Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by the Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884,[2][3] with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936.[4][5] Later, the climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1954, 1961) introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification system.[6][7]

The Köppen climate classification divides climates into five main climate groups, with each group being divided based on seasonal precipitation and temperature patterns. The five main groups are A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar). Each group and subgroup is represented by a letter. All climates are assigned a main group (the first letter). All climates except for those in the E group are assigned a seasonal precipitation subgroup (the second letter). For example, Af indicates a tropical rainforest climate. The system assigns a temperature subgroup for all groups other than those in the A group, indicated by the third letter for climates in B, C, and D, and the second letter for climates in E. For example, Cfb indicates an oceanic climate with warm summers as indicated by the ending b. Climates are classified based on specific criteria unique to each climate type.[8]

Köppen designed the system based on his experience as a botanist, so the main climate groups are based on the different variety of vegetation that grows in climates belonging to each group. In addition to identifying climates, the system can be used to analyze ecosystem conditions and identify the main types of vegetation within climates. Due to its link with the plant life of a region, the system is useful in predicting future changes in plant life within a region.[9]

The Köppen climate classification system has been further modified, within the Trewartha climate classification system in the middle 1960s (revised in 1980). The Trewartha system sought to create a more refined middle latitude climate zone, which was one of the criticisms of the Köppen system (the C climate group was too broad).[10]:200–1

Köppen-Geiger Climate Classification Map
An updated Köppen–Geiger climate map[1]
  Af
  Am
  Aw/As
  BWh
  BWk
  BSh
  BSk
  Csa
  Csb
  Csc
  Cwa
  Cwb
  Cwc
  Cfa
  Cfb
  Cfc
  Dsa
  Dsb
  Dsc
  Dsd
  Dwa
  Dwb
  Dwc
  Dwd
  Dfa
  Dfb
  Dfc
  Dfd
  ET
  EF

Overview

Köppen climate classification scheme symbols description table[1][8][11]
1st 2nd 3rd
A (Tropical) f (Rainforest)
m (Monsoon)
w (Savanna, Wet)
s (Savanna, Dry)
B (Arid) W (Desert)
S (Steppe)
h (Hot)
k (Cold)
C (Temperate) s (Dry summer)
w (Dry winter)
f (Without dry season)
a (Hot summer)
b (Warm summer)
c (Cold summer)
D (Continental) s (Dry summer)
w (Dry winter)
f (Without dry season)
a (Hot summer)
b (Warm summer)
c (Cold summer)
d (Very cold winter)
E (Polar) T (Tundra)
F (Eternal winter (ice cap))

The Köppen climate classification scheme divides climates into five main climate groups: A (tropical), B (dry), C (temperate), D (continental), and E (polar).[12] The second letter indicates the seasonal precipitation type, while the third letter indicates the level of heat.[13] Summers are defined as the 6 month period that is warmer either from April–September and/or October–March while winter is the 6 month period that is cooler.[1][11]

Group A: Tropical (megathermal) climates

This type of climate has every month of the year with an average temperature of 18 °C (64.4 °F) or higher, with significant precipitation.[1][11]

  • Af = Tropical rainforest climate; average precipitation of at least 60 mm (2.4 in) in every month.
  • Am = Tropical monsoon climate; driest month (which nearly always occurs at or soon after the "winter" solstice for that side of the equator) with precipitation less than 60 mm (2.4 in), but more than 4% the total annual precipitation.
  • Aw or As = Tropical wet and dry or savanna climate; with the driest month having precipitation less than 60 mm (2.4 in) and less than 4% of the total annual precipitation.

Group B: Dry (arid and semiarid) climates

This type of climate is defined by little precipitation.

Multiply the average annual temperature in Celsius by 20, then add

(a) 280 if 70% or more of the total precipitation is in the spring and summer months (April–September in the Northern Hemisphere, or October–March in the Southern), or
(b) 140 if 30%–70% of the total precipitation is received during the spring and summer, or
(c) 0 if less than 30% of the total precipitation is received during the spring and summer.

If the annual precipitation is less than 50% of this threshold, the classification is BW (arid: desert climate); if it is in the range of 50%–100% of the threshold, the classification is BS (semi-arid: steppe climate).[1][11]

A third letter can be included to indicate temperature. Originally, h signified low-latitude climate (average annual temperature above 18 °C (64.4 °F)) while k signified middle-latitude climate (average annual temperature below 18 °C), but the more common practice today, especially in the United States, is to use h to mean the coldest month has an average temperature above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), with k denoting that at least one month's averages below 0 °C (or −3 °C (27 °F)). The n is used to denote a climate characterized by frequent fog.[14][15][16]

Group C: Temperate (mesothermal) climates

This type of climate has the coldest month averaging between 0 °C (32 °F)[11] (or −3 °C (27 °F))[8] and 18 °C (64.4 °F) and at least one month averaging above 10 °C (50 °F).[11][8]

  • Cfa = Humid subtropical climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), at least one month's average temperature above 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled). No dry months in the summer.
  • Cfb = Temperate oceanic climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), all months with average temperatures below 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled).
  • Cfc = Subpolar oceanic climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled).
  • Cwa = Monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), at least one month's average temperature above 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least ten times as much rain in the wettest month of summer as in the driest month of winter (alternative definition is 70% or more of average annual precipitation is received in the warmest six months).
  • Cwb = Subtropical highland climate or Monsoon-influenced temperate oceanic climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), all months with average temperatures below 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least ten times as much rain in the wettest month of summer as in the driest month of winter (an alternative definition is 70% or more of average annual precipitation received in the warmest six months).
  • Cwc = Cold subtropical highland climate or Monsoon-influenced subpolar oceanic climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least ten times as much rain in the wettest month of summer as in the driest month of winter (alternative definition is 70% or more of average annual precipitation is received in the warmest six months).
  • Csa = Hot-summer Mediterranean climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), at least one month's average temperature above 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in).
  • Csb = Warm-summer Mediterranean climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), all months with average temperatures below 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in).
  • Csc = Cold-summer Mediterranean climate; coldest month averaging above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in).

