KICU-TV

KICU-TV, virtual and UHF digital channel 36, branded as KTVU Plus, is an independent television station licensed to San Jose, California, United States and serving the San Francisco Bay Area. The station is owned by the Fox Television Stations subsidiary of Fox Corporation, as part of a duopoly with Oakland-licensed Fox owned-and-operated station KTVU (channel 2). The two stations share studios at Jack London Square in downtown Oakland; KICU's transmitter is located on Monument Peak in Milpitas. On cable, the station is carried on channel 6 on most providers in the market.

KICU-TV
KICU 2016 logo
San Jose/San Francisco/Oakland, California
United States
CitySan Jose, California
BrandingKTVU Plus (general)
KTVU Fox 2 News on KTVU Plus (newscasts)
ChannelsDigital: 36 (UHF)
Virtual: 36 (PSIP)
TranslatorsAnalog:
K29AB 29 (UHF) Monterey
K31GK 31 (UHF) Ukiah
Affiliations
OwnerFox Television Stations, LLC
First air dateOctober 9, 1967
Call letters' meaningICU = "I See You"
Sister station(s)KTVU
Former callsignsKGSC-TV (1967–1981)
Former channel number(s)
  • Analog:
  • 36 (UHF, 1967–2009)
  • Digital:
  • 52 (UHF, 2004–2009)
Former affiliations
  • Secondary:
  • NBC (2008–2009, 2012–2014)
Transmitter power550 kW
Height686 m (2,251 ft)
Facility ID34564
Transmitter coordinates37°29′17″N 121°52′3″W / 37.48806°N 121.86750°WCoordinates: 37°29′17″N 121°52′3″W / 37.48806°N 121.86750°W
Licensing authorityFCC
Public license informationProfile
CDBS
Websitewww.ktvu.com/news/ktvuplus

History

Prior history of UHF channel 36 in Northern California

The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) originally assigned the UHF channel 36 allocation in Northern California to Stockton. It was occupied by KTVU (no relation to the present-day Oakland-based sister station of KICU), a short-lived independent station that signed on the air on December 18, 1953. The station carried mainly low-cost, barter syndicated programming and a limited amount of locally produced programs; during its final month of operation in April 1955, KTVU also carried a few NBC programs (including Mr. Peepers, My Little Margie, Howdy Doody and You Bet Your Life) via simulcast with KRON-TV (channel 4, now a MyNetworkTV affiliate).

At the time, most television sets did not have built-in UHF tuners; the signal quality of UHF television stations, however, was marginal at best even with an external converter (the FCC did not require electronics manufacturers to equip televisions with UHF tuners until the All-Channel Receiver Act was passed into law in 1961, although UHF tuners were not included on all new sets until 1964). Consequently, as it was hampered by low viewership, (the original) KTVU ultimately ceased operations on April 30, 1955. Shortly afterward, Capital City TV Corp. (owner of independent station KCCC-TV [now Fox affiliate KTXL-TV] in Sacramento) entered into negotiations to purchase KTVU and return it into operation as a satellite station (Capital City also proposed as a backup to move the UHF channel 16 allocation from Red Bluff to the PittsburgAntioch area, a proposal that was approved by the FCC on June 8, 1955; however, Capital City TV never formally applied for a construction permit, and the allocation was later reassigned for land mobile telephone use).

On August 26, 1955, the FCC approved Capital City TV's purchase of KTVU and granted it authorization to resume KTVU's operations that same day; however, ABC refused to grant permission to have its programming be simulcast on KTVU, as its signal overlapped with the network's owned-and-operated station in the Bay Area, KGO-TV (channel 7). Channel 36 never returned to the air and its construction permit was deleted by the Commission less than a year later.[1] The FCC later reassigned the UHF channel 36 allocation to the San Francisco–Oakland–San Jose television market in the early 1960s; Stockton, meanwhile, became part of the Sacramento television market.

KICU station history

KICU-TV first signed on the air on October 3, 1967 as KGSC-TV. It is currently the longest continuously operating commercial UHF television station in the Bay Area, as well as the longest continuously operating independent station in the market. It was originally owned by Continental-Urban Television Corporation. It first operated from studios located on Kerley Drive in San Jose.

For much of its history, the station's programming schedule consisted mainly of syndicated off-network series, talk shows and religious programs, as well as a limited amount of locally produced public affairs programming. However, as KGSC, Channel 36 was notable for its all-night movie presentations, which were co-hosted for several years during the early 1970s by Andy Moore as prospector Old Sourdough and Gary Ferry as his Native American companion Chief Wachikanoka, characters that Moore and Ferry originated for a similar movie showcase on rival independent KEMO-TV (channel 20, now KOFY-TV) (Moore and Ferry hosted a similar program, as the characters Race Street and Bascom Avenue, until Moore left KGSC in 1973/74). The two characters often made jokes about the movies being showcased (similar to the humor used in Mystery Science Theater 3000), as well as engaged in comedic banter with guests promoting local businesses. The format would eventually be revised, with the interstitial segments conducted by Moore and Ferry being phased out in favor of a half-hour segment preceding the film.[2]

While there were several sets of hosts for the all-night movies, including Eugene Hogan, an experienced emcee who was best known for his work at San Jose radio station KLOK (1170 AM), most of the station's film presentations following Moore's departure from the station were branded as Movies 'Til Dawn (which was also used by KTLA in Los Angeles for its overnight film telecasts during the 1970s and 1980s), and sponsored by local retailer MMM Carpets, with which Ferry served as its television spokesman until the mid-1990s. The station promoted itself as "The Perfect 36" during the 1970s, employing busty San Francisco stripper/entertainer Carol Doda as its spokesmodel for station image promotions; Gloria Aponte-Rodriguez also served as spokesmodel for the Latin Weekend Audience programming block during the period.

