Hawaii was created. The county of Kalawao was historically exclusively used as a leper colony, and does not have many of the elected officials the other counties do. Many services for Kalawao County are provided by Maui County. For example, the web site for the office of the Maui County Clerk says "The office is also responsible for the elections in the County of Maui and the County of Kalawao".

List of island counties of the United States

This is a list of counties and county-equivalents of the United States situated entirely or predominantly on islands. The United States of America is composed of 50 states, a federal district, 5 inhabited U.S. territories, and 9 minor outlying islands, which are in turn divided into counties or county-equivalents (parishes, boroughs, independent cities, census divisions, municipalities, or districts). However, within the 50 states, only a small fraction of those are situated entirely on islands.

The 100 county-equivalents in the U.S. territories (such as Puerto Rico) are all entirely on islands — they are listed separately. Including the 100-county equivalents in the U.S. territories, there are 123 counties in the U.S. that are all or partly on islands (out of a total of 3,242 counties).

List of islands by name (K)

This article features a list of islands sorted by their name beginning with the letter K.

List of islands of Hawaii

The following is a list of islands of Hawaii. The state of Hawaii, consisting of the Hawaiian Islands, has the fourth-longest ocean coastline of the 50 states (after Alaska, Florida, and California) at 750 miles (1,210 km). It is the only state that consists entirely of islands with 6,422.62 mi² (16,635 km²) of land. The Hawaiian Island archipelago extends some 1,500 miles (2,400 km) from the southernmost island of Hawaiʻi to the northernmost Kure Atoll. Despite being within the boundaries of Hawaii, Midway Atoll, comprising several smaller islands, is not included as an island of Hawaii, because it is classified as a United States Minor Outlying Islands and is therefore administered by the federal government and not the state.

Hawaii is divided into five counties: Hawaiʻi, Honolulu, Kalawao, Kauaʻi, and Maui. Each island is included in the boundaries and under the administration of one of these counties. Honolulu County, despite being centralized, administers the outlying Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Kalawao (the smallest county in the United States in terms of land area) and Maui, both occupying the island of Molokaʻi, are the only counties that share the same island. Hawaii is typically recognized by its eight main islands: Hawaiʻi, Maui, Kahoʻolawe, Lānaʻi, Molokaʻi, Oʻahu, Kauaʻi, and Niʻihau.

The state of Hawaii officially recognizes only 137 islands in the state which includes four islands of the Midway Atoll. An island in this sense may also include much smaller and typically uninhabited islets, rocks, coral reefs, and atolls. For that reason, this article lists 152 separate islands (but also names smaller island chains such as the French Frigate Shoals, which includes 13 islands of its own). Some of these are too small to appear on maps, and others, such as Maro Reef, only appear above the water's surface during times of low tide. Others, such as Shark and Skate islands, have completely eroded away.

The majority of the Hawaiian Islands are inhabited, with Niʻihau being the westernmost island with a population of around 130 natives, no one else is allowed om the island. All the islands west of Niʻihau—those categorized as the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands—are unpopulated and recently incorporated into the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. The island of Oʻahu has 953,207 residents (about 70% of the state's population), and the island of Hawaiʻi is by far the largest island with an area of 4,028 mi² (10,432 km²)—62.7% of the state's land area. The islands were first settled as early as AD 300 by Polynesian long-distance navigators. British captain James Cook was the first European to land on the islands in January 1778. The islands, which were governed independently up until 1898 were then annexed by the United States as a territory from 1898–1959. On August 21, 1959, they were collectively admitted as the 50th state.

The islands are the exposed peaks of a great undersea mountain range known as the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, formed by volcanic activity over a hotspot in the Earth's mantle. The archipelago formed as the Pacific plate moved slowly northwestward over a hotspot in the mantle at about 32 miles (51 km) per million years. The islands in the northwest of the archipelago are older and typically smaller, due to longer exposure to erosion. The age of the archipelago has been estimated using potassium-argon dating methods. It is estimated that the northwesternmost Kure Atoll is the oldest at approximately 28 million years, while the southeasternmost Hawaiʻi Island is approximately 400,000 years old and still subjected to ongoing volcanism—one of the most active hotspots on Earth.

