Kṣitigarbha (Sanskrit: क्षितिगर्भ, Chinese: 地藏; pinyin: Dìzàng; Japanese: 地蔵; rōmaji: Jizō; Korean: 지장(地藏); romaja: Jijang; Vietnamese: Địa Tạng) is a bodhisattva primarily revered in East Asian Buddhism and usually depicted as a Buddhist monk. His name may be translated as "Earth Treasury", "Earth Store", "Earth Matrix", or "Earth Womb". Kṣitigarbha is known for his vow to take responsibility for the instruction of all beings in the six worlds between the death of Gautama Buddha and the rise of Maitreya, as well as his vow not to achieve Buddhahood until all hells are emptied. He is therefore often regarded as the bodhisattva of hell-beings, as well as the guardian of children and patron deity of deceased children and aborted fetuses in Japanese culture, where he is known as Jizō or Ojizō-sama.
(Pinyin: Dìzàng Púsà)
(romaji: Jizō Bosatsu)
(RR: Jijang Bosal)
Phra Kasiti Khappha Phothisat
Wylie: sa yi snying po
THL: Sa Yi Nyingpo
|Vietnamese||Địa Tạng Vương Bồ tát|
|Venerated by||Mahāyāna, Vajrayāna|
At the pre-Tang dynasty grottos in Dunhuang and Longmen, he is depicted in a classical bodhisattva form. After the Tang, he became increasingly depicted as a monk carrying Buddhist prayer beads and a staff.
His full name in Chinese is Dayuan Dizang Pusa (Chinese: 大願地藏菩薩; pinyin: Dàyuàn Dìzàng Púsà), or "Bodhisattva King Kṣitigarbha of the Great Vow," pronounced Daigan Jizō Bosatsu in Japanese and Jijang Bosal in Korean. This name is a reference to his pledge, as recorded in the sutras, to take responsibility for the instruction of all beings in the six worlds in the era between the parinirvana of the Buddha and the rise of Maitreya. Because of this important role, shrines to Kṣitigarbha often occupy a central role in temples, especially within the memorial halls or mausoleums.
The story of Kṣitigarbha was first described in the Kṣitigarbha Bodhisattva Pūrvapraṇidhāna Sūtra, one of the most popular Mahayana sutras. This sutra is said to have been spoken by the Buddha towards the end of his life to the beings of the Trāyastriṃśa Heaven as a mark of gratitude and remembrance for his beloved mother, Maya. The Kṣitigarbha Bodhisattva Pūrvapraṇidhāna Sūtra begins, "Thus have I heard. Once the Buddha was abiding in Trayastrimsas Heaven in order to expound the Dharma to his mother."
The Kṣitigarbha Bodhisattva Pūrvapraṇidhāna Sūtra was first translated from Sanskrit into Chinese between 695-700 CE, during the Tang dynasty, by the Tripiṭaka master Śikṣānanda, a Buddhist monk from Khotan who also provided a new translation of the Avataṃsaka Sūtra and the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra. However, some scholars have suspected that instead of being translated, this text may have originated in China, since no Sanskrit manuscripts of this text have been found. Part of the reason for suspicion is that the text advocates filial piety, which was stereotypically associated with Chinese culture. It stated that Kṣitigarbha practised filial piety]as a mortal, which eventually led to making great vows to save all sentient beings. Since then, other scholars such as Gregory Schopen have pointed out that Indian Buddhism also had traditions of filial piety. Currently there is no definitive evidence indicating either an Indian or Chinese origin for the text.
In the Kṣitigarbha Sūtra, the Buddha states that in the distant past eons, Kṣitigarbha was a maiden of the Brahmin caste by the name of Sacred Girl. This maiden was deeply troubled upon the death of her mother - who had often been slanderous towards the Three Jewels. To save her mother from the great tortures of hell, the girl sold whatever she had and used the money to buy offerings that she offered daily to the Buddha of her time, known as the Buddha of the Flower of Meditation and Enlightenment. She prayed fervently that her mother be spared the pains of hell and appealed to the Buddha for help.