Continental sold the station to Ralph Wilson Enterprises, owned by Detroit businessman Ralph Wilson who also managed the Buffalo Bills NFL franchise in 1979. The station subsequently changed its call letters to KICU-TV (a play on the phrase "I See You") on March 27, 1981. the KICU calls had previously been assigned to an independent station on UHF channel 43 (now occupied by Estrella TV affiliate KGMC) in Clovis, which signed on in December 1961 under the ownership of Norwood Patterson (son of Rev. Sherwood Patterson, owner of now-defunct San Francisco-based independent KSAN-TV, channel 32, which operated as a satellite of the Fresno station from 1966 to 1968) and operated until October 1968 (although the license would not be cancelled by the FCC until 1975).[3] The on-air identifications used by the station following the callsign change featured a breathy, husky voiceover by Doda reading: "I see you, San Francisco. You're watching the perfect 36 ... KICU, San Jose." In addition to breathing the station IDs, Doda would also perform the station's editorial segments, which like the IDs were laced with double entendres. The first take of the editorials was always broadcast, with any mistakes made by Doda when they were recorded left in the aired segments.[4]

Over the years, the station ran a number of drama series and older movies; it also added more classic sitcoms and children's programs by the mid-1990s. However, the station gradually decreased the amount of children's programs it carried on its schedule between 1998 and 2002, outside of those it aired on Saturday mornings. In 1992, William Hirshey and three members of the station's management staff—president/general manager Jim Evers, vice president of operations Bill Beeman, and vice president and general sales manager John DuBois—acquired minority ownership stakes in the station, with Ralph Wilson Enterprises retaining majority control.

Cox Enterprises ownership

KICU Logo
KICU logo under the "TV36" brand, used from September 2007 to April 25, 2016.

On August 28, 1999, after having rejected unsolicited bids to sell the station for the several years, Ralph Wilson Enterprises announced that it would sell KICU-TV. Station management cited the FCC's August 5 decision to relax its ownership rules to allow a single broadcasting company to own two television stations in the same market (on the pretense that one of the stations is not among the four highest-rated) as a caveat in its decision to divest KICU.[5][6][7][8]

Among the station groups reportedly interested in acquiring KICU was NBC Television Stations, which sought to acquire an owned-and-operated station in the Bay Area after NBC was outbid by Young Broadcasting for longtime NBC affiliate KRON-TV in November 1999, leading to a dispute between the network and Young (which has since merged with Media General) during negotiations to renew NBC's affiliation agreement with KRON that resulted in the latter group declining to renew the contract after it expired on December 31, 2001.[9][10] NBC would ultimately reach an affiliation deal with San Jose-based WB affiliate KNTV (channel 11), after then-owner Granite Broadcasting Corporation (from which NBC would later acquire KNTV) on February 18, 2000.[11][12]

On November 29, 1999, Wilson sold the station to the Cox Broadcasting (now Cox Media Group) subsidiary of Cox Enterprises. The resulting pairing of KICU with KTVU created the Bay Area's first television station duopoly when the deal was finalized in March 2000;[13][14] the operations of KICU migrated from that station's original studio facilities on Kerley Drive in San Jose, where KTVU relocated its South Bay news bureau, and were consolidated into KTVU's Jack London Square facility in Oakland.[15]

Acquisition by Fox Television Stations

On June 24, 2014, Fox Television Stations announced that it would acquire KTVU and KICU from the Cox Media Group, in exchange for trading two Fox owned-and-operated stations, WFXT in Boston and WHBQ-TV in Memphis, to the latter group.[16][17][18] The trade was completed on October 8, 2014. It was part of Fox's pursuit of station acquisitions in the markets of NFL teams that are part of the National Football Conference—the San Francisco–Oakland–San Jose market, where the San Francisco 49ers are based, became the sixth-largest NFC market where Fox owned at least one television station.[19][20]

With the completion of the deal, KICU became the first independent station to be operated by Fox since September 2006, when it converted KDFI in DallasFort Worth into a charter owned-and-operated station of the co-owned MyNetworkTV programming service. As of 2016, KICU remains the only Fox Television Stations outlet that is not a MyNetworkTV O&O, due to an existing agreement with KRON-TV (channel 4), which has been affiliated with the service since MyNetworkTV launched.

There remains the possibility that KICU may convert into a MyNetworkTV O&O in the future, either after the service's current affiliation agreement with KRON expires (similar to the situation in Charlotte in which Fox Television Stations purchased WJZY and nullified its affiliation agreement with charter Fox affiliate WCCB), or is given up voluntarily before KRON's agreement with MyNetworkTV lapses. If so, this would make the Bay Area the only American television market in which the stations carrying each of the six broadcast networks (though MyNetworkTV has been a programming service since 2009) are owned by their associated network's respective parent companies.

In November 2014, when KTVU transitioned from Cox's in-house digital platforms to the WorldNow platform used for Fox Television Stations' websites and mobile apps,[21] KICU discontinued its standalone website, with Fox reducing the station's web presence to a minimalist subpage on the revamped KTVU site, incorporating only listings for KICU and KTVU, FCC-required disclosures for Children's Television Act and employment requirements and forms of contact, and the default TMZ on TV video portal.

On April 25, 2016, KICU adopted the "KTVU Plus" brand, replacing the "TV 36" branding that had been in use since September 2007. The co-branding with sister station KTVU is similar to that adopted in 2009 by San Jose PBS member station KQEH (channel 54), when that station, as a result of its purchase by Northern California Public Broadcasting two years earlier, changed its branding to "KQED Plus" to reflect its ties to sister station KQED (channel 9).[22][23] The "KTVU Plus" branding has since inspired Fox to de-emphasis its localized MyNetworkTV brand and rebrand to an extension of their Fox O&O sisters in Dallas, Washington, D.C., Phoenix and Minneapolis/St. Paul.

Digital television

Digital channels

The station's digital channel is multiplexed:

Channel Video Aspect PSIP Short Name Programming[24]
36.1 720p 16:9 KICU-TV Main KICU-TV programming
36.2 480i 4:3 KICU-SD KEMS / KBS World
36.3 KICUSD2 CGTN
36.4 16:9 KICUSD3 Heroes & Icons
36.5 4:3 KICUSD4 Light TV

Sister station KTVU used to operate its Mobile DTV feed over KICU-TV's digital signal, broadcasting at 1.83 Mbit/s, but later moved the Mobile DTV feed to its own signal.[25][26] After the move, KICU began to broadcast its own programming over the feed.

Analog-to-digital conversion

KICU-TV shut down its analog signal, over UHF channel 36, on February 17, 2009, to conclude the federally mandated transition from analog to digital television.[27][28][29][30] The station's digital signal relocated from its pre-transition UHF channel 52, which was among the high band UHF channels (52-69) that were removed from broadcasting use as a result of the transition, to its former analog-era UHF channel 36 for post-transition operations.