List of regions of the United States

This is a list of some of the regions in the United States. Many regions are defined in law or regulations by the federal government; others by shared culture and history; and others by economic factors.

List of semiaquatic tetrapods

This is a list of tetrapods that are semiaquatic; that is, while being at least partly terrestrial, they spend part of their life cycle or a significant fraction of their time in water as part of their normal behavior, and/or obtain a significant fraction of their food from an aquatic habitat. The very earliest tetrapods, such as Ichthyostega, were semiaquatic, having evolved from amphibious lobe-finned fish.

Some marine mammals, such as the marine otter, the polar bear and pinnipeds, are semiaquatic, while others, such as the sea otter, cetaceans and sirenians, are fully aquatic. The only fully aquatic nonmarine mammals are several manatees (the Amazonian manatee and some populations of African manatee) and certain small cetaceans (river dolphins, the tucuxi, and some populations of Irrawaddy dolphin and finless porpoise). No bird species is fully aquatic, as all must lay and incubate their amniotic eggs, as well as begin raising their young, on land or ice. Similarly among marine reptiles, sea turtles are almost fully aquatic, but must come ashore to lay eggs. Marine iguanas and partly marine crocodiles (such as the saltwater crocodile and the American crocodile) are all semiaquatic. Most sea snakes are ovoviviparous (live-bearing) and fully aquatic (the exceptions being the oviparous, semiaquatic sea kraits). A few freshwater snakes are also ovoviviparous and fully aquatic (e.g., Erpeton tentaculatum and Acrochordidae), but the majority are semiaquatic. Most amphibians have an aquatic larval stage and are at least semiaquatic for that reason, but there are many exceptions to this generalization.

The aquatic component of a semiaquatic species' lifestyle may be either obligatory or facultative to varying degrees (examples of the latter are the Arctic fox, jaguar and green iguana).

Note: dagger symbols, "†", have been used to indicate a listed taxon is extinct.

List of volcanoes in the Hawaiian – Emperor seamount chain

The Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain is a series of volcanoes and seamounts extending about 6,200 km across the Pacific Ocean. The chain has been produced by the movement of the ocean crust over the Hawaiʻi hotspot, an upwelling of hot rock from the Earth's mantle. As the oceanic crust moves the volcanoes farther away from their source of magma, their eruptions become less frequent and less powerful until they eventually cease to erupt altogether. At that point, erosion of the volcano and subsidence of the seafloor cause the volcano to gradually diminish. As the volcano sinks and erodes, it first becomes an atoll island and then an atoll. Further subsidence causes the volcano to sink below the sea surface, becoming a seamount and/or a guyot. This list documents the most significant volcanoes in the chain, ordered by distance from the hotspot; however, there are many others that have yet to be properly studied.

The chain can be divided into three subsections. The first, the Hawaiian archipelago (also known as the Windward isles), consists of the islands comprising the U.S. state of Hawaiʻi (not to be confused with the island of Hawaiʻi). As it is the closest to the hotspot, this volcanically active region is the youngest part of the chain, with ages ranging from 400,000 years to 5.1 million years. The island of Hawaiʻi is comprised by five volcanoes, of which two (Kilauea and Mauna Loa) are still active. Lōʻihi Seamount continues to grow offshore, and is the only known volcano in the chain in the submarine pre-shield stage.The second part of the chain is composed of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, collectively referred to as the Leeward isles, the constituents of which are between 7.2 and 27.7 million years in age. Erosion has long since overtaken volcanic activity at these islands, and most of them are atolls, atoll islands, and extinct islands. They contain many of the most northerly atolls in the world; one of them, Kure Atoll, is the northern-most atoll in the world.The oldest and most heavily eroded part of the chain are the Emperor seamounts, which are 39 to 85 million years in age. The Emperor and Hawaiian chains are separated by a large L-shaped bend that causes the orientations of the chains to differ by about 60°. This bend was long attributed to a relatively sudden change in the direction of plate motion, but research conducted in 2003 suggests that it was the movement of the hotspot itself that caused the bend. The issue is still currently under debate. All of the volcanoes in this part of the chain have long since subsided below sea level, becoming seamounts and guyots (see also the seamount and guyot stages of Hawaiian volcanism). Many of the volcanoes are named after former emperors of Japan. The seamount chain extends to the West Pacific, and terminates at the Kuril–Kamchatka Trench, a subduction zone at the border of Russia.