Group D: Continental (microthermal) climates

This type of climate has at least one month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)) and at least one month averaging above 10 °C (50 °F).[11][8]

  • Dfa = Hot-summer humid continental climate; coldest month averaging below −0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), at least one month's average temperature above 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled).
  • Dfb = Warm-summer humid continental climate; coldest month averaging below −0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), all months with average temperatures below 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled).
  • Dfc = Subarctic climate; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled).
  • Dfd = Extremely cold subarctic climate; coldest month averaging below −38 °C (−36.4 °F) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled).
  • Dwa = Monsoon-influenced hot-summer humid continental climate; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), at least one month's average temperature above 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least ten times as much rain in the wettest month of summer as in the driest month of winter (alternative definition is 70% or more of average annual precipitation is received in the warmest six months).
  • Dwb = Monsoon-influenced warm-summer humid continental climate; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), all months with average temperatures below 22 °C (71.6 °F), and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least ten times as much rain in the wettest month of summer as in the driest month of winter (alternative definition is 70% or more of average annual precipitation is received in the warmest six months).
  • Dwc = Monsoon-influenced subarctic climate; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least ten times as much rain in the wettest month of summer as in the driest month of winter (alternative definition is 70% or more of average annual precipitation is received in the warmest six months).
  • Dwd = Monsoon-influenced extremely cold subarctic climate; coldest month averaging below −38 °C (−36.4 °F) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least ten times as much rain in the wettest month of summer as in the driest month of winter (alternative definition is 70% or more of average annual precipitation is received in the warmest six months).
  • Dsa = Mediterranean-influenced hot-summer humid continental climate; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), average temperature of the warmest month above 22 °C (71.6 °F) and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in).
  • Dsb = Mediterranean-influenced warm-summer humid continental climate; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), average temperature of the warmest month below 22 °C (71.6 °F) and at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in).
  • Dsc = Mediterranean-influenced subarctic climate; coldest month averaging below 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in).
  • Dsd = Mediterranean-influenced extremely cold subarctic climate; coldest month averaging below −38 °C (−36.4 °F) and 1–3 months averaging above 10 °C (50 °F). At least three times as much precipitation in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer, and driest month of summer receives less than 30 mm (1.2 in).

Group E: Polar and alpine (montane) climates

This type of climate has every month of the year with an average temperature below 10 °C (50 °F).[1][11]

  • ET = Tundra climate; average temperature of warmest month between 0 °C (32 °F) and 10 °C (50 °F).[1][11]
  • EF = Ice cap climate; eternal winter, with all 12 months of the year with average temperatures below 0 °C (32 °F).[1][11]

Group A: Tropical/megathermal climates

Tropical climates are characterized by constant high temperatures (at sea level and low elevations); all 12 months of the year have average temperatures of 18 °C (64.4 °F) or higher. They are subdivided as follows:

AF: Tropical rainforest climate

All 12 months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm (2.4 in). These climates usually occur within 10° latitude of the equator. This climate is dominated by the doldrums low-pressure system all year round, so has no natural seasons in terms of thermal and moisture changes.[10]

Examples

Some of the places with this climate are indeed uniformly and monotonously wet throughout the year (e.g., the northwest Pacific coast of South and Central America, from Ecuador to Costa Rica; see, for instance, Andagoya, Colombia), but in many cases, the period of higher sun and longer days is distinctly wettest (as at Palembang, Indonesia) or the time of lower sun and shorter days may have more rain (as at Sitiawan, Malaysia).

(Note. The term aseasonal refers to the lack in the tropical zone of large differences in daylight hours and mean monthly (or daily) temperature throughout the year. Annual cyclic changes occur in the tropics, but not as predictably as those in the temperate zone, albeit unrelated to temperature, but to water availability whether as rain, mist, soil, or ground water. Plant response (e. g., phenology), animal (feeding, migration, reproduction, etc.), and human activities (plant sowing, harvesting, hunting, fishing, etc.) are tuned to this 'seasonality'. Indeed, in tropical South America and Central America, the 'rainy season' (and the 'high water season') is called invierno or inverno, though it could occur in the Northern Hemisphere summer; likewise, the 'dry season' (and 'low water season') is called verano or verão, and can occur in the Northern Hemisphere winter).

Am: Tropical monsoon climate

This type of climate results from the monsoon winds which change direction according to the seasons. This climate has a driest month (which nearly always occurs at or soon after the "winter" solstice for that side of the equator) with rainfall less than 60 mm, but more than ​125 the total annual precipitation.[10]:208

Examples

Aw/As: Tropical wet and dry or savanna climate

Aw climates have a pronounced dry season, with the driest month having precipitation less than 60 mm and less than ​125 of the total annual precipitation.[10]:208–11

Examples

Most places that have this climate are found at the outer margins of the tropical zone from the low teens to the mid-20s latitudes, but occasionally an inner-tropical location (e.g., San Marcos, Antioquia, Colombia) also qualifies. Actually, the Caribbean coast, eastward from the Gulf of Urabá on the ColombiaPanamá border to the Orinoco River delta, on the Atlantic Ocean (about 4,000 km), have long dry periods (the extreme is the BSh climate (see below), characterised by very low, unreliable precipitation, present, for instance, in extensive areas in the Guajira, and Coro, western Venezuela, the northernmost peninsulas in South America, which receive <300 mm total annual precipitation, practically all in two or three months).

This condition extends to the Lesser Antilles and Greater Antilles forming the circum-Caribbean dry belt. The length and severity of the dry season diminishes inland (southward); at the latitude of the Amazon River—which flows eastward, just south of the equatorial line—the climate is Af. East from the Andes, between the dry, arid Caribbean and the ever-wet Amazon are the Orinoco River's llanos or savannas, from where this climate takes its name.

Sometimes As is used in place of Aw if the dry season occurs during the time of higher sun and longer days (during summer).[8][18] This is the case in parts of Hawaii, northwestern Dominican Republic, East Africa, and the Brazilian Northeastern Coast. In most places that have tropical wet and dry climates, however, the dry season occurs during the time of lower sun and shorter days because of rain shadow effects during the 'high-sun' part of the year.

