Juvenal

Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis (Latin: [ˈdɛ.kɪ.mʊs ˈjuː.ni.ʊs jʊ.wɛ.ˈnaː.lɪs]), known in English as Juvenal (/ˈdʒuːvənəl/), was a Roman poet active in the late first and early second century AD. He is the author of the collection of satirical poems known as the Satires. The details of the author's life are unclear, although references within his text to known persons of the late first and early second centuries AD fix his earliest date of composition. One recent scholar argues that his first book was published in 100 or 101.[1] Because of a reference to a recent political figure, his fifth and final surviving book must date from after 127.

Juvenal wrote at least 16 poems in the verse form dactylic hexameter. These poems cover a range of Roman topics. This follows Lucilius—the originator of the Roman satire genre, and it fits within a poetic tradition that also includes Horace and Persius. The Satires are a vital source for the study of ancient Rome from a number of perspectives, although their comic mode of expression makes it problematic to accept the content as strictly factual. At first glance the Satires could be read as a critique of pagan Rome. That critique may have ensured their survival in the Christian monastic scriptoria although the majority of ancient texts did not survive.

Juvenal
Frontispiece from John Dryden, The Satires of Decimus Junius Juvenalis: And of Aulus Persius Flaccus
Born1st century AD
Aquinum (modern Aquino)
Died2nd century AD
OccupationPoet
NationalityRoman
GenreRoman Satire

Life

Juvenal portrait
Juvenal's fictitious portrait (S. H. Gimber, 1837)

Details of the author's life cannot be reconstructed definitely. The Vita Iuvenalis (Life of Juvenal), a biography of the author that became associated with his manuscripts no later than the tenth century, is little more than an extrapolation from the Satires.

Traditional biographies, including the Vita Iuvenalis, give us the writer's full name and also tell us that he was either the son, or adopted son, of a rich freedman. He is supposed to have been a pupil of Quintilian, and to have practised rhetoric until he was middle-aged, both as amusement and for legal purposes. The Satires do make frequent and accurate references to the operation of the Roman legal system. His career as a satirist is supposed to have begun at a fairly late stage in his life.

Biographies agree in giving his birthplace as Aquinum and also, in allotting to his life a period of exile, which supposedly was due to his insulting an actor who had high levels of court influence. The emperor who is said to have banished him is given variously, as either Trajan or Domitian. A preponderance of the biographies place his exile in Egypt, with the exception of one, that opts for Scotland.[2]

Only one of these traditional biographies supplies a date of birth for Juvenal: it gives 55 AD, which most probably is speculation, but accords reasonably well with the rest of the evidence. Other traditions have him surviving for some time past the year of Hadrian's death (138 AD). Some sources place his death in exile, others have him being recalled to Rome (the latter of which is considered more plausible by contemporary scholars). If he was exiled by Domitian, then it is possible that he was one of the political exiles recalled during the brief reign of Nerva.[2]

It is impossible to tell how much of the content of these traditional biographies is fiction and how much is fact. Large parts clearly are mere deduction from Juvenal's writings, but some elements appear more substantial. Juvenal never mentions a period of exile in his life, yet it appears in every extant traditional biography. Many scholars think the idea to be a later invention; the Satires do display some knowledge of Egypt and Britain, and it is thought that this gave rise to the tradition that Juvenal was exiled. Others, however - particularly Gilbert Highet - regard the exile as factual, and these scholars also supply a concrete date for the exile: 93 AD until 96, when Nerva became emperor. They argue that a reference to Juvenal in one of Martial's poems, which is dated to 92, is impossible if, at this stage Juvenal was already in exile, or, had served his time in exile, since in that case, Martial would not have wished to antagonise Domitian by mentioning such a persona non grata as Juvenal. If Juvenal was exiled, he would have lost his patrimony, and this may explain the consistent descriptions of the life of the client he bemoans in the Satires.