While she was pleading for help at the temple, she heard the Buddha telling her to go home, sit down, and recite his name if she wanted to know where her mother was. She did as she was told and her consciousness was transported to a Hell realm, where she met a guardian who informed her that through her fervent prayers and pious offerings, her mother had accumulated much merit and had already ascended to heaven. Sacred Girl was greatly relieved and would have been extremely happy, but the sight of the suffering she had seen in Hell touched her heart. She vowed to do her best to relieve beings of their suffering in her future lives for kalpas.
During the reign of Emperor Ming of Han, Buddhism started to flourish, reaching its peak in the Tang and eventually spreading to Korea. At the time, monks and scholars arrived from those countries to seek the dharma in China. One of these pilgrims was a former prince from Silla named Kim Gyo-gak, who became a monk under the Chinese name Dizang "Kṣitigarbha," pronounced Jijang in Korean. He went to Mount Jiuhua in present-day Anhui. After ascending, he decided to build a hut in a deep mountain area so that he could cultivate the dharma.
According to records, Jijang was bitten by a poisonous snake but he did not move, thus letting the snake go. A woman happened to pass by and gave the monk medicines to cure him of the venom, as well as a spring on her son's behalf. For a few years, Jijang continued to meditate in his hut, until one day, a scholar named Chu-Ke led a group of friends and family to visit the mountain. Noticing the monk meditating in the hut, they went and took a look at his condition. They had noticed that his bowl did not contain any food, and that his hair had grown back.
Taking pity on the monk, Chu-Ke decided to build a temple as an offering to him. The whole group descended the mountain immediately to discuss plans to build the temple. Mount Jiuhua was also property of a wealthy person called Elder Wen-Ke, who obliged to build a temple on his mountain. Therefore, Wen-Ke and the group ascended the mountain once more and asked Jijang how much land he needed.
Jijang replied that he needed a piece of land that could be covered fully by his kasaya. Initially believing that a piece of sash could not provide enough land to build a temple, they were surprised when Jijang threw the kasaya in the air, and the robe expanded in size, covering the entire mountain. Elder Wen-Ke had then decided to renounce the entire mountain to Jijang, and became his protector. Sometime later, Wen-Ke's son also left secular life to become a monk.
Jijang lived in Mount Jiuhua for 75 years before passing away at the age of 99. Three years after his nirvana, his tomb was opened, only to reveal that the body had not decayed. Because Jijang led his wayplace with much difficulty, most people had the intuition to believe that he was indeed an incarnation of Kṣitigarbha.
Jijang's well-preserved, dehydrated body may still be viewed today at the monastery he built on Mount Jiuhua.
In Buddhist iconography, Kṣitigarbha is typically depicted with a shaven head, dressed in a monk's simple robes (unlike most other bodhisattvas, who are dressed like Indian royalty). In his left hand, Kṣitigarbha holds a cintamani; in his right hand, he holds a staff (called shakujō 錫杖 in Japanese), which is used to alert insects and small animals of his approach, so that he will not accidentally harm them. This staff is traditionally carried by Buddhist monks. In the Chinese tradition, Kṣitigarbha is sometimes depicted wearing a crown like the one worn by Vairocana. His image is similar to that of the fictional character Tang Sanzang from the classical novel Journey to the West, so observers sometimes mistake Kṣitigarbha for the latter.
Like other bodhisattvas, Kṣitigarbha usually is seen standing on a lotus base, symbolising his release from rebirth. Kṣitigarbha's face and head are also idealised, featuring the third eye, elongated ears and the other standard attributes of a buddha.
Tōsen-ji in Katsushika, Tokyo, contains the "Bound Jizō" of Ōoka Tadasuke fame, dating from the Edo period. When petitions are requested before Jizō, the petitioner ties a rope about the statue. When the wish is granted, the petitioner unties the rope. At the new year, the ropes of the ungranted wishes are cut by the temple priest.
Another category of iconographic depiction is Kṣitigarbha as the Lord of the Six Ways, an allegorical representation of the Six Paths of Rebirth of the Desire realm (rebirth into hell, or as pretas, animals, asuras, men, and devas). The Six Paths are often depicted as six rays or beams radiating from the bodhisattva and accompanied by figurative representations of the Six Paths. Many of these depictions in China can be found in Shaanxi province, perhaps a result of Sanjie Jiao worship in the area. A Japanese variation of this depiction is the Six Jizō, six full sculptural manifestations of the bodhisattva. An example of this can be found in Konjikidō, the ‘Hall of Gold,’ in the Chūson-ji temple.