Programming

Syndicated programs broadcast by KICU-TV include Dish Nation, The Big Bang Theory, Modern Family and TMZ Live.[31]

Occasionally as time permits, KICU may air Fox network programs normally seen on KTVU in the event that Channel 2 is unable to air them because of extended breaking news coverage or conflicts with Fox Sports event telecasts or locally produced special programming on that station; this was also the case when KTVU aired San Francisco Giants baseball games that ran into or aired during prime time hours, until that station lost the broadcast television rights to the Giants to NBC owned-and-operated station KNTV (channel 11) in 2007. Channel 36 assumed additional backup programming responsibilities in April 2016, when it began to air local newscasts normally seen on KTVU whenever that station is scheduled to air Fox Sports event telecasts that will overflow predeterminedly into the time slot of the given program.[22]

KICU previously aired select NBC programs pre-empted by the network's designated Bay Area affiliates at three separate times throughout its history. After the market's original NBC affiliate, KRON-TV, removed the program from its schedule in July 1998 (in favor of syndicated talk program The Howie Mandel Show), KICU aired Another World until the soap opera ended its run on the network in June 1999.[32][33] Ten years later, after KNTV became the broadcast home of the Giants in 2008, KICU took on the role of airing NBC daytime and prime time programs pre-empted by the NBC-owned station. In April 2010, KRON took over the duties of running NBC programs preempted by KNTV. The duty of being NBC's backup affiliate in the Bay Area in the event that KNTV broadcasts Giants games and breaking news coverage reverted over to KICU in 2012. However, as of 2014, it is unlikely that preempted NBC programming will air on KICU due to its ownership by the corporate parent of competing network Fox; NBC O&O KNTV currently uses its Cozi TV-affiliated second digital subchannel to carry network programs in such situations.

Sports programming

During the station's ownership tenures under Ralph Wilson Enterprises and Cox Enterprises, KICU-TV maintained a strong association with Bay Area sports. Perhaps with the exception of the San Francisco Giants of Major League Baseball, the NFL's San Francisco 49ers and the now-defunct San Jose Lasers of the American Basketball League, each of the city's major professional sports franchises, along with several local college and high school teams, have had their games televised on Channel 36.

In the spring of 1985, KICU obtained the broadcast rights to carry NBA games involving the Golden State Warriors, beginning with the 1985-86 season. The station initially aired up to 70 preseason and regular season games per season, some of which were broadcast on tape delay beginning in the late 1990s; the number of Warriors games aired on Channel 36 decreased to 30 per season after the 1997-98 season, when the team renewed its cable agreement with regional sports network SportsChannel Bay Area (later FSN Bay Area, now NBC Sports Bay Area), with KICU also passing a limited number of additional games over to KTVU following Cox's 1999 purchase of KICU. The Warriors' relationship with KICU ended after the 2001-02 season, when the team moved its local broadcasts exclusively to Fox Sports Net Bay Area through the signing of a ten-year deal with the cable channel.[34][35][36][37]

On October 28, 1998, KICU-TV acquired the rights to broadcast Major League Baseball games from the Oakland Athletics, after the team exercised a clause in its existing five-year television contract with KRON-TV to shop the rights to other Bay Area television outlets following the 1998 regular season. Under the initial deal in which it became the team's broadcast television flagship, which began with the 1999 season, Channel 36 offered an expanded schedule of 55 regular season games, 25 more than what KRON was able to offer within its schedule due to difficulties with its programming obligations with NBC (all other A's games that were not televised nationally aired in the market on now-defunct Fox Sports Bay Area).[38]

During the first year of the contract, KICU carried all of the team's afternoon games on tape delay on a trial basis, to allow viewers who were at work while the game was being played the opportunity to watch it that evening. However, due to viewer complaints (particularly since play-by-play audio of the games that KICU televised could be heard on radio live, although A's director of broadcasting Ken Pries noted to the San Francisco Chronicle that the team had reservations about allowing the telecasts to be tape-delayed beforehand), the station switched to airing all A's telecasts, regardless of when they were held, live-to-air in May 1999.[39] After it was purchased by Cox, the duopoly of KICU and KTVU, which held the over-the-air rights to the Giants, essentially had exclusive control of the local broadcast television contracts to both of the Bay Area's MLB teams; this lasted until Channel 2 lost the rights to the Giants to NBC owned-and-operated station KNTV following the 2007 season. KICU subsequently lost the rights to the Athletics after the 2009 season, when the team signed an exclusive television deal with Comcast SportsNet California (now NBC Sports California).

The station also was a longtime broadcaster of National Hockey League games featuring the San Jose Sharks from the team's inaugural season in 1991 until FSN Bay Area took over as the Sharks' exclusive local television broadcaster following the 2000-01 season.[40][41] The station also carried Major League Soccer games involving the San Jose Clash (now the San Jose Earthquakes) from the team's inaugural season in 1996 until FSN Bay Area took over the local rights following the 2000–01 season, and the San Jose SaberCats Arena Football League franchise from that team's inaugural season in 1998 until FSN Bay Area assumed the local television rights to the team following the 2000–01 season.

From 1991 until the program's cancellation in 2008, the station also aired the sports highlight program High School Sports Focus on Friday nights at 11:00 p.m. (which was rebroadcast on Sundays at 4:00 p.m.), which covered high school sports events throughout the Bay Area with a primary focus on events involving Santa Clara County area schools; the program won several Regional Emmy Awards throughout its 18-year run.[42] In addition, after FSN Bay Area shut down in 2008, KICU occasionally served as a backup Fox Sports Net affiliate, carrying select California Bears basketball and football games to which FSN holds rights through its contract with the Pacific-10 Conference.[43]

On April 24, 2017, KTVU relocated the rain-delayed Food City 500 to KICU, marking the first time a Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series race has been broadcast on the station. This occurred again the next year on April 16, 2018 with the 2018 running of the same race.

Newscasts

As of April 2016, KTVU presently produces ten hours of locally produced newscasts each week for KICU (with two hours on weekdays); KICU does not carry newscasts on Saturdays and Sundays. In addition, the station airs the KTVU-produced program Bay Area People, which is rebroadcast Sundays at 9:00 a.m.