Examples

Group B: Dry (desert and semi-arid) climates

These climates are characterized by actual precipitation less than a threshold value set equal to the potential evapotranspiration.[10]:212 The threshold value (in millimeters) is determined as:

Multiply the average annual temperature in °C by 20, then add (a) 280 if 70% or more of the total precipitation is in the high-sun half of the year (April through September in the Northern Hemisphere, or October through March in the Southern), or (b) 140 if 30%–70% of the total precipitation is received during the applicable period, or (c) 0 if less than 30% of the total precipitation is so received.

According to the modified Köppen classification system used by modern climatologists, total precipitation in the warmest six months of the year is taken as reference instead of the total precipitation in the high-sun half of the year.[19]

If the annual precipitation is less than 50% of this threshold, the classification is BW (arid: desert climate); if it is in the range of 50%–100% of the threshold, the classification is BS (semi-arid: steppe climate).

A third letter can be included to indicate temperature. Originally, h signified low-latitude climate (average annual temperature above 18 °C) while k signified middle-latitude climate (average annual temperature below 18 °C), but the more common practice today, especially in the United States, is to use h to mean the coldest month has an average temperature above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)), with k denoting that at least one month averages below 0 °C.

Desert areas situated along the west coasts of continents at tropical or near-tropical locations characterized by frequent fog and low clouds, despite the fact that these places rank among the driest on earth in terms of actual precipitation received are labelled BWn with the n denoting a climate characterized by frequent fog.[14][15][16] The BSn category can be found in foggy coastal steppes.[20]

BS: Semi-arid (steppe) desert climate

Group C: Temperate/mesothermal climates

In the Koppen climate system, temperate climates are defined as having an average temperature above 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (26.6 °F), as noted previously) in their coldest month but below 18 °C (64.4 °F). The average temperature of −3 °C (26.6 °F) roughly coincides with the equatorward limit of frozen ground and snowcover lasting for a month or more.

The second letter indicates the precipitation pattern—w indicates dry winters (driest winter month average precipitation less than one-tenth wettest summer month average precipitation. s indicates at least three times as much rain in the wettest month of winter as in the driest month of summer. f means significant precipitation in all seasons (neither above-mentioned set of conditions fulfilled).[1]

The third letter indicates the degree of summer heat—a indicates warmest month average temperature above 22 °C (71.6 °F) while b indicates warmest month averaging below 22 °C but with at least four months averaging above 10 °C (50.0 °F), and c indicates less than four months averaging above 10 °C (50.0 °F).[1][11][8]

Csa: Mediterranean hot summer climates

These climates usually occur on the western sides of continents between the latitudes of 30° and 45°.[21] These climates are in the polar front region in winter, and thus have moderate temperatures and changeable, rainy weather. Summers are hot and dry, due to the domination of the subtropical high pressure systems, except in the immediate coastal areas, where summers are milder due to the nearby presence of cold ocean currents that may bring fog but prevent rain.[10]:221–3

Examples

Csb: Mediterranean warm/cool summer climates

Dry-summer climates sometimes extend to additional areas (sometimes well north, or south of) typical Mediterranean climates, however the warmest month mean does not reach 22 °C (71.6 °F) they are classified as (Csb).[1] Some of these areas would border the Oceanic climate (Cfb), except their dry-summer patterns meet Köppen's Cs minimum thresholds.

Examples

Csc: Mediterranean cold summer climates

Cold summer Mediterranean climates (Csc) exist in high-elevation areas adjacent to coastal Csb climate areas, where the strong maritime influence prevents the average winter monthly temperature from dropping below 0 °C. This climate is rare and is predominantly found in climate fringes and isolated areas of the Cascades and Andes Mountains, as the dry-summer climate extends further poleward in the Americas than elsewhere.[10] Rare instances of this climate can be found in some coastal locations in the North Atlantic and at high altitudes in Hawaii.

Examples

Cfa: Humid subtropical climates

These climates usually occur on the eastern coasts and eastern sides of continents, usually in the high 20s and 30s latitudes. Unlike the dry summer Mediterranean climates, humid subtropical climates have a warm and wet flow from the tropics that creates warm and moist conditions in the summer months. As such, summer (not winter as is the case in Mediterranean climates) is often the wettest season.

The flow out of the subtropical highs and the summer monsoon creates a southerly flow from the tropics that brings warm and moist air to the lower east sides of continents. This flow is often what brings the frequent but short-lived summer thundershowers so typical of the more southerly subtropical climates like the far southern United States, southern China and Japan.[10]:223–6

Examples

Cfb: Oceanic climate

Cfb climates usually occur in the higher middle latitudes on the western sides of continents between the latitudes of 40° and 60°; they are typically situated immediately poleward of the Mediterranean climates, although in Australia and extreme southern Africa this climate is found immediately poleward of temperate climates, and at a somewhat lower latitude. In western Europe, this climate occurs in coastal areas up to 63°N in Norway.

These climates are dominated all year round by the polar front, leading to changeable, often overcast weather. Summers are mild due to cool ocean currents, although hotter, stable weather patterns can set in for periods of time, typically longer at the lower latitude range in the northern hemisphere. Winters are milder than other climates in similar latitudes, but usually very cloudy however not always wet. Cfb climates are also encountered at high elevations in certain subtropical and tropical areas, where the climate would be that of a subtropical/tropical rain forest if not for the altitude. These climates are called "highlands".[10]:226–9

Examples

Cfb(2): Subtropical Highland climates with uniform rainfall

Subtropical Highland climates with uniform rainfall (Cfb) are a type of oceanic climate mainly found in highlands of Australia, such as in or around the Great Dividing Range in the states of New South Wales and Victoria, and also sparsely in other continents, such as in South America, among others. Unlike a typical Cwb climate, they tend to have rainfall spread evenly throughout the year. They have characteristics of both the Cfb and Cfa climates. Though unlike these climates, they have a high diurnal temperature variation and low humidity, owing to their inland location and relatively high elevation.