Mount Jiuhua in Anhui is regarded as Kṣitigarbha's bodhimaṇḍa. It is one of the Four Sacred Buddhism Mountains in China, and at one time housed more than 300 temples. Today, 95 of these are open to the public. The mountain is a popular destination for pilgrims offering dedications to Kṣitigarbha.
In some areas, the admixture of traditional religions has led to Kṣitigarbha being also regarded as a Taoist deity, albeit his duties differ to what Kṣitigarbha does.
In Japan, Kṣitigarbha, known as Jizō, or respectfully as Ojizō-sama, is one of the most loved of all Japanese divinities. His statues are a common sight, especially by roadsides and in graveyards. Traditionally, he is seen as the guardian of children, and in particular, children who died before their parents. He has been worshipped as the guardian of the souls of mizuko, the souls of stillborn, miscarried, or aborted fetuses in the ritual of mizuko kuyō (水子供養 "offering to water children"). In Japanese mythology, it is said that the souls of children who die before their parents are unable to cross the mythical Sanzu River on their way to the afterlife because they have not had the chance to accumulate enough good deeds and because they have made the parents suffer. It is believed that Jizō saves these souls from having to pile stones eternally on the bank of the river as penance, by hiding them from demons in his robe, and letting them hear mantras.
Jizō statues are sometimes accompanied by a little pile of stones and pebbles, put there by people in the hope that it would shorten the time children have to suffer in the underworld. (The act is derived from the tradition of building stupas as an act of merit-making.) The statues can sometimes be seen wearing tiny children's clothing or bibs, or with toys, put there by grieving parents to help their lost ones and hoping that Jizō would specially protect them. Sometimes the offerings are put there by parents to thank Jizō for saving their children from a serious illness. His features are commonly made more baby-like to resemble the children he protects.
As Jizō is seen as the saviour of souls who have to suffer in the underworld, his statues are common in cemeteries. He is also believed to be one of the protective deities of travellers, the dōsojin, and roadside statues of Jizō are a common sight in Japan. Firefighters are also believed to be under his protection.
In Theravada Buddhism, the story of a bhikkhu named Phra Malai with similar qualities to Kṣitigarbha is well known throughout Southeast Asia, especially in Thailand and Laos. Legend has it that he was an arhat from Sri Lanka who achieved great supernatural powers through his own merit and meditation. He is also honoured as a successor to Mahāmoggallāna, the Buddha's disciple foremost for his supernatural attainments. In the story, this pious and compassionate monk descends to Hell to give teachings & comfort the suffering hell-beings there. He also learns how the hell-beings are punished according to their sins in the different hells.
In Shingon Buddhism and other schools of Chinese Esoteric Buddhism, the mantra of Kṣitigarbha comes from the "Treasury of Mantras" section of the Mahavairocana Tantra. The effect of this mantra is producing the "Samadhi Realm of Adamantine Indestructible Conduct." This mantra is the following:
namaḥ samantabuddhānāṃ, ha ha ha, sutanu svāhā
ॐ प्रमर्दने स्वाहा - oṃ pramardani svāhā
namo jijang bosal
oṃ kṣitigarbha bodhisattva yaḥ
on kakaka bisanmaei sowaka オン カカカ ビサンマエイ ソワカ
ॐ ह ह ह विस्मये स्वाहा oṃ ha ha ha vismaye svāhā
Om! Ha ha ha! O wondrous one! svāhā!
tears and rain
on the garden Jizō (anonym)
The stone image of Jizō
kissed on the mouth
by a slug
(part of a Senryū)
Suzume no ko
Jizō no sode ni
The young sparrows
return into Jizō's sleeve
(haiku by Issa 1814)
Jizō Bosatsu no
ato saki ni
behind and in front
of Saint Jizō
(haiku by Issa)
In autumn dusk
at the wayside shrine for the Jizō image
I pour more votive oil
(haiku by Buson)
The Legend of the Humming of the Sai-no-Kawara, by Lafcadio Hearn:
The Abhidharmadīpa or Lamp of Abhidharma is an Abhidharma text thought to have been authored by Vasumitra as a response to Vasubandhu's Abhidharmakośakārikā.