In 1986, KICU-TV debuted a half-hour early evening newscast at 7:30 p.m., called Action 36 News, the first newscast on a commercial television station in the market to have aired in the prime access time period. The program was eventually moved to 10:00 p.m. in 1988, placing it in direct competition with eventual sister station KTVU's higher-rated prime time newscast The 10 o'clock News. The newscast was anchored for several years by former KPIX-TV (channel 5) sports anchor Jan Hutchins and Bay Area news veteran Ysabel Duron; the station's reporting staff included among others Bill Buckmaster, Tony Russomanno and Melanie Morgan. During its first three years in the later slot, Action 36 News at Ten was accompanied at 10:30 p.m. by the nationally syndicated Independent Network News, which was produced by fellow independent station WPIX (now a CW affiliate) in New York City, until both programs were cancelled in June 1990. KICU revived its news department in 1992, with the debut of Action 36 Prime News, an early evening local newscast at 7:00 p.m. that aired seven nights a week; this program was cancelled in 1994. In 1995, the station began producing the technology-focused business news program Silicon Valley Business This Week, which aired until 1999.

After being acquired by Cox Enterprises, sister station KTVU began simulcasting its flagship newscast on KICU. In January 2000, the station began airing a rebroadcast of The Ten O'Clock News immediately following its initial broadcast on KTVU each night at 11:00 p.m., under the title The Eleven O'Clock Edition of the Original Ten O'Clock News (the "Original" branding was used during that period to differentiate from other prime time newscasts that aired in that hour a few years prior on KRON-TV and CBS station KPIX-TV—both of which pushed their network evening schedules one hour early in August 1992, in an attempt to improve prime time viewership and to compete with KTVU—as well as a KNTV-produced program that aired on KBWB-TV (channel 20, now KOFY-TV) at the time); the simulcast was dropped from the schedule on September 14, 2001. From 2001 to 2003, KICU also aired a simulcast of KTVU's morning newscast Mornings on 2 each Monday through Friday from 7:00 to 9:00 a.m., with the station inserting a ticker featuring traffic and weather information, news briefs and breaking news stories specific to the South Bay region.

KTVU restored news programming to Channel 36's schedule on January 21, 2008, when that station began producing the half-hour Bay Area News at 7 on TV 36, airing at 7:00 p.m. each weeknight.[44] The rebroadcast of The Ten O'Clock News was restored onto KICU's schedule on April 5, 2010, being shown this time at 11:30 p.m. each weeknight; the rebroadcast reverted to the 11:00 p.m. slot it held during its original run on KICU on July 1, 2013.

Concurrent with the station's rebranding under the "KTVU Plus" moniker on April 25, 2016, in addition to retaining the late rebroadcast of The Ten O'Clock News, KICU expanded its 7:00 p.m. newscast to one hour. KTVU also began producing an hour-long extension of Mornings on 2 for Channel 36; the newly added 10:00 a.m. hour of Mornings on 2 extended the weekday editions of the program to a combined seven hours between the two stations (alongside the existing six-hour broadcast which precedes it on KTVU).[22]

On-air staff

Notable former on-air staff

, Jane Akre was evening anchor with Hutchins from 1987-1988. She left for WSVN in Miami two years into a three-year contract.

References

  1. ^ K.M. Richards. "KCCC-TV/40, Sacramento CA". History of UHF Television. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
  2. ^ "Ga3ry.com". Ga3ry.com. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
  3. ^ K.M. Richards. "KQEC/32, San Francisco CA". History of UHF Television. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  4. ^ "KGSC 36". UHF Nocturne. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
  5. ^ Alastair Goldfisher (August 29, 1999). "For sale: KICU-TV goes on market in changing times". San Jose Business Journal. American City Business Journals.
  6. ^ "Channel 36 Up for Sale". San Francisco Chronicle. Chronicle Publishing Company. August 28, 1999.
  7. ^ John Carman (September 1, 1999). "Sale of KICU Could Change Local Picture". San Francisco Chronicle. Chronicle Publishing Company.
  8. ^ Rick Maloney (September 6, 1999). "Wilson ready to sell: his TV station, that is". Buffalo Business Journal. American City Business Journals.
  9. ^ "Battle for Control At Channel 4 / NBC puts conditions on renewing deal with KRON's future owner". San Francisco Chronicle. Chronicle Publishing Company. February 10, 2000.
  10. ^ Peter Delevett (November 28, 1999). "Is there a peacock in KICU's future?". San Jose Business Journal. American City Business Journals.
  11. ^ "NBC Drops Television Channel in Bay Area, Calif., for San Jose Station". Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News. February 18, 2000. Archived from the original on November 6, 2013. Retrieved May 11, 2013 – via HighBeam Research.
  12. ^ Tim Goodman (December 18, 2001). "NBC buys KNTV, cuts ties to KRON / Deal affirms Jan. 1 switch". San Francisco Chronicle. Chronicle Publishing Company. Retrieved October 31, 2014.
  13. ^ "Cox Broadcasting Buys Second San Jose, Calif., Television Station". Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News. November 29, 1999. Archived from the original on October 11, 2013. Retrieved May 11, 2013 – via HighBeam Research.
  14. ^ John Carman (November 30, 1999). "KTVU Owner To Buy KICU In San Jose". San Francisco Chronicle. Chronicle Publishing Company.
  15. ^ Tim Goodman (November 29, 1999). "Juggernaut created in news, sports". San Francisco Chronicle. Chronicle Publishing Company. Retrieved April 5, 2016.
  16. ^ "Fox And Cox To Swap 4 Stations In 3 Markets". TVNewsCheck. NewsCheck Media. June 24, 2014.
  17. ^ "Fox Acquires San Francisco TV Stations in Swap with Cox". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. June 25, 2014.
  18. ^ Andrew S. Ross (June 24, 2014). "In TV trade, KTVU becomes a Fox station". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Corporation.
  19. ^ "Fox Steps Up its Pursuit of Station Acquisitions in NFL Markets". Variety. Penske Media Corporation. Retrieved June 24, 2014.
  20. ^ Michael Malone (October 8, 2014). "Cox, Fox Swap Closes in Boston, Bay Area, Memphis". Broadcasting & Cable. NewBay Media. Retrieved October 8, 2014.
  21. ^ "Pardon our dust; KTVU News relaunching apps". KTVU. Fox Television Stations. Archived from the original on December 4, 2014. Retrieved November 27, 2014.
  22. ^ a b c "KTVU Plus launching in Bay Area". KTVU. Fox Television Stations. April 20, 2016. Retrieved April 21, 2016.
  23. ^ Roly Ortega (April 21, 2016). "KICU will soon go from "TV 36" to "KTVU Plus" and will add more news on the station as well as on KTVU itself". The Changing Newscasts Blog. WordPress.
  24. ^ "RabbitEars TV Query for KICU". RabbitEars. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
  25. ^ "MDTV Query". RabbitEars. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
  26. ^ "Mobile DTV Station Guide". MDTVSignalMap.com. Retrieved July 12, 2013.
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  28. ^ Ryan Kim (February 19, 2009). "Digital switch goes smoothly for local stations". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Corporation.
  29. ^ David R. Baker (February 6, 2009). "Most area channels to delay all-digital TV". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Corporation.
  30. ^ List of Digital Full-Power Stations Archived 2013-08-29 at the Wayback Machine
  31. ^ "KICUDT - TV Schedule". Zap2It. Tribune Digital Ventures. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
  32. ^ "`Another World' Finds New Home on KICU". San Francisco Chronicle. Chronicle Publishing Company. July 1, 1998.
  33. ^ John Carman (July 3, 1998). "TV's Bad Sports, Mixed Nuts and More". San Francisco Chronicle. Chronicle Publishing Company.
  34. ^ "Channel 36 to air 70 games, but SportsChannel not in the mix yet". San Francisco Examiner. Hearst Corporation. July 10, 1997.
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  40. ^ Tony Cooper (December 22, 1995). "New Skaters Improve Power-Play Goals". San Francisco Chronicle. Chronicle Publishing Company.
  41. ^ Michelle Smith (May 1, 1998). "Bay Area viewers are turning a cold shoulder to ice hockey". San Francisco Examiner. Hearst Corporation.
  42. ^ Merv Harris (October 6, 1998). "Football stars blossom into TV stars". San Francisco Chronicle. Chronicle Publishing Company.
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  44. ^ Joe Garofoli (December 5, 2007). "KTVU to Start 7 p.m. Newscast on KICU". San Francisco Chronicle. Hearst Corporation.