The only other biographical evidence available, is a dedicatory inscription, said to have been found at Aquinum in the nineteenth century, with the following text:[3]

...]RI·SACRVM
...]NIVS·IVVENALIS
...] COH·[.]·DELMATARVM
II·VIR·QVINQ·FLAMEN
DIVI·VESPASIANI
VOVIT·DEDICAV[...]UE
SVA PEC
[CERE]RI·SACRVM
[D(ECIMVS) IV]NIVS·IVVENALIS
[TRIB(VNVS)] COH(ORTIS)·[I]·DELMATARVM
II·VIR·QVINQ(VENNALIS)·FLAMEN
DIVI·VESPASIANI
VOVIT·DEDICAV[ITQ]VE
SVA PEC(VNIA)
To Ceres (this) sacred (thing)
(Decimus Junius?) Juvenalis
military tribune of the first cohort of the Dalmatian (legions)
Duovir, Quinquennalis, Flamen
of the Divine Vespasian
vowed and dedicated
at his own expense
(Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum X.5382)

Scholars usually are of the opinion that this inscription does not relate to the poet: a military career would not fit well with the pronounced anti-militarism of the Satires and, moreover, the Dalmatian legions do not seem to have existed prior to 166 AD. Therefore, it seems likely that this reference is to a Juvenal who was a later relative of the poet, however, as they both came from Aquinum and were associated with the goddess Ceres (the only deity the Satires shows much respect for). If the theory that connects these two Juvenals is correct, then the inscription does show that Juvenal's family was reasonably wealthy, and that, if the poet really was the son of a foreign freedman, then his descendants assimilated into the Roman class structure more quickly than typical. Green thinks it more likely that the tradition of the freedman father is false and, that Juvenal's ancestors had been minor nobility of Roman Italy of relatively ancient descent.[4]

The Satires and their genre

Satirae
Saturae, 1535

Juvenal is credited with sixteen known poems divided among five books; all are in the Roman genre of satire, which, at its most basic in the time of the author, comprised a wide-ranging discussion of society and social mores in dactylic hexameter.[5] In Satire I, concerning the scope and content of his work, Juvenal says:

ex quo Deucalion nimbis tollentibus aequor
nauigio montem ascendit sortesque poposcit
paulatimque anima caluerunt mollia saxa
et maribus nudas ostendit Pyrrha puellas,
quidquid agunt homines, uotum, timor, ira, uoluptas,
gaudia, discursus, nostri farrago libelli est.

Back from when Deucalion climbed a mountain in a boat
as the clouds lifted the waters, and then asked for an oracle,
and then little by little spirit warmed the soft stones
and Pyrrha showed naked girls to their husbands,
whatever men do – prayer, fear, rage, pleasure
joy, running about – is the gist of my little book.

—(1.81–86)

Juvenal claims as his purview, the entire gamut of human experience since the dawn of history. Quintilian – in the context of a discussion of literary genres appropriate for an oratorical education - claimed that, unlike so many literary and artistic forms adopted from Greek models, “satire at least is all ours” (satura quidem tota nostra est).[6] At least in the view of Quintillian, earlier Greek satiric verse (e.g. that of Hipponax) or even Latin satiric prose (e.g. that of Petronius) did not constitute satura, per se. Roman Satura was a formal literary genre rather than being simply clever, humorous critique in no particular format.

  • Book I: Satires 1–5
  • Book II: Satire 6
  • Book III: Satires 7–9
  • Book IV: Satires 10–12
  • Book V: Satires 13–16 (although Satire 16 is incomplete)

The individual Satires (excluding Satire 16) range in length from 130 (Satire 12) to c. 695 (Satire 6) lines. The poems are not entitled individually, but translators often have added titles for the convenience of readers.

Modern criticism and historical context of the Satires

While Juvenal's mode of satire has been noted from antiquity for its wrathful scorn toward all representatives of social deviance, some politically progressive scholars such as, W. S. Anderson and later S. M. Braund, have attempted to defend his work as that of a rhetorical persona (mask), taken up by the author to critique the very attitudes he appears to be exhibiting in his works.[7]

In any case it would be an error to read the Satires as a literal account of normal Roman life and thought in the late first and early second centuries AD, just as it would be an error to give credence to every slander recorded in Suetonius against the members of prior imperial dynasties. Themes similar to those of the Satires are present in authors spanning the period of the late Roman Republic and early empire ranging from Cicero and Catullus to Martial and Tacitus; similarly, the stylistics of Juvenal’s text fall within the range of post-Augustan literature, as represented by Persius, Statius, and Petronius.[8]