The text consists of verse and prose commentary. It currently survives as an incomplete collection of Sanskrit fragments. However, the text is valuable insofar as it confirms the identity of Vasubandhu as author of the Abhidharmakośakārikā.Atago Gongen
Atago Gongen (愛宕権現) is a Japanese kami believed to be the local avatar (Gongen) of Buddhist bodhisattva Jizō. The cult originated in Shugendō practices on Mount Atago in Kyoto, and Atago Gongen is worshiped as a protector against fire. There are some nine hundred Atago Shrines around Japan.Dizang Temple (Changchun)
Dizang Temple (Chinese: 地藏寺; pinyin: Dìzàng Sì; literally: 'Temple of Ksitigarbha') is a Buddhist temple located in Nanguan District of Changchun, Jilin, China. Dizang Temple is named after Kṣitigarbha, one of the "Four Bodhisattva in Chinese Buddhism". The temple is a Bhikkhuni temple.Dizang Temple (Fuzhou)
Dizang Temple (Chinese: 地藏寺; pinyin: Dìzàng Sì; literally: 'Temple of Kṣitigarbha') is a Buddhist temple located in Fuzhou, Fujian, China. Now It is a Bhiksuni temple of Caodong school.Dōsojin
Dōsojin (道祖神, road ancestor kami) is a generic name for a type of Shinto kami popularly worshipped in Kantō and neighboring areas in Japan where, as tutelary deities of borders and paths, they are believed to protect travelers, pilgrims, villages, and individuals in "transitional stages" from epidemics and evil spirits. Also called Sae no kami or Sai no kami (障の神・塞の神), Dōrokujin (道陸神) or Shakujin (石神, literally: "stone kami"). Dōsojin are often represented as a human couple, carved male or female genitals, large stones or statues, or even tall poles along a road.
Dōsojin are sometimes enshrined in small roadside Shinto shrines called hokora. In rural areas Dōsojin can be found at village boundaries, in mountain passes, or along country byways, while in urban areas at street corners or near bridges. When shaped like a phallus, they are associated with birth and procreation, and therefore marital harmony. When represented as a human couple, a Dōsojin is revered as a deity of marriage and fertility.Hall of Kshitigarbha
The Hall of Kshitigarbha or Hall of Kshitigarbha Hall (Chinese: 地藏殿; pinyin: Dìzàngdiàn) is the most important annex halls in Chinese Buddhist temples and Kshitigarbha is enshrined in it.According to kṣitigarbha bodhisattva pūrvapraṇidhāna sūtra (《地藏菩薩本願經》), the Chinese name of Kshitigarbha "Dizang" is derived from Dizang Shilun sūtra (《地藏十輪經》): "Kshitigarbha is patient and generous as the ground and as thoughtful and peaceful as treasure" (安忍不動如大地，靜慮深密如秘藏). By Sakyamuni Buddha's exhortions, Kshitigarbha has to cultivate all the living creatures and eliminate all sufferings in the period from Sakyamuni's Parinivana to Maitreya's birth. Kshitigarbha has made vows "Before the hell is empty, I will not become Buddha. After all sentient beings are saved, will I attain Buddhahood" (地獄不空，誓不成佛。眾生度盡，方證菩提。); "If not me going to hell, who will go there?" (我不入地獄，誰入地獄？) Therefore he gets the name of "first in compassion and vows" and is worshiped by people since the ancient times.Kshitigarbha 's statue is generally a monk who wears a robe, bald or in a vishnu lou cap, sits in lotus posture with a Khakkhara in his left hand, symbolizing love for all living creations and strict precepts. In his right hand is a ruyi, signifying to fulfill the wishes of all living creatures. Some are standing statue of Kshitigarbha with his disciples, Daoming (道明), a Bhikkhu who stands to his left, and Mingong (憫公), an old man on the right. In some larger Buddhist temples, statues of ten King Yamas who are in charge of the Diyu (sheol) in hell for dead people.Kasa Jizō
Kasa Jizō (笠地蔵) is a Japanese folk tale about an old couple whose generosity is rewarded by the bodhisattva Kṣitigarbha, whose name is Jizō in Japanese. The story is commonly handed down by parents to their children in order to instill moral values, as it is grounded in Buddhist thought.