External links

1999 Oakland Athletics season

The Oakland Athletics' 1999 season involved the A's finishing 2nd in the American League West with a record of 87 wins and 75 losses. In doing so, the Athletics finished with their first winning record since 1992. The campaign was also the first of eight consecutive winning seasons for the Athletics (the last of these coming in 2006).

2003 Oakland Athletics season

The Oakland Athletics' 2003 season ended with the A's finishing 1st in the American League West with a record of 96 wins and 66 losses.

2004 Oakland Athletics season

The Oakland Athletics' 2004 season involved the A's finishing 2nd in the American League West with a record of 91 wins and 71 losses.

Brodie Brazil

Brodie Matthew Brazil (born April 3, 1981) is an American television broadcaster who has won 13 Regional Emmy Awards and nominated for 32.

Channel 36 digital TV stations in the United States

The following television stations broadcast on digital channel 36 in the United States:

K22IC-D in Strong City, Oklahoma

K36AB-D in Lawton, Oklahoma

K36AC-D in Yuma, Colorado

K36AE-D in Clarkdale, Arizona

K36AF-D in New Castle, Colorado

K36AI-D in Parowan/Enoch, etc., Utah

K36AK-D in Blanding/Monticello, Utah

K36BA-D in Burns, Oregon

K36BQ-D in Pahrump, Nevada

K36BW-D in Thompson Falls, Montana

K36BX-D in Coos Bay, Oregon

K36CA-D in Memphis, Texas

K36CC-D in Tulia, Texas

K36CW-D in Dodson, Montana

K36CX-D in Boulder, Montana

K36DB-CD in Avon/Vail, Colorado

K36DI-D in Santa Rosa, New Mexico

K36DK-D in Joplin, Montana

K36DP-D in Pendleton, Oregon

K36EW-D in College Place, Washington

K36FF-D in Shurz, Nevada

K36FG-D in Hood River, etc., Oregon

K36FM-D in Beaver, etc., Utah

K36FQ-D in Wagon Mound, New Mexico

K36FS-D in Randolph, Utah

K36FT-D in Santa Clara, etc., Utah

K36FV-D in Hatch, Utah

K36FZ-D in Meadview, Arizona

K36GL-D in Lovelock, Nevada

K36GQ-D in Parlin, Colorado

K36GU-D in Rockaway Beach, Oregon

K36GX-D in Basalt, Colorado

K36HA-D in Elko, Nevada

K36HH-D in Susanville, etc., California

K36HM-D in Fort Dick, California

K36IB-D in Midland, etc., Oregon

K36IF-D in Orangeville, Utah

K36IG-D in Antimony, Utah

K36IH-D in Ignacio, Colorado

K36II-D in Joplin, Missouri

K36IJ-D in Anahola, etc., Hawaii

K36IK-D in Delta/Oak City, etc., Utah

K36IL-D in Hanna & Tabiona, Utah

K36IM-D in Duchesne, etc., Utah

K36IO-D in Manhattan, Kansas

K36IP-D in Scipio, Utah

K36IQ-D in Vernal, etc., Utah

K36IR-D in Garrison, etc., Utah

K36IS-D in Woodland & Kamas, Utah

K36IY-D in Weatherford, Oklahoma

K36JA-D in Enterprise, Utah

K36JB-D in Cripple Creek, Colorado

K36JD-D in Jackson, Wyoming

K36JH-D in Barstow, California

K36JO-D in Cheyenne, Wyoming

K36JS-D in Grants, New Mexico

K36JT-D in Clear Creek, Utah

K36JU-D in Helper, Utah

K36JV-D in East Price, Utah

K36JW-D in Spring Glen, Utah

K36JX-D in Many Farms, Arizona

K36JZ-D in Roseburg, Oregon

K36KA-D in Rolla, Missouri

K36KD-D in Tierra Amarilla, New Mexico

K36KE-D in Ardmore, Oklahoma

K36KH-D in Alexandria, Minnesota

K36KI-D in Fillmore, etc., Utah

K36KJ-D in Rural Garfield, Utah

K36KL-D in Gruver, Texas

K36KN-D in Eureka, Nevada

K36KQ-D in Panguitch, Utah

K36KR-D in Elmo/Big Arm, Montana

K36KV-D in Teasdale, etc., Utah

K36KW-D in Redwood Falls, Minnesota

K36KX-D in Leamington, Utah

K36KZ-D in Max, Minnesota

K36LA-D in Kabetogama, Minnesota

K36LB-D in Cheyenne Wells, Colorado

K36LE-D in Manila, etc., Utah

K36LF-D in Taos, New Mexico

K36LM-D in Grand Junction, Colorado

K36LU-D in Ely, Nevada

K36LW-D in Williams, Minnesota

K36LX-D in Jacks Cabin, Colorado

K36MA-D in Perryton, Texas

K36MI-D in Fountain Green, Utah

K36ND-D in Victoria, Texas

K36NE-D in Las Vegas, Nevada

K36NJ-D in Monett, Missouri

K36NP-D in Baker Valley, Oregon

K36NQ-D in Altus, Oklahoma

K36NR-D in Seiling, Oklahoma

K36OA-D in Red Lake, Minnesota

