The Körös culture/Criş culture is a Neolithic archaeological culture in Central Europe that was named after the river Körös in eastern Hungary. The same river has the name Criș in Romania, hence the name Criş culture. The 2 variants of the river name are used for the same archaeological culture in the 2 regions. The Criș culture survived from about 5800 to 5300 BC. It is related to the neighboring Starčevo culture and is included within a larger grouping known as the Starčevo–Körös–Criş culture.
|Dates||circa 5,800 B.C.E. — circa 5,300 B.C.E.|
|Preceded by||Mesolithic Europe|
|Followed by||Starčevo culture|
The Anatolian hypothesis, also known as the Anatolian theory or the sedentary farmer theory, first developed by British archaeologist Colin Renfrew in 1987, proposes that the dispersal of Proto-Indo-Europeans originated in Neolithic Anatolia. It is the main competitor to the Kurgan hypothesis, or steppe theory, the more favoured view academically.Great Hungarian Plain
The Great Hungarian Plain (also known as Alföld or Great Alföld, Hungarian: Alföld or Nagy Alföld) is a plain occupying the majority of Hungary. It is the largest part of the wider Pannonian Plain.
In Hungarian, the plain is known as Alföld [ˈɒlføld].History of Hungary before the Hungarian Conquest
This article spans the known pre-history and early history of the territory of the historical Hungary up to the Magyar (Hungarian) conquest in the 9th century and the foundation of the Principality of Hungary. For the prehistory of the Magyar tribes before they came to the Carpathian Basin, see Hungarian prehistory.
The relatively warm and fertile Carpathian Basin has been settled since around 500,000 years ago. The first known traces belong to the Homo heidelbergensis, with scarce or nonexistent evidence of human presence until the Neanderthals around 100,000 years ago. Anatomically modern humans arrived at the Carpathian Basin before 30,000 BC and belonged to the Aurignacian group. Some sources also distinguish a very local culture, the Szeleta culture, but this claim is disputed. Development in the Paleolithic is similar to that of the rest of Europe and findings from both the Aurignacian and the succeeding Gravettian (mammoth hunter) culture can be found as far as France and Spain. The rest of the Stone Age is marked by minimal or not-yet-processed archeological evidence, with the exception of the Linear Pottery culture - the "garden type civilization" that introduced agriculture to the Carpathian Basin.
During the Copper and Bronze Ages, three significant groups were the Baden, the Makó and the Ottomány cultures. The major improvement was obviously metalworking, but the Baden culture also brought about cremation and even long-distance trade with remote areas such as the Baltic or Iran flourished during the Makó and Ottomány periods. Turbulent changes during the late Bronze Age gave an end to the native, relatively advanced civilization and the beginning of the Iron Age saw mass immigration of Indo-european nomads believed to be of ancient Iranian ancestry. However, as the time went on, the Carpathian Basin attracted immigration from all directions: the Halstatt Celts from the West were the first and most influential at around 750 BC, the mysterious Sigynnae around 500 BC, the Pannonians - an Illyrian tribe gave the future Roman province its name while the very East became occupied by other Thracian, Iranian and later Celtic tribes. Before 100 BC, most of the area was occupied by various Celtic or celticized people, such as the successor of the Halstatt culture, the Taurisci, the Boii and the Pannonians.
The Roman era in the territory of present-day Hungary begins with several attacks between 156 and 70 BC, but their gradual conquest was interrupted by the Dacian king Burebista, whose kingdom stretched as far as today's Slovakia at its greatest extent. However, the period of Dacian dominance did not last long and by 9 BC the Romans have subjugated the entire area and made it into the Pannonia subprovince of province Illyricum and eventually Pannonia province. Under Roman rule, many contemporary cities such as Budapest, Győr or Sopron were founded and the population romanized and culture as a whole flourished. Roman emperors sometimes also tolerated other tribes settling in the territory, such as the Iazyges or Vandals. Christianity spread during the fourth century AD, when it became the state religion.
In the first years of the Age of Migration, the Carpathian Basin was settled by the Huns, whose empire was centered there, as well as numerous Germanic tribes such as the Goths, Marcomanni, Quadi or Gepidi, the last of which stayed the longest. The next wave of migration during the sixth century saw other Germanic tribes, the Lombards and Heruli overpower the Gepidi, only to be ousted by another major nomadic tribe, the Avars. Like the Huns, the Avars established an empire there and posed a significant threat to their neighbours, but were eventually defeated by both neighbouring states and internal strife (around 800). However, Avar population remained quite steady until the Hungarian conquest. The territory became divided between East Francia and First Bulgarian Empire with the northeastern part under Moravian Slavic Principality of Nitra. This state lasted until the arrival of the Magyar tribes, the Hungarian conquest (cca. 860-907).History of technology
The history of technology is the history of the invention of tools and techniques and is one of the categories of the history of humanity. Technology can refer to methods ranging from as simple as stone tools to the complex genetic engineering and information technology that has emerged since the 1980s. The term technology comes from the Greek word techne, meaning art and craft, and the word logos, meaning word and speech. It was first used to describe applied arts, but it is now used to described advancements and changes which affect the environment around us.New knowledge has enabled people to create new things, and conversely, many scientific endeavors are made possible by technologies which assist humans in traveling to places they could not previously reach, and by scientific instruments by which we study nature in more detail than our natural senses allow.