An alternative title, Kasako Jizō can be found in Iwate and Fukushima Prefectures. Its origins belong in the Tōhoku and Niigata regions, with the oldest dispensations coming from Hokuriku, as well as areas of Western Japan such as Hiroshima and Kumamoto Prefectures. It's precise origin however, remains unknown.Kim Gyo-gak
Kim Gyo-gak (김교각, 金喬覺, 696-794), or Jin Qiaojue in Mandarin, was a Buddhist monk believed to be the manifestation of Ksitigarbha at Mount Jiuhua, one of the four sacred mountains of Chinese Buddhism, located in Anhui province, China.
Kim Gyo-gak was a Silla prince, who became interested in buddhism when visiting Tang China. He became so obsessed that he turned himself into a monk after returning to Silla. In 719, he returned to China to cultivate himself at Mount Jiuhua. He died in 794 in Mount Jiuhua, at the age of 99. The monks there believed that Ksitigarbha was reincarnated in him. Mount Jiuhua thereafter became the sacred site of Ksitigarbha and one of the four sacred mountains of Chinese Buddhism.Kṣitigarbha Bodhisattva Pūrvapraṇidhāna Sūtra
The Kṣitigarbha Bodhisattva Pūrvapraṇidhāna Sūtra (Sanskrit: क्षितिगर्भ बोधिसत्त्व पूर्वप्रणिधान सूत्र; Chinese: 地藏菩薩本願經) or Kṣitigarbhasūtra is a Mahāyāna sūtra teaching about the bodhisattva Kṣitigarbha and is one of the more popular sūtras in Chinese Buddhism. The longer form of its name translates as Sutra of the Fundamental Vows of the Bodhisattva Kṣitigarbha. The sutra tells of how Kṣitigarbha became a bodhisattva by making great vows to rescue other sentient beings and a description of how he displayed filial piety in his past lifetimes. The sutra also expounds at length the retributions of unwholesome karma, descriptions of Buddhist hells and the benefits of good merit both great and small.List of bodhisattvas
In Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhist thought, a bodhisattva (Chinese: 菩薩; pinyin: púsà; Japanese pronunciation: bosatsu; Korean pronunciation: bosal) is a being who is dedicated to achieving complete Buddhahood. Conventionally, the term is applied to beings with a high degree of enlightenment. Bodhisattva literally means a "bodhi (enlightenment) being" in Sanskrit. Mahayana practitioners have historically lived in many other countries that are now predominantly Hindu, Muslim or Theravada Buddhist; remnants of reverence for bodhisattvas has continued in some of these regions.
The following is a non-exhaustive list of bodhisattvas primarily respected in Indian, Tibetan Buddhism and East Asian Buddhism.List of suttas
Suttas from the Sutta Pitaka of the Pali Canon.
List of Digha Nikaya suttas
List of Majjhima Nikaya suttas
List of Samyutta Nikaya suttas
List of Anguttara Nikaya suttas
List of Khuddaka Nikaya suttasMahasthamaprapta
Mahāsthāmaprāpta is a bodhisattva mahāsattva that represents the power of wisdom, often depicted in a trinity with Amitābha and Avalokiteśvara (Guanyin), especially in Pure Land Buddhism. His name literally means "arrival of the great strength".
Mahāsthāmaprāpta is one of the Eight Great Bodhisattvas in Mahayana Buddhism, along with Mañjuśrī, Samantabhadra, Avalokiteśvara, Ākāśagarbha, Kṣitigarbha, Maitreya and Sarvanivarana-Vishkambhin.
In Chinese Buddhism, he is usually portrayed as a woman, with a likeness similar to Avalokiteśvara. He is also one of the Japanese Thirteen Buddhas in Shingon Buddhism. In Tibetan Buddhism, Mahāsthāmaprāpta is equated with Vajrapani, who is one of his incarnations and was known as the Protector of Gautama Buddha.
Mahāsthāmaprāpta is one of the oldest bodhisattvas and is regarded as powerful, especially in the Pure Land school, where he takes an important role in the Longer Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra.