Examples

Cfc: Subpolar oceanic climate

Subpolar oceanic climates (Cfc) occur poleward of or at higher elevations than the maritime temperate climates, and are mostly confined either to narrow coastal strips on the western poleward margins of the continents, or, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, to islands off such coasts. They occur in both hemispheres, most often at latitudes from 60° north and south to 70° north and south.[10]

Examples

Cwa: Subtropical-Dry Winter

Cwa is monsoonal influenced, having the classic dry winter/wet summer pattern associated with tropical monsoonal climates.

Examples

Cwb: Dry winter Subtropical Highland climate

Dry-winter subtropical highland climate (Cwb) is a type of climate mainly found in highlands inside the tropics of Central America, South America, Africa and Asia or areas in the subtropics. Winters are noticeable and dry, and summers can be very rainy. In the tropics, the rainy season is provoked by the tropical air masses and the dry winters by subtropical high pressure.

Examples

Group D: Continental/microthermal climates

Odori Park Sapporo Snow Festival 2007
The snowy city of Sapporo

These climates have an average temperature above 10 °C (50 °F) in their warmest months, and a coldest month average below 0 °C (or −3 °C (27 °F), as noted previously). These usually occur in the interiors of continents and on their upper east coasts, normally north of 40°N. In the Southern Hemisphere, group D climates are extremely rare due to the smaller land masses in the middle latitudes and the almost complete absence of land at 40–60°S, existing only in some highland locations.

Dfa/Dwa/Dsa: Hot summer continental climates

Dfa climates usually occur in the high 30s and low 40s latitudes, with a qualifying average temperature in the warmest month of greater than 22 °C/72 °F. In Europe, these climates tend to be much drier than in North America. Dsa exists at higher elevations adjacent to areas with hot summer Mediterranean (Csa) climates.[10]:231–2

Examples

In eastern Asia, Dwa climates extend further south due to the influence of the Siberian high pressure system, which also causes winters there to be dry, and summers can be very wet because of monsoon circulation.

Examples

Dsa exists only at higher elevations adjacent to areas with hot summer Mediterranean (Csa) climates.

Examples

Dfb/Dwb/Dsb: Warm summer continental or hemiboreal climates

Dfb climates are immediately poleward of hot summer continental climates, generally in the high 40s and low 50s latitudes in North America and Asia, and also extending to higher latitudes in central and eastern Europe and Russia, between the maritime temperate and continental subarctic climates, where it extends up to 65 degrees latitude in places.[10]

Dfb examples

Dwb examples


Dsb arises from the same scenario as Dsa, but at even higher altitudes or latitudes, and chiefly in North America, since the Mediterranean climates extend further poleward than in Eurasia.

Examples

Dfc/Dsc/Dwc: Subarctic or boreal climates

Dfc, Dsc and Dwc climates occur poleward of the other group D climates, generally in the 50s and 60s North latitudes, occasionally reaching up to 70°N latitude.[10]:232–5

Examples:

Dfd/Dsd/Dwd: Subarctic or boreal climates with severe winters

Places with this climate have severe winters, with the temperature in their coldest month lower than −38 °C. These climates occur only in eastern Siberia. The names of some of the places with this climate have become veritable synonyms for extreme, severe winter cold.

Examples

Group E: Polar climates

In the Köppen climate system, polar climates are defined as the warmest temperature of any month is below 10 °C (50 °F). Polar climates are further divided into two types, tundra climates and icecap climates:

ET: Tundra climate

Tundra climate (ET and ET): Warmest month has an average temperature between 0 and 10 °C. These climates occur on the northern edges of the North American and Eurasian land masses (generally north of 70 °N although it may be found farther south depending on local conditions), and on nearby islands. ET climates are also found on some islands near the Antarctic Convergence, and at high elevations outside the polar regions, above the tree line.

Examples

These ET climates are a colder and more continental variants of tundra. They would have characteristics of the ice cap climate, but still manage to see monthly average temperatures above 0 °C (32 °F):

Examples

EF: Ice cap climate

Ice cap climate (EF): This climate is dominant in Antarctica and inner Greenland, but also occurs at extremely high altitudes on mountains, above even tundra. Monthly average temperatures never exceed 0 °C (32 °F).

Examples

Ecological significance

The Köppen climate classification is based on the empirical relationship between climate and vegetation. This classification provides an efficient way to describe climatic conditions defined by temperature and precipitation and their seasonality with a single metric. Because climatic conditions identified by the Köppen classification are ecologically relevant, it has been widely used to map geographic distribution of long term climate and associated ecosystem conditions.[22]

Over the recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using the classification to identify changes in climate and potential changes in vegetation over time.[13] The most important ecological significance of the Köppen climate classification is that it helps to predict the dominant vegetation type based on the climatic data and vice versa.[23]

In 2015, a Nanjing University paper published in Nature analyzing climate classifications found that between 1950 and 2010, approximately 5.7% of all land area worldwide had moved from wetter and colder classifications to drier and hotter classifications. The authors also found that the change "cannot be explained as natural variations but are driven by anthropogenic factors."[24]

Trewartha climate classification scheme

The Trewartha climate classification is a climate classification system published by American geographer Glenn Thomas Trewartha in 1966, and updated in 1980. It is a modified version of the 1899 Köppen system, created to answer some of the deficiencies of the Köppen system. The Trewartha system attempts to redefine the middle latitudes to be closer to vegetation zoning and genetic climate systems. It was considered a more true or "real world" reflection of the global climate.

For example, under the standard Köppen system, in the United States, western Washington and Oregon are classed into the same climate zone as southern California, even though the two regions have strikingly different weather and vegetation. Under the old Köppen system cool oceanic climates like that of London or Seattle were classed in the same zone as hot subtropical cities like Savannah, Georgia or Brisbane, Australia. In the United States, locations like Colorado and Iowa, which have long, severe winter climates where plants are completely dormant, were classed into the same climate zone as Louisiana or northern Florida which have mild winters and a green winter landscape.