Juvenal's Satires, giving several accounts of the Jewish life in first-century Rome, have been regarded by scholars, such as J. Juster and, more recently, Peter Nahon, as a valuable source about early Judaism.[9]

Literary and cultural influence

The Satires have inspired many authors, including Samuel Johnson, who modeled his “London” on Satire III and “The Vanity of Human Wishes” on Satire X. Alexander Theroux, whose novels are rife with vicious satire, identified Juvenal as his most important influence.[10] Juvenal also provided a source for the name for a forensically important beetle, Histeridae. Juvenal is the source of many well-known maxims, including:

  • that the common people—rather than caring about their freedom—are only interested in “bread and circuses” (panem et circenses 10.81; i.e. food and entertainment),
  • that—rather than for wealth, power, eloquence, or children—one should pray for a “sound mind in a sound body” (mens sana in corpore sano 10.356),
  • that a perfect wife is a “rare bird” (rara avis in terris nigroque simillima cycno 6.165; a rare bird in the earth and most similar to a black swan)[11]
  • and the troubling question of who can be trusted with power—“who will watch the watchers?” or "who will guard the guardians themselves?" (quis custodiet ipsos custodes 6.347-48).

ASICS, the footwear and sports equipment manufacturing company, is named after the acronym of the Latin phrase "anima sana in corpore sano" (a sound mind in a sound body) from Satire X by Juvenal (10.356).[12]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Uden, J. The Invisible Satirist: Juvenal and Second-Century Rome (Oxford, 2015), pp. 219–226
  2. ^ a b Peter Green: Introduction to Penguin Classics edition of the Satires, 1998 edition: p.15 ff
  3. ^ (From L to R: the inscription as preserved, the restored inscription, and the translation of the restored inscription.)
  4. ^ Peter Green: Introduction to Penguin Classics edition of the Satires, 1998 edition: pp. 23–24
  5. ^ Lucilius experimented with other meters before settling on dactylic hexameter.
  6. ^ Quintilian (10 January 95). Institutio Oratoria. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  7. ^ According to Braund (1988 p. 25), Satire 7 – the opening poem of Book III - represents a “break” with satires one through six – Books I and II – where Juvenal relinquishes the indignatio of the “angry persona” in favor of the irony of a “much more rational and intelligent” persona.
  8. ^ Amy Richlin identifies oratorical invective as a source for both satire and epigram. 1992 p. 127.
  9. ^ Peter Nahon, 2014. Idées neuves sur un vieux texte : Juvénal, Saturae, 6, 542-547. In: Revue des études latines 92:1-6
  10. ^ "Theroux Metaphrastes: An Essay on Literature," in Three Wogs (Boston: David Godine, 195), p. 23.
  11. ^ Though in fact the description of a good wife as rara avis is not Juvenal's coining but dates back to Seneca de Matr. 56. (Ferguson (1979) Juvenal: The Satires, on line 6.165).
  12. ^ "About ASICS". ASICS America. Retrieved 2015-08-31.

References

  • Anderson, William S. (1982) Essays on Roman Satire, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Braund, Susanna M. (1988) Beyond Anger: A Study of Juvenal’s Third Book of Satires, Cambridge: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.
  • Braund, Susanna (1996) Juvenal Satires Book I, Cambridge: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.
  • Braund, Susanna (1996) The Roman Satirists and their Masks, London: Bristol Classical Press.
  • Courtney, E. (1980) A Commentary of the Satires of Juvenal, London: Athlone Press.
  • Edwards, Catherine (1993) The Politics of Immorality in Ancient Rome, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Gleason, Maud W. (1995) Making Men: Sophists and Self-Presentation in Ancient Rome, Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Gowers, Emily (1993) The Loaded Table: Representations of Food in Roman Literature, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Green, Peter (1989). "Juvenal Revisited". Grand Street, Vol. 9, No. 1 (Autumn, 1989), pp. 175-196