K36OJ-D in Rainier, Oregon

K36OU-D in Mountain View, Wyoming

K38DT-D in North La Pine, Oregon

K38HE-D in West Plains, Missouri

K38MS-D in Alton, etc., Utah

K39CZ-D in Aberdeen, South Dakota

K39JX-D in Livingston, etc., Montana

K39LT-D in Pringle, South Dakota

K43DC-D in Lewistown, Montana

K45CH-D in Fort Peck, Montana

K47GI-D in Grants Pass, Oregon

K47KJ-D in Verdi, Nevada

K49EV-D in Clarkston, Washington

K49IG-D in Yreka, California

K49KA-D in Whitehall, Montana

K49LV-D in Granite Falls, Minnesota

K50CT-D in Cottage Grove, Oregon

K50HZ-D in Willmar, Minnesota

K50JT-D in Hakalau, Hawaii

K57FO-D in Garden Valley, Idaho

KAAL in Austin, Minnesota

KADO-CD in Shreveport, Louisiana

KAJB in Calipatria, California

KAZT-CD in Phoenix, Arizona

KBFK-LP in Bakersfield, California

KBNS-CD in Branson, Missouri

KBWU-LD in Richland, etc., Washington

KDFI in Dallas, Texas

KEVC-CD in Indio, California

KEVE-LD in Vancouver, Washington

KFFS-CD in Fayetteville, Arkansas

KFPX-TV in Newton, Iowa

KFRE-TV in Sanger, California

KFTH-DT in Alvin, Texas

KFTU-DT in Douglas, Arizona

KHSL-TV in Redding, California

KICU-TV in San Jose, California

KIDK in Idaho Falls, Idaho

KJWY-LD in Salem, Oregon

KKAP in Little Rock, Arkansas

KLGV-LD in Longview, Texas

KNBC in Los Angeles, California

KRSU-TV in Claremore, Oklahoma

KSKN in Spokane, Washington

KSKT-CD in San Marcos, California

KTFO-CD in Austin, Texas

KTMF-LD in Kalispell, Montana

KTVS-LD in Albuquerque, New Mexico

KUEN in Ogden, Utah

KUIL-LD in Beaumont, Texas

KUOK-CD in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

KUVE-CD in Tucson, Arizona

KVES-LD in Palm Springs, California

KWQC-TV in Davenport, Iowa

KWSD in Sioux Falls, South Dakota

KXTV in Sacramento, California

KYUB-LD in Durham, California

KZMB-LD in Enid, Oklahoma

KZOD-LP in Odessa, Texas

W36BE-D in State College, Pennsylvania

W36DO-D in Darby, Pennsylvania

W36EC-D in Bartow, Florida

W41CR-D in Hinesville-Richmond, Georgia

W42CB-D in Hesperia, Michigan

WABM in Birmingham, Alabama

WAXN-TV in China Grove, North Carolina

WBUD-LP in Blairsville, Georgia

WCAY-CD in Key West, Florida

WCIV in Charleston, South Carolina

WDNP-LD in St. Petersburg, Florida

WDYC-LD in Cincinnati, Ohio

WENY-TV in Elmira, New York

WFFT-TV in Fort Wayne, Indiana

WFPX-TV in Fayetteville, North Carolina

WGCW-LD in Albany, Georgia

WGPT in Oakland, Maryland

WIMN-CA in Arecibo, Puerto Rico

WITF-TV in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

WJYS in Hammond, Indiana

WKMU in Murray, Kentucky

WKYT-TV in Lexington, Kentucky

WLEF-TV in Park Falls, Wisconsin

WLNS-TV in Lansing, Michigan

WLOO in Vicksburg, Mississippi

WMAV-TV in Oxford, Mississippi

WMGM-TV in Wildwood, New Jersey

WMNT-CD in Toledo, Ohio

WMVS in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

WNJU in Linden, New Jersey

WNPX-TV in Cookeville, Tennessee

WNTE-LD in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico

WPMC-CD in Mappsville, Virginia

WPXP-TV in Lake Worth, Florida

WPXR-TV in Roanoke, Virginia

WRIW-CD in Providence, Rhode Island

WSWB in Scranton, Pennsylvania

WTTE in Columbus, Ohio

WTTG in Washington, D.C.

WTVY in Dothan, Alabama

WTWO in Terre Haute, Indiana

WUFT in Gainesville, Florida

WUNP-TV in Roanoke Rapids, North Carolina

WVOZ-TV in Ponce, Puerto Rico

WWL-TV in New Orleans, Louisiana

WYCN-CD in Nashua, New Hampshire

WYFF in Greenville, South Carolina

WYTV in Youngstown, Ohio

WZCK-LD in Madison-Middleton, Wisconsin

WZXZ-CD in Orlando, etc., FloridaThe following stations, which are no longer licensed, formerly broadcast on digital channel 36 in the United States:

K36HV-D in Wallowa, Oregon

K36IN-D in Fruitland, etc., Utah

WCDC-TV in Adams, Massachusetts

Channel 36 virtual TV stations in the United States

The following television stations operate on virtual channel 36 in the United States:

K16KE-D in Baudette, Minnesota

K23LH-D in Cortez, Colorado

K36AB-D in Lawton, Oklahoma

K36DB-CD in Avon/Vail, Colorado

K36EW-D in College Place, Washington

K36II-D in Joplin, Missouri

K36IO-D in Manhattan, Kansas

K36JH-D in Barstow, California

K36KA-D in Rolla, Missouri

K36KE-D in Ardmore, Oklahoma

K36LM-D in Grand Junction, Colorado

K36LW-D in Williams, Minnesota

K36ND-D in Victoria, Texas

KAJR-LD in Fort Dodge, Iowa

KBFK-LP in Bakersfield, California

KBNS-CD in Branson, Missouri

KDTF-LD in San Diego, California

KEVE-LD in Vancouver, Washington

KFFS-CD in Fayetteville, Arkansas

KHIN in Red Oak, Iowa

KICU-TV in San Jose, California

KKAP in Little Rock, Arkansas

KLGV-LD in Longview, Texas

KMIR-TV in Palm Springs, California

KMTW in Hutchinson, Kansas

KPBT-TV in Odessa, Texas

KQIN in Davenport, Iowa

KTVC in Roseburg, Oregon

KTVS-LD in Albuquerque, New Mexico

KUOK-CD in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

KWSD in Sioux Falls, South Dakota

KXAN-TV in Austin, Texas

KYUB-LD in Durham, California

W24AY-D in Lilesville/Wadesboro, North Carolina

W30CR-D in Biscoe, North Carolina

W30DZ-D in Fence, Wisconsin

W36DO-D in Darby, Pennsylvania

W36EC-D in Bartow, Florida

WAPK-CD in Bristol, Virginia/Kingsport, Tennessee

WATL in Atlanta, Georgia

WCAY-CD in Key West, Florida

WCIV in Charleston, South Carolina

WCNC-TV in Charlotte, North Carolina

WDNP-LD in St. Petersburg, Florida

WDWL in Bayamon, Puerto Rico

WDYC-LD in Cincinnati, Ohio

WEAZ-LD in McComb, Mississippi

WENY-TV in Elmira, New York

WFIQ-TV in Florence, Alabama

WFTX-TV in Cape Coral, Florida

WGCW-LD in Albany, Georgia

WGPT in Oakland, Maryland

WKIN-CD in Weber County, Virginia/Kingsport, Tennessee

WLEF-TV in Park Falls, Wisconsin

WMDE in Dover, Delaware

WMVT in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

WNTE-LD in Mayaguez, Puerto Rico

WQEK-LD in Clarksdale, Mississippi

WSBE-TV in Providence, Rhode Island

WTVQ-DT in Lexington, Kentucky

WUNP-TV in Roanoke, Rapids, North Carolina

WUPW in Toledo, Ohio

WZXZ-CD in Orlando, etc., FloridaThe following stations, which formerly operated on virtual channel 36, are no longer licensed:

W31DL-D in Ponce, Puerto Rico

Evan Rosen

Evan Rosen is an American author, speaker, business strategist, blogger, and journalist. He is Executive Director of The Culture of Collaboration Institute and Chief Strategist of Impact Video Communication, Inc., which he co-founded.

Rosen is the author of The Culture of Collaboration series of books. The first book in the series is The Culture of Collaboration (ISBN 0-9774617-0-X, ISBN 978-0-9774617-0-7), a Gold Medal Winner in the Axiom Business Book Awards. The second book in the series is The Bounty Effect: 7 Steps to The Culture of Collaboration (ISBN 978-0977461776).

The Culture of Collaboration shows how collaboration creates business value and demonstrates how collaborative culture is changing business models and the nature of work. Terms Rosen coins in the book include mirror zones and the Ten Cultural Elements of Collaboration. Companies used as examples in the book include Boeing, Toyota, The Dow Chemical Company, Procter & Gamble, BMW, Mayo Clinic, Myelin Repair Foundation, Industrial Light & Magic and DreamWorks Animation.The Bounty Effect: 7 Steps to The Culture of Collaboration provides a framework for replacing obsolete Industrial Age organizational structures based on command-and-control with collaborative organizational structures designed for the Information Age. The book gets its name from the mutiny that occurred on the H.M.S. Bounty in 1789. Rosen uses the mutiny to illustrate how exigent circumstances compel companies, governments and organizations to change their structures from command-and-control to collaborative. The book includes a back-cover quote from Steve Wozniak, co-founder of Apple.Rosen is also the author of Personal Videoconferencing (Manning/Prentice Hall, 1996, ISBN 978-0-13-268327-2), the first book on PC-based videoconferencing. In the book, he coined the word collabicate, which means to collaborate and communicate.Rosen’s work has been featured in The Wall Street Journal, Investor's Business Daily, Bloomberg BusinessWeek, The Washington Post, MIT Technology Review, CIO Magazine, IndustryWeek, NetworkWorld, InformationWeek, Workforce, The Washington Times, Executive Travel, Talent Management, Computerworld Canada, Leader to Leader, CableWorld, Communication World, Sales and Marketing Management, InfoWorld Netherlands, TechWorld United Kingdom, Exame Magazine of Brazil, and he has appeared on CNN, CBS News, CNBC's "Collaboration Now" primetime special and on numerous local television and radio broadcasts. Rosen is a columnist for Bloomberg BusinessWeek.com and he also writes The Culture of Collaboration® blog.

Rosen spent his early career reporting on Silicon Valley and the automobile industry for television stations. He has held news positions at KICU-TV in San Jose, WTOL-TV in Toledo, WABC-TV in New York, WXYZ-TV in Detroit, KODE-TV in Joplin, Missouri, and WCBN-FM in Ann Arbor.He holds a B.A. in history from the University of Michigan -Ann Arbor where he was news director and a member of the board of directors of the Campus Broadcasting Network. He is also a graduate of Horace Mann School in New York City where he was executive editor of The Record.

Force Five

Force Five was an American adaptation of five different anime television series. In the United States, this series was primarily shown only in New England, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, though it did make brief appearances in other markets, such as Texas and Northern California on KICU-TV 36. It was also shown in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on CFMT channel 47 and in Asia on Star Plus during the 1990s. It was produced by Jim Terry and his company American Way, and it consisted of five imported Japanese giant robot serials (originally produced in the mid-1970s by Toei Animation) in response to the popularity of the Shogun Warriors toy collection. Mattel was one of the sponsors of the series.