Other Köppen climate maps

All maps use the ≥0 °C definition for temperate climates and the 18 °C annual mean temperature threshold to distinguish between hot and cold dry climates.[1]

North America map of Köppen climate classification

North America

Europe map of Köppen climate classification

Europe

Russia Köppen

Russia

Central Asia map of Köppen climate classification

Central Asia

East Asia map of Köppen climate classification

East Asia

South America map of Köppen climate classification

South America

Africa map of Köppen climate classification

Africa

Middle East map of Köppen climate classification

Middle East

South Asia map of Köppen climate classification

South Asia

Southeast Asia map of Köppen climate classification

Southeast Asia

Oceania map of Köppen climate classification

Australia/Oceania

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Beck, Hylke E.; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; McVicar, Tim R.; Vergopolan, Noemi; Berg, Alexis; Wood, Eric F. (30 October 2018). "Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution". Scientific Data. 5: 180214. Bibcode:2018NatSD...580214B. doi:10.1038/sdata.2018.214. ISSN 2052-4463. PMC 6207062. PMID 30375988.
  2. ^ Köppen, Wladimir (1884). Translated by Volken, E.; Brönnimann, S. "Die Wärmezonen der Erde, nach der Dauer der heissen, gemässigten und kalten Zeit und nach der Wirkung der Wärme auf die organische Welt betrachtet" [The thermal zones of the earth according to the duration of hot, moderate and cold periods and to the impact of heat on the organic world)]. Meteorologische Zeitschrift (published 2011). 20 (3): 351–360. Bibcode:2011MetZe..20..351K. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2011/105 – via http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/schweiz/mz/2011/00000020/00000003/art00009.
  3. ^ Rubel, F.; Kottek, M (2011). "Comments on: 'The thermal zones of the Earth' by Wladimir Köppen (1884)". Meteorologische Zeitschrift. 20 (3): 361–365. Bibcode:2011MetZe..20..361R. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2011/0258.
  4. ^ Köppen, Wladimir (1918). "Klassification der Klimate nach Temperatur, Niederschlag and Jahreslauf". Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen. 64. pp. 193–203, 243–248 – via http://koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at/koeppen.htm.
  5. ^ Köppen, Wladimir (1936). "C". In Köppen, Wladimir; Geiger (publisher), Rudolf. Das geographische System der Klimate [The geographic system of climates] (PDF). Handbuch der Klimatologie. 1. Berlin: Borntraeger.
  6. ^ Geiger, Rudolf (1954). "Klassifikation der Klimate nach W. Köppen" [Classification of climates after W. Köppen]. Landolt-Börnstein – Zahlenwerte und Funktionen aus Physik, Chemie, Astronomie, Geophysik und Technik, alte Serie. Berlin: Springer. 3. pp. 603–607.
  7. ^ Geiger, Rudolf (1961). Überarbeitete Neuausgabe von Geiger, R.: Köppen-Geiger / Klima der Erde. (Wandkarte 1:16 Mill.) – Klett-Perthes, Gotha.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Kottek, Markus; Grieser, Jürgen; Beck, Christoph; Rudolf, Bruno; Rubel, Franz (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorologische Zeitschrift. 15 (3): 259–263. Bibcode:2006MetZe..15..259K. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130.
  9. ^ Beck, Hylke E.; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; McVicar, Tim R.; Vergopolan, Noemi; Berg, Alexis; Wood, Eric F. (30 October 2018). "Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution". Scientific Data. 5: 180214. Bibcode:2018NatSD...580214B. doi:10.1038/sdata.2018.214. ISSN 2052-4463. PMC 6207062. PMID 30375988.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m McKnight, Tom L; Hess, Darrel (2000). "Climate Zones and Types". Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-020263-5.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Peel, M. C.; Finlayson B. L. & McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification" (PDF). Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11 (5): 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606.
  12. ^ "Koppen climate classification | climatology". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-08-04.
  13. ^ a b Chen, Hans; Chen, Deliang. "Köppen climate classification". hanschen.org. Retrieved 2017-08-04.
  14. ^ a b Cereceda, P.; Larrain, H.; osses, P.; Farias, M.; Egaña, I. (2008). "The climate of the coast and fog zone in the Tarapacá Region, Atacama Desert, Chile". Atmospheric Research. 87 (3–4): 301–311. Bibcode:2008AtmRe..87..301C. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2007.11.011. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  15. ^ a b "CLASIFICACIÓN CLIMÁTICA DE KÖPPEN" (in Spanish). Universidad de Chile. Archived from the original on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  16. ^ a b Inzunza, Juan. "Capitulo 15. Climas de Chile" (PDF). Meteorología Descriptiva y Aplicaciones en Chile (in Spanish). p. 427. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  17. ^ Linacre, Edward; Bart Geerts (1997). Climates and Weather Explained. London: Routledge. p. 379. ISBN 978-0-415-12519-2.
  18. ^ "JetStream Max: Addition Köppen-Geiger Climate Subdivisions". National Weather Service. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  19. ^ Critchfield, H.J. (1983). "Criteria for classification of major climatic types in modified Köppen system" (4 ed.). University of Idaho. Archived from the original on 2009-09-30.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  20. ^ "Atlas Agroclimático de Chile–Estado Actual y Tendencias del Clima (Tomo I: Regiones de Arica Y Parinacota, Tarapacá y Antofagasta" (in Spanish). Universidad de Chile. 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
  21. ^ Melvin R. George. "Mediterranean Climate". UCRangelands. University of California. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-01-26.
  22. ^ Chen, D.; Chen, H. W. (2013). "Using the Köppen classification to quantify climate variation and change: An example for 1901–2010". Environmental Development. 6: 69–79. doi:10.1016/j.envdev.2013.03.007. (direct: Final Revised Paper)
  23. ^ Critchfield, Howard J (1983). General Climatology (4th ed.). New Delhi: Prentice Hall. pp. 154–161. ISBN 978-81-203-0476-5.
  24. ^ Chan, D. and Wu, Q. (2015). "Significant anthropogenic-induced changes of climate classes since 1950". Scientific Reports. 5 (13487): 13487. Bibcode:2015NatSR...513487C. doi:10.1038/srep13487. PMC 4551970. PMID 26316255.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)