Na ʻĀina Kai Botanical Gardens

Na ʻĀina Kai Botanical Gardens (240 acres (97 ha)) are nonprofit botanical gardens located at 4101 Wailapa Road, Kīlauea, Kauaʻi, Hawaiʻi. A variety of guided tours are offered Tuesday through Friday; an admission fee is charged for each.

Na ʻĀina Kai was established by Joyce and Ed Doty in 1982. In 1999, it became a nonprofit organization and opened to the public. Today it contains 13 gardens, a hardwood plantation, meadow, canyon, and beach. More than 200 bronze sculptures are sited throughout the estate. Highlights of the Gardens include:

International Desert Garden - cacti, succulents, and other desert plants including aloe, agave, a tamarind and several baobabs.

Poinciana Maze - a hedge of mock-orange plants, with topiary and sculptures surrounded by a lava rock wall.

Shower Tree Park & Kaʻula Lagoon - hibiscus, ixora, firecracker flowers, and flowering trees, with lagoon, waterfall, and Japanese-style teahouse.

"Under the Rainbow" Children’s Garden - wading pool, treehouse, train, log cabins, bridges, tunnels and slides.

Wild Forest Garden - heliconias, gingers, noni, ylang ylang, cardamom, vanilla, and ornamental bananas, as well as cacao and cinnamon trees.Special displays have been created representing the lives of three Indigenous American peoples:

Hawaiian Ahupua'a - depiction of a pie-slice-shaped Hawaiian land division that reaches from the mountains to the ocean. Includes a mosaic tile pictorial; 14 bronze sculptures representing people engaged in traditional activities; native plantings; and an "ocean" with fiberglass native fish.

Navajo Compound - Backed by a concrete mountain depicting Monument Valley, Arizona, the Navajo Compound includes 36 bronze sculptures of people and animals. The 12 bronze people are engaged in typical activities and modeled after living Navajo people.

Alaskan Athabaskan Village - Athabaskans were chosen from all of the Alaskan tribes because they have ties with the Navajos and they live in an area which lends itself to an interesting display. There are 7 bronze people engaged in common practices and 12 bird and animal sculptures.The hardwood plantation (110 acres) contains African Mahogany (Khaya senegalensis), Big-leaf Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), Blue Mahoe (Hibiscus elatus), Caribbean Pitch Pine (Pinus oocarpa), Cocobolo (Dalbergia retusa), Indian Blackwood (Dalbergia latifolia), Indian Rosewood (Dalbergia sissoo), Iroko (Chlorophora excelsa), Lignum Vitae (Guaiacum officinale), West Indian Mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni), Moreton Bay Chestnut (Castanospermum australe), Narra (Pterocarpus indicus), Palu (Manilkara hexandra), Pheasant Wood (Andira inermis), Queensland Maple (Flindersia brayleyana), Teak (Tectona grandis), West Indian Cedar (Cedrela odorata), and Zebra Wood (Astronium graveolens)

Wākea

In the Hawaiian religion, Wākea, the Sky father weds Papahānaumoku, the earth mother. The two are considered the parent couple of the ruling chiefs of Hawaii.

Wākea was the eldest son of Kahiko ("Ancient One"), who lived in Olalowaia. He is the ancestor of the aliʻi (nobility of Hawaii), the ruling class that make up the aristocracy known as the noho ali‘i o Hawai‘i (ruling chiefs of Hawai‘i). Wākea is the grandson of Welaahilaninui. The priests and common people come from his brothers, one of whom was called Makuʻu.

Wākea means expansive space, zenith, or heaven and Papa means foundation or surface; together, they create a symbol of land and sky or heaven and earth.Wākea's first high priest was called Komoʻawa.When Wākea was on Earth in ancient times, he was a High Chief.

Islands, municipalities, and communities of Kauai County, Hawaii, United States
CDPs
Other
communities
Windward
Isles
Leeward
Isles
Emperor
Seamounts
Notable eruptions
and vents
Topics

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.