KN-02 Toksa

The KN-02 Toksa (Viper, 독사 hanja 毒蛇), Hwasong-11[5] is a North Korean reverse-engineered locally produced modification of the OTR-21 Tochka short-range ballistic missile.

Hwasong-11[1]
KN-02 Toksa
Type SRBM
Place of origin North Korea
USSR
Service history
Used by Korean People's Army Strategic Force
Production history
Manufacturer North Korea
Specifications
Weight 2,010 kg (4,430 lb)
Length 6.4 m (21 ft)
Diameter 0.65 m (2.1 ft)
Warhead single HE, submunition, chemical, biological, nuclear
Warhead weight 250 or 485 kg (551 or 1,069 lb)

Engine Solid-fuel rocket
Propellant solid
Operational
range
~120–220 km (75–137 mi)[2][3]
Guidance
system
Inertial, optical correlation system
Accuracy 100 m[4]
Launch
platform
TEL

Design and development

In 1983, Syria acquired a number of 9K79 Tochka (SS-21 Scarab-A) missiles from the Soviet Union, a single-stage, solid-propellant guided missile with a range of 70 km and a CEP of 160 m. In 1996, Syrian missile technicians provided North Korea with technical data on the missiles, then shipped some of the missiles themselves. The first test of a North Korean-produced version occurred in April 2004 and was a failure, but it was then successfully fired on 1 May 2005 into the Sea of Japan; the KN-02 has been tested at least 17 times. Initial production is believed to have begun in 2006, with the missile displayed aboard a launcher during a military parade in April 2007, and entering service in 2008. At least 50 missiles are speculated to be in service.[6][7][8]

The KN-02 is a short-range, road-mobile ballistic missile, broadly equivalent to improved Scarab-B. Although it has a shorter range than other North Korean missiles like the Scud-C, it has superior accuracy of near 100 meters CEP through inertial guidance with an optical correlation system in the terminal phase, making it the most accurate ballistic missile in the inventory; this enables it to be used for precision strikes against priority targets such as airfields, command posts, bridges, storage facilities, and even enemy troops concentrations in a tactical support role on the battlefield. Its warhead weighs 485 kg (1,069 lb) and likely consists of a high-explosive, submunition, chemical, or biological payload; Russian engineers could equip the OTR-21 with a 100 kiloton nuclear warhead, but North Korea is not likely to be able to do the same. The missile has a range of 120–140 km (75–87 mi), and it may be capable of traveling 160 km (99 mi) through reducing payload to 250 kg (550 lb).[6][7][9][10]

A significant difference between the Russian OTR-21 and North Korean KN-02 is the transporter erector launcher (TEL). While the Russian missile is transported and fired from the 6×6 9P129 that has amphibious capabilities, the KN-02's TEL is a locally fabricated version of the Belarusian MAZ-630308-224 or -243 6×4 or 6×6 commercial heavy utility truck, which has a maximum road speed of 60 km/h (37 mph) and is not amphibious. The vehicle has a short firing cycle, able to be ready for launch in 16 minutes, launch the missile in 2 minutes, and be reloaded in 20 minutes by a supporting reloader vehicle of the same design fitted with a crane and holding 2-4 more missiles.[6][7][10][11][12][13]

Further developments

In 2013, South Korean intelligence reports suggested that North Korea was developing an anti-ship ballistic missile version of the KN-02. Its range is estimated to be 200–300 km (120–190 mi; 110–160 nmi), longer than current KN-01 variants, and it would be much more difficult to intercept due to its faster speed.[14]

In March 2014, a South Korean military source claimed that the KN-02's range had been extended to 170 km (110 mi) through improved engine performance. The source also claimed that North Korea possessed 100 missiles with 30 TELs deployed to fire them.[15] In August 2014, KN-02s were fired out to a range of 220 km (140 mi).[16]

Operators

See also

OTR-21 Tochka

References

  1. ^ http://www.neams.ru/real-name/
  2. ^ http://www.38north.org/2016/03/jschilling032916/
  3. ^ http://www.nknews.org/2014/08/recent-launches-revealed-as-surface-to-surface-missile/
  4. ^ https://missilethreat.csis.org/missile/kn-02/
  5. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/dprk/missile-designation.htm
  6. ^ a b c KN-02 - Missilethreat.csis.org
  7. ^ a b c KN-02 - Military-Today.com
  8. ^ KN-02 Short Range Ballistic Missile - Globalsecurity.org
  9. ^ KN-02 (Toksa) - Missiledefenseadvocacy.org
  10. ^ a b KN-02 short-range ground-to-ground ballistic missile - Armyrecognition.com
  11. ^ OTR-21 Tochka - Weaponsystems.net
  12. ^ KPA Journal Vol. 1, No. 2 - February 2010
  13. ^ KPA Journal Vol. 1, No. 3 - March 2010
  14. ^ N.Korea Developing Anti-Ship Missile - Chosun.com, 14 October 2013
  15. ^ N. Korea has 100 KN-02 missiles with extended range - Yonhapnews.co.kr, 5 March 2014
  16. ^ John G. Grisafi (16 August 2014). "Recent launches revealed as surface-to-surface missile". NK News. Retrieved 23 August 2014.

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