External links

Climate records

Climate classification

Climate classification systems are ways of classifying the world's climates. A climate classification may correlate closely with a biome category, as climate is a major influence on biological life in a region. The most popular classification scheme is probably the Köppen climate classification scheme.Climate classification systems include:

Aridity index

Alisov climate classification

Köppen climate classification

Holdridge life zone classification

Trewartha climate classification

Vahl climate classification

Climate of Albania

Albania has a variety of climate systems. With its coastline facing the Adriatic and Ionian seas in the Mediterranean sea, its highlands backed upon the elevated Balkan landmass, and the entire country lying at a latitude subject to a variety of weather patterns during the winter and summer seasons, however it has a high number of climatic regions for such a small area. The coastal lowlands have typically mediterranean climate while the highlands have a continental climate. In both the lowlands and the interior, the weather varies markedly from north to south.Under the Köppen climate classification, the country has Hot Mediterranean climate, Warm Mediterranean climate, Subtropical climate, Oceanic climate, Continental climate and Subartic climate.

Climate of Iceland

The climate of Iceland is subarctic (Köppen climate classification: Cfc) near the southern coastal area and tundra inland in the highlands. The island lies in the path of the North Atlantic Current, which makes its climate more temperate than would be expected for its latitude just south of the Arctic Circle. This effect is aided by the Irminger Current, which also helps to moderate the island’s temperature. The weather in Iceland can be notoriously variable.The aurora borealis is often visible at night time during the winter. The midnight sun can be experienced in summer on the island of Grimsey off the north coast; the remainder of the country, since it lies just south of the polar circle, experiences a twilight period during which the sun sets briefly, but still has around 2 weeks of continuous daylight during the summer.

Climate of Uruguay

Uruguay has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa according to the Köppen climate classification). It is fairly uniform nationwide, since the country is located entirely within the temperate zone. Seasonal variations do exist, but extremes in temperature are rare. As would be expected by its abundance of water, high humidity and fog are common. The absence of mountains and other weather barriers makes all locations vulnerable to high winds and rapid changes in weather as fronts or storms sweep across the country. Weather is sometimes humid.

Continental climate

Continental climates often have a significant annual variation in temperature (hot summers and cold winters). They tend to occur in the middle latitudes (40 to 55 north), where prevailing winds blow overland, and temperatures are not moderated by bodies of water such as oceans or seas. Continental climates occur mostly in the Northern Hemisphere, which has the kind of large landmasses on temperate latitudes required for this type of climate to develop. Most of northern and northeastern China, eastern and southeastern Europe, central and southeastern Canada, and the central and upper eastern United States have this type of climate.In continental climates, precipitation tends to be moderate in amount, concentrated mostly in the warmer months. Only a few areas—in the mountains of the Pacific Northwest of North America and in Iran, northern Iraq, adjacent Turkey, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Central Asia—show a winter maximum in precipitation. A portion of the annual precipitation falls as snowfall, and snow often remains on the ground for more than a month. Summers in continental climates can feature thunderstorms and frequent cool temperatures; however, summer weather is more stable than winter weather.

Desert climate

The desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk), is a climate in which there is an excess of evaporation over precipitation. The typically bald, rocky, or sandy surfaces in desert climates hold little moisture and evaporate the little rainfall they receive. Covering 14.2% of earth's land area, hot deserts may be the most common type of climate on earth.Although no part of Earth is known for certain to be absolutely rainless, in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile, the average annual rainfall over a period of 17 years was only 5 mm (0.2 in.). Some locations in the Sahara Desert such as Kufra, Libya record only .86 mm (0.03 inches) of rainfall annually. The official weather station in Death Valley, United States reports only 60 mm (2.3 inches) annually, and in one period between 1931 and 1934 (40 months) only 16 mm (0.64 inches) of rainfall was measured.

There are two variations of a desert climate: a hot desert climate (BWh), and a cold desert climate (BWk). To delineate "hot desert climates" from "cold desert climates", there are three widely used isotherms: either a mean annual temperature of 18 °C (which is the most accurate and most commonly used), or a mean temperature of 0 °C or −3 °C in the coldest month, so that a location with a "BW" type climate with the appropriate temperature above whichever isotherm is being used is classified as "hot arid" (BWh), and a location with the appropriate temperature below the given isotherm is classified as "cold arid".

Most desert and arid climates receive between 25 and 200 mm (1 to 8 inches) of rainfall annually. In the Köppen classification system, a climate will be classed as arid if its mean annual precipitation in millimeters is less than ten times its defined precipitation threshhold, and it will be classed as a desert if its mean annual precipitation is less than five times this threshold. The precipitation threshold is twice its mean annual temperature in degrees Celsius, plus a constant to represent the distribution of its rainfall throughout the year. This constant is 28 for regions that receive 70% or more of their rainfall during the six winter months. The constant is 0 for regions that receive 70% or more of their rainfall during the six summer months. And it is 14 for any climates falling between these two extremes.

Dry season

The dry season is a yearly period of low rainfall, especially in the tropics. The weather in the tropics is dominated by the tropical rain belt, which moves from the northern to the southern tropics and back over the course of the year. The tropical rain belt lies in the southern hemisphere roughly from October to March; during that time the northern tropics have a dry season with sparser precipitation, and days are typically sunny throughout. From April to September, the rain belt lies in the northern hemisphere, and the southern tropics have their dry season. Under the Köppen climate classification, for tropical climates, a dry season month is defined as a month when average precipitation is below 60 millimetres (2.4 in).The dry season has low humidity, and some watering holes and rivers dry up. This lack of water (and hence of food) may force many grazing animals to migrate to more fertile spots. Examples of such animals are zebras, elephants, and wildebeest. Because of the lack of water in the plants, bushfires are common.Data shows that in Africa the start of the dry season coincides with a rise in the cases of measles—which researchers believe might be attributed to the higher concentration of people in the dry season, as agricultural operations are all but impossible without irrigation. During this time, some farmers move into cities, creating hubs of higher population density, and allowing the disease to spread more easily.The rain belt reaches roughly as far north as the Tropic of Cancer and as far south as the Tropic of Capricorn. Near these latitudes, there is one wet season and one dry season annually. At the equator there are two wet and two dry seasons, as the rain belt passes over twice a year, once moving north and once moving south. Between the tropics and the equator, locations may experience a short wet and a long wet season; and a short dry and a long dry season. Local geography may substantially modify these climate patterns, however.