In an anthology style, the five shows were broadcast simultaneously with one episode of each serial assigned a specific weekday. Additionally, all of the shows were edited into two-hour movies and marketed on video tape by Family Home Entertainment. In the UK, Krypton Force released several of these programmes but under different series titles.

Fox Television Stations

Fox Television Stations, LLC (FTS; alternately Fox Television Stations Group, LLC), is a group of television stations located within the United States which are owned-and-operated by the Fox Broadcasting Company, a subsidiary of the Fox Corporation.

FTS produced the first 25 seasons of Fox's program COPS (through Fox Television Stations Productions), until it moved to Spike (now Paramount Network) in the 2013-14 season. It also oversees the MyNetworkTV service and has a half-interest in the Movies! digital subchannel network, which is shared with Weigel Broadcasting.

KBS America

KBS America is an American television channel operated by the U.S. subsidiary of Korean Broadcasting System, targeting Koreans in North and South America. Launched on October 6, 2005, it runs a broadcasting schedule separate from KBS World in South Korea.

A Canadian variant of this version, broadcast across Canada, is operated by All TV Inc..

KEMS

KEMS (Korean EverRock Multi-Media Service) is a 24-hour Korean TV station serving the Greater San Francisco Bay Area. They recently went through a complete management change thus changing their name from KTVN to KEMS. KEMS is the only local broadcast now available on Comcast Starter Cable on channel 197. KEMS can also be viewed on KICU-TV subchannel 36.2.

KEXT-CD

KEXT-CD was a television station in the San Francisco Bay Area, broadcasting on virtual channel 27.

KGMC (TV)

KGMC, virtual channel 43 (UHF digital channel 27), is an Estrella TV-affiliated television station serving Fresno, California, United States that is licensed to Clovis. It serves as the flagship television property of owner Cocola Broadcasting, and is sister to eight low-power stations. KGMC's studios are located on West Herndon Avenue in Pinedale, and its transmitter is located on Bear Mountain (northwest of Squaw Valley).

A live simulcast of some of KGMC's non-network programming can be seen on the Cocola Broadcasting homepage.

KRON-TV

KRON-TV, virtual channel 4 (UHF digital channel 38), is a MyNetworkTV-affiliated television station licensed to San Francisco, California, United States and serving the San Francisco Bay Area. The station is owned by Nexstar Media Group. KRON maintains studios in the same building as ABC owned-and-operated station KGO-TV, channel 7 (with completely separate operations from that station) in the Financial District, and its transmitting antenna, shared with Fox O&O KTVU (channel 2) and CBS O&O KPIX-TV (channel 5), is located atop Sutro Tower near San Francisco's Twin Peaks. KRON-TV is the largest MyNetworkTV affiliate by market size that is not owned and operated by the Fox Television Stations subsidiary of the Fox Corporation, which owns the programming service.

KTVU

KTVU, virtual channel 2 (UHF digital channel 44), is a Fox owned-and-operated television station licensed to Oakland, California, United States and serving the San Francisco Bay Area. The station is owned by the Fox Television Stations subsidiary of Fox Corporation, as part of a duopoly with San Jose-licensed independent station KICU-TV (channel 36). The two stations share studios at Jack London Square in downtown Oakland; KTVU's transmitter is located at Sutro Tower in San Francisco.

Light TV

Light TV is an American digital broadcast television network owned by MGM Television that launched on December 22, 2016. The network features family-friendly and faith-based entertainment programming. Light TV is headed by the husband-and-wife team of Mark Burnett and Roma Downey; Burnett is the CEO of MGM TV, while Downey is best known as an actress and star of Touched by an Angel. Both Burnett and Downey consider themselves deeply religious, and have teamed in the past on producing several religious- or family-oriented projects (most notably the 2013 History miniseries The Bible) through the MGM subsidiary Downey leads, Lightworkers Media.

San Jose City College

San Jose City College is a public community college in San Jose, California. It was founded in 1921 as San Jose Junior College. San Jose Unified School District took over the college's operation in 1953 from San Jose State College, moving it to its present location. The name changed to San Jose City College in 1958.

Stan Bunger

Stan Bunger (born June 8, 1956 in San Francisco, California) is an American broadcast journalist. He is currently the morning co-anchor at KCBS All News 740 AM/106.9 FM in San Francisco, heard from 5:30 AM to 10 AM each weekday with co-anchor Susan Leigh Taylor. In addition to his anchor duties, Bunger and colleague Steve Bitker host the regular "KCBS Sports Fans" podcast. Bunger was named to the Bay Area Radio Hall of Fame in 2010. He first joined KCBS in 1982 and served until 1992; his current tenure began in 2000.In addition to anchoring the morning newscasts at KCBS radio, Bunger serves as one of six band members of the Eyewitness Blues Band.Bunger is a 1973 graduate of Leigh High School in San Jose, California, a 1975 graduate of West Valley College in Saratoga, California, and received his B.A. in 1977 from the Broadcast and Electronic Communication Arts (BECA) Department at San Francisco State University. He was named to the San Francisco State University Alumni Hall of Fame in 2011.

His broadcasting career began in 1977 at KRKC Radio in King City, California. He has also been employed as a broadcast journalist at:

KVML Radio in Sonora, California

KTHO Radio in South Lake Tahoe, California

KXRX Radio in San Jose, California

KNTV Television in San Jose, California

KFBK Radio in Sacramento, California

KRLD Radio in Dallas, Texas

KICU-TV in San Jose, California

KRON-TV in San Francisco, California

Sutro Tower

Sutro Tower is a 977 ft (298 m) three-pronged TV and radio antenna tower in San Francisco, California. Rising from a hill between Twin Peaks and Mount Sutro near Clarendon Heights, it is a prominent feature of the city skyline and a landmark for city residents and visitors. The tower was the tallest structure in San Francisco from the time of its completion until 2017, when it was surpassed by the Salesforce Tower.

Named after the family of Adolph Sutro, a businessman and former mayor of San Francisco whose grandson, Adolph Gilbert Sutro, built a mansion, La Avanzada, on their property in the highest peaks of San Francisco. In 1948, the mansion and property was sold to the American Broadcasting Company, where it became the original home of their San Francisco operation as KGO Television. The tower stands 297.8 m (977 ft) above ground and 552 m (1,811 ft) above sea level. It is the second tallest structure in the city by ground-to-tip height, though its mountain location overlooks the city's downtown skyscrapers.

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