Since much of technology is applied science, technical history is connected to the history of science. Since technology uses resources, technical history is tightly connected to economic history. From those resources, technology produces other resources, including technological artifacts used in everyday life.
Technological change affects, and is affected by, a society's cultural traditions. It is a force for economic growth and a means to develop and project economic, political, military power and wealth.Körös (disambiguation)
Körös can refer to:
The Körös River in Hungary and Romania
The Körös culture, a Neolithic archaeological culture in Central Europe that was named after the river Körös
SMS Körös, the name ship of the Körös-class river monitors built for the Austro-Hungarian NavyKőrös can refer to:
Kőrös, the Hungarian name of Križevci, Croatia
The historic Belovár-Kőrös County or Bjelovar-Križevci County, named for KriževciLinear Pottery culture
The Linear Pottery culture is a major archaeological horizon of the European Neolithic, flourishing c. 5500–4500 BC. It is abbreviated as LBK (from German: Linearbandkeramik), and is also known as the Linear Band Ware, Linear Ware, Linear Ceramics or Incised Ware culture, and falls within the Danubian I culture of V. Gordon Childe.
The densest evidence for the culture is on the middle Danube, the upper and middle Elbe, and the upper and middle Rhine. It represents a major event in the initial spread of agriculture in Europe. The pottery after which it was named consists of simple cups, bowls, vases, and jugs, without handles, but in a later phase with lugs or pierced lugs, bases, and necks.Important sites include Nitra in Slovakia; Bylany in the Czech Republic; Langweiler and Zwenkau in Germany; Brunn am Gebirge in Austria; Elsloo, Sittard, Köln-Lindenthal, Aldenhoven, Flomborn, and Rixheim on the Rhine; Lautereck and Hienheim on the upper Danube; and Rössen and Sonderhausen on the middle Elbe.
Two variants of the early Linear Pottery culture are recognized:
The Early or Western Linear Pottery Culture developed on the middle Danube, including western Hungary, and was carried down the Rhine, Elbe, Oder, and Vistula.
The Eastern Linear Pottery Culture flourished in eastern Hungary.Middle and late phases are also defined. In the middle phase, the Early Linear Pottery culture intruded upon the Bug-Dniester culture and began to manufacture musical note pottery. In the late phase, the Stroked Pottery culture moved down the Vistula and Elbe.
A number of cultures ultimately replaced the Linear Pottery culture over its range, but without a one-to-one correspondence between its variants and the replacing cultures. The culture map, instead, is complex. Some of the successor cultures are the Hinkelstein, Großgartach, Rössen, Lengyel, Cucuteni-Trypillian, and Boian-Maritza cultures.Paolo Biagi
Paolo Biagi (born 1948) is an Italian archaeologist specialising in the prehistory of Southeast Europe, Russia and the Caucasus, and Southwest Asia. He is currently a professor at the Ca' Foscari University of Venice.Starčevo culture
The Starčevo culture, sometimes included within a larger grouping known as the Starčevo–Körös–Criş culture, is an archaeological culture of Southeastern Europe, dating to the Neolithic period between c. 6200 and 4500 BCE.The village of Starčevo, the type site, is located on the north bank of the Danube in Serbia (Vojvodina province), opposite Belgrade. It represents the earliest settled farming society in the area, although hunting and gathering still provided a significant portion of the inhabitants' diet.Starčevo–Kőrös–Criș culture
The Starčevo–Körös culture or Starčevo–Körös–Criş culture is a grouping of two related Neolithic archaeological cultures in Southeastern Europe: the Starčevo culture and the Körös or Criş culture.
The Starčevo culture is an archaeological culture of Southeastern Europe, in what is now Serbia, dating to the Neolithic period between c. 5500 and 4500 BCE (according to other source, between 6200 and 5200 BCE). The Starčevo culture is sometimes grouped together and sometimes not.
The Körös culture is another Neolithic archaeological culture, but in Central Europe. It was named after the river Körös in eastern Hungary and western Romania, where it is named Criş. It survived from about 5800 to 5300 BC.