New data shows that in the seasonal parts of the South American Amazon forest, foliage growth and coverage varies between the dry and wet seasons—with about 25% more leaves and faster growth in the dry season. Researchers believe that the Amazon itself has an effect in bringing the onset of the wet season: by growing more foliage, it evaporates more water. However, this growth appears only in the undisturbed parts of the Amazon basin, where researchers believe roots can reach deeper and gather more rainwater. It has also been shown that ozone levels are much higher in the dry than in the wet season in the Amazon basin.A dry season can also be seen in temperate areas. In Los Angeles, summer is the dry season. In Beijing, winter is the dry season.

Geography of Alberta

Alberta is a Canadian province. Located in Western Canada, the province has an area of 661,190 square kilometres (255,290 sq mi) and is bounded to the south by the U.S. state of Montana along 49° north for 298 kilometres (185 mi); to the east at 110° west by the province of Saskatchewan for 1,223 kilometres (760 mi); and at 60° north the Northwest Territories for 644 kilometres (400 mi). The southern half of the province borders British Columbia along the Continental Divide of the Americas on the peaks of the Rocky Mountains, while the northern half borders British Columbia along the 120th meridian west.

Hanksville, Utah

Hanksville is a small town in Wayne County, Utah, United States, at the junction of State Routes 24 and 95. The population was 219 at the 2010 census.The town is just south of the confluence of the Fremont River and Muddy Creek, which together form the Dirty Devil River, which then flows southeast to the Colorado River. Situated in the Colorado Plateau's cold desert ecological region it has, in Köppen climate classification, a temperate arid climate (BWk) with a mean annual temperature of 11.6 °C (52.88 °F) and an annual mean rainfall of 146.3 mm (5.76 in) (years 1961-1990). The Hanksville-Burpee Quarry is located nearby, and the Mars Desert Research Station is 7 miles (11 km) northwest of town.

The BLM Henry Mountains field station is located in Hanksville.

Humid subtropical climate

A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitudes 25° and 40° and are located poleward from adjacent tropical climates. While many subtropical climates tend to be located at or near coastal locations, in some cases they extend inland, most notably in China and the United States, where they exhibit more pronounced seasonal variations and sharper contrasts between summer and winter, as part of a gradient between the more tropical climates of the southern coasts of these countries and the more continental climates of China and the United States’ northern and central regions (localities around the Ohio and Yangtze rivers exhibiting continental influence from the north, compared to climates around the Gulf of Mexico and the South China Sea, which exhibit tropical influence due to their southern coastal positions).

Under the Köppen climate classification, Cfa and Cwa climates are either described as humid subtropical climates or mild temperate climates. This climate features mean temperatures in the coldest month between 0 °C (32 °F) (or −3 °C (27 °F)) and 18 °C (64 °F) and mean temperatures in the warmest month 22 °C (72 °F) or higher. However, while some climatologists have opted to describe this climate type as a "humid subtropical climate", Köppen himself never used this term. The humid subtropical climate classification was officially created under the Trewartha Climate classification.

The Trewartha system was a 1966 update of the Köppen climate classification, and sought to redefine middle latitude climates into smaller zones (the original Köppen system grouped all middle latitude climates into a single zone). Under the Trewartha climate classification, climates are termed humid subtropical when they have monthly mean air temperatures higher than 10 °C (50 °F) for eight or more months a year and at least one month with mean temperature below 18 °C (64.4 °F). Under the Trewartha system, humid subtropical climates typically occupy the southernmost portions of the temperate zone from 23.5 to 35.0 north and south latitude.Rainfall often shows a summer peak, especially where monsoons are well developed, as in Southeast Asia and South Asia. Other areas have a more uniform or varying rainfall cycles, but consistently lack any predictably dry summer months. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms that build up due to the intense surface heating and strong subtropical sun angle. Weak tropical lows that move in from adjacent warm tropical oceans, as well as infrequent tropical storms often contribute to summer seasonal rainfall peaks. Winter rainfall is often associated with large storms in the westerlies that have fronts that reach down into subtropical latitudes. However, many subtropical climates such as southeast Asia or Florida have very dry winters, with frequent brush fires and water shortages.

Köppen

Köppen is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Bernd Köppen (born 1951), German pianist and composer

Edlef Köppen (1893–1939), German author and radio editor

Friedrich Köppen (1775–1858), German philosopher

Jan Köppen (born 1983), German television presenter and DJ

Jens Köppen (born 1966), German rower

Kerstin Köppen (born 1967), German rower

Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940), German geographer, meteorologist, climatologist and botanist who developed the Köppen climate classification

Mediterranean climate

A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers, with less than 40 mm of precipitation for at least three summer months. While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, these are generally located on the western coasts of continents, between roughly 30 and 43 degrees north and south of the equator, typically between oceanic climates towards the poles (where they tend to be wetter and cooler), and semi-arid and arid climates towards the equator (where they tend to be drier and hotter).

In essence, and due to the seasonal shift of the subtropical high-pressure belts with the apparent movement of the Sun, a Mediterranean climate is an intermediate type between these other climates, with winters warmer and drier (and sunnier) than oceanic climates and summers imitating sunny weather in semi-arid and arid climates.

The resulting vegetation of Mediterranean climates are the garrigue or maquis in the Mediterranean Basin, the chaparral in California, the fynbos in South Africa, the mallee in Australia, and the matorral in Chile. Areas with this climate are where the so-called "Mediterranean trinity" has traditionally developed: wheat, vine and olive.

Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin, including Algiers, Athens, Beirut, İzmir, Jerusalem, Marseille, Naples, Rome, Tunis, and Valencia lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, as do major cities outside the Mediterranean basin, such as Adelaide, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Lisbon, Perth, San Francisco, Santiago and Victoria.