In the Śūraṅgama Sūtra, Mahāsthāmaprāpta tells of how he gained enlightenment through the practice of nianfo, or continuous pure mindfulness of Amitābha, to obtain samādhi. In the Amitayurdhyana Sutra, Mahāsthāmaprāpta is symbolized by the moon while Avalokiteśvara is represented by the sun.Mahavairocana Tantra
The Mahāvairocana Tantra (traditional Chinese: 大毘盧遮那成佛神變加持經; ; pinyin: Dà Pílúzhēnà Chéngfó Shénbiàn Jiāchí Jīng; also known as 大日经 Da ri Jing) is an important Vajrayana Buddhist text. It is also known as the Mahāvairocana Abhisaṃbodhi Tantra, or more fully as the Mahāvairocana Abhisaṃbodhi Vikurvita Adhiṣṭhāna Tantra. In Tibet it is considered to be a member of the Carya class of tantras. In Japan where it is known as the Mahāvairocana Sūtra (Daibirushana jōbutsu jinpen kajikyō), it is one of two central texts in the Shingon school, along with the Vajrasekhara Sutra. Both are also part of the Tendai school.Mizuko kuyō
Mizuko kuyō (水子供養) or "stillborn memorial service", is a Japanese ceremony for those who have had a miscarriage, stillbirth, or abortion. This practice has become particularly visible since the 1970s with the creation of shrines devoted solely to this ritual. Reasons for the performance of these rites can include parental grief, desire to comfort the soul of the fetus, guilt for an abortion, or even fear of retribution from a vengeful ghost.Mount Jiuhua
Mount Jiuhua (simplified Chinese: 九华山; traditional Chinese: 九華山; pinyin: Jǐuhuá Shān; literally: 'Nine Glorious Mountains') is one of the four sacred mountains of Chinese Buddhism. It is located in Qingyang County in Anhui province and is famous for its rich landscape and ancient temples.Many of the mountain's shrines and temples are dedicated to Ksitigarbha (known in Chinese as Dìzàng, Chinese: 地藏, in Japanese as Jizō), who is a bodhisattva and protector of beings in hell realms according to Mahayana Buddhist tradition. Pious Buddhists often visit Anhui to climb to Greater Tiantai peak, which is regarded as Jiuhuashan's most important peak, although it is not the tallest.Mount Putuo
Mount Putuo (Chinese: 普陀山; pinyin: Pǔtúo Shān; literally: 'from Sanskrit "Mount Potalaka"') is an island southeast of Shanghai in Zhoushan, Zhejiang, China. It is a renowned site in Chinese Buddhism and is the bodhimaṇḍa of the bodhisattva Guanyin.
Mount Putuo is one of the four sacred mountains in Chinese Buddhism, the others being Mount Wutai, Mount Jiuhua, and Mount Emei (bodhimaṇḍas for Manjushri, Kṣitigarbha, and Samantabhadra, respectively).
Mount Putuo lies in the East China Sea and incorporates the beauty of both mountain and sea. Mountain Putuo is at 29°58′3～30°02′3 north latitude, 122°21′6～122°24′9 east longitude. Its area is approximately 12.5 square kilometres (4.8 sq mi) and there are numerous famous temples. Every year on the 19th day of the 2nd lunar month, 19th day of the 6th lunar month, and 19th day of the 9th lunar month of the Chinese calendar, it welcomes millions of people for the celebration of the birth of Guanyin.Shrine of Living Buddha
The Shrine of Living Buddha (simplified Chinese: 肉身宝殿; traditional Chinese: 肉身寶殿; pinyin: Ròushēn Bǎodiàn) is a Buddhist temple located at the Devine Light Summit (神光岭) of Mount Jiuhua, in Qingyang County, Anhui, China.The Locker
The Locker (Japanese: 渋谷怪談, Hepburn: Shibuya kaidan) is a 2004 Japanese horror and thriller film directed by Kei Horie. The film stars Asami Mizukawa, Shūji Kashiwabara, Chisato Morishita, and Mayuka Suzuki in the lead roles.Ākāśagarbha
Ākāśagarbha Bodhisattva or Akasagarbha Bodhisattva (Chinese: 虛空藏菩薩; pinyin: Xūkōngzàng Púsà; Japanese pronunciation: Kokūzō Bosatsu; Korean: 허공장보살; romaja: Heogongjang Bosal, Standard Tibetan Namkha'i Nyingpo, Vietnamese Hư Không Tạng Bồ Tát) is a bodhisattva who is associated with the great element (mahābhūta) of space (ākāśa). He is also sometimes called Gaganagañja, which means "sky-jewel."
Topics in Buddhism
Chinese Buddhist pantheon