Paraná (state)

Paraná (Portuguese pronunciation: [paɾaˈna]) is one of the 26 states of Brazil, in the south of the country, bordered on the north by São Paulo state, on the east by the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Santa Catarina state and the province of Misiones, Argentina, and on the west by Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraguay, with the Paraná River as its western boundary line.Its area is 199,307.9 km2 (76,953.2 sq mi), slightly smaller than Romania, a country with similar shape. It is subdivided into 399 municipalities. Its capital is the city of Curitiba. Other major cities are Londrina, Maringá, Ponta Grossa, Cascavel, São José dos Pinhais and Foz do Iguaçu.

Crossed by the Tropic of Capricorn, Paraná has what is left of the araucaria forest, one of the most important subtropical forests in the world. At the border with Argentina is the National Park of Iguaçu, considered by UNESCO as a World Heritage site. At only 40 km (25 mi) from there, at the border with Paraguay, the largest dam in the world was built, the Hidroelétrica de Itaipu (Itaipu Hydroelectric Dam). The crime rate is considered low by Brazilian standards and the state is one of the most developed ones in the nation, ranking 4th in gross domestic product, only behind the states of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Minas Gerais.

Pyramid Mountain (Alberta)

Pyramid Mountain is a mountain in Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada, named for its pyramid-like shape. James Hector named the mountain in 1859 due to its appearance from the Athabasca River valley on the eastern side of the peak.Part of the Victoria Cross Ranges in the Athabasca River Valley the mountain is in the major headwater for the Athabasca River. The peak is just under 10 km (6 mi) north-west of the town of Jasper.

The mountain is a relatively easy scramble on the eastern slopes. These slopes can be reached by following a steep fire road from the parking lot at Pyramid Lake, 4.5 km (3 mi) South-East of the peak.

Based on the Köppen climate classification, Pyramid Mountain is located in a subarctic climate with cold, snowy winters, and mild summers. Temperatures can drop below -20 C with wind chill factors below -30 C.

Temperate climate

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth. These zones generally have wider temperature ranges throughout the year and more distinct seasonal changes compared to tropical climates, where such variations are often small. They typically feature four distinct seasons, Summer the warmest, Autumn the transitioning season to Winter, the colder season, and Spring the transitioning season from winter back into summer. On the northern hemisphere the year starts with winter, transitions in the first halfyear trough spring into summer which is in mid-year, then at the second halfyear trough autumn into winter at year-end. On the southern hemisphere seasons are swapped with summer in between years and winter in mid-year.

The temperate zones (latitudes from 35° to the polar circles at about 66.5°, north and south) are where the widest seasonal changes occur, with most climates found in it having some influence from both the tropics and the poles. The subtropics (latitudes from about 23.5° to 35°, north and south) have temperate climates that show further similarities with the tropics, usually having warmer summers and milder winters. The poleward outskirts of the temperate zones are where the coldest but yet temperate climates such as the boreal climate are found, with colder winters and milder summers, showing further similarities with the poles.

It is not only latitudinal positions that influence temperature changes: sea currents, air masses, continentality, maritimity, and altitude are also defining factors, with climates considered temperate being found even in tropical areas or milder climates in polar regions. Humidity and precipitation changes are also taken into account.

The Köppen climate classification defines a climate as "temperate" when the coldest month has a mean temperature below 18 °C (64.4 °F).

Tropical climate

A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of warmer than 18.4 °C (65.1 °F). In tropical climates there are often only two seasons: a wet season and a dry season. Tropical climates are frost-free, and changes in the solar angle are small. In tropical climates temperature remains relatively constant (hot) throughout the year. Sunlight is intense.

Tropical monsoon climate

A area of tropical monsoon climate (occasionally known as a tropical wet climate or a tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral climate) is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification category "Am". Tropical monsoon climates have monthly mean temperatures above 18 °C (64.4 °F) in every month of the year. Tropical monsoon climates is the intermediate climate between the wet Af (or tropical rainforest climate) and Aw (or tropical savanna climate).

A tropical monsoon climate, however, has its driest month seeing on average less than 60 mm, but more than 100 – [total annual precipitation {mm}/25] of average monthly precipitation. This latter fact is in direct contrast to a tropical savanna climate, whose driest month sees less than 60 mm of precipitation and also less than 100 – [total annual precipitation {mm}/25] of average monthly precipitation. In essence, a tropical monsoon climate tends to either see more rainfall than a tropical savanna climate or have less pronounced dry seasons. Additionally, a tropical monsoon climate tends to see less variance in temperatures during the course of the year than a tropical savanna climate. This climate has a driest month which nearly always occurs at or soon after the "winter" solstice for that side of the equator.

Tropical rainforest climate

A tropical rainforest climate is a tropical climate usually found within 10 to 15 degrees latitude of the equator, and has at least 60 mm (2.4 inches) of rainfall every month of the year. Regions with this climate are typically designated Af by the Köppen climate classification. A tropical rainforest climate is typically hot and wet.

Tropical savanna climate

Tropical savanna climate or tropical wet and dry climate is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification categories "Aw" and "As".

Tropical savanna climates have monthly mean temperatures above 18 °C (64 °F) in every month of the year and typically a pronounced dry season, with the driest month having less than 60 mm (2.36 inches) of precipitation and also less than 100 – [total annual precipitation {mm}/25] of precipitation. This latter fact is in direct contrast to a tropical monsoon climate, whose driest month sees less than 60 mm of precipitation but has more than 100 – [total annual precipitation {mm}/25] of precipitation. In essence, a tropical savanna climate tends to either see less rainfall than a tropical monsoon climate or have more pronounced dry season(s).

In tropical savanna climates, the dry season can become severe, and often drought conditions prevail during the course of the year. Tropical savanna climates often feature tree-studded grasslands, rather than thick jungle. It is this widespread occurrence of tall, coarse grass (called savanna) which has led to Aw and As climates often being referred to as tropical savanna. However, there is some doubt whether tropical grasslands are climatically induced. Additionally, pure savannas, without trees, are the exception rather than the rule.

Climate types under the Köppen climate classification
Class A
Class B
Class C
Class D
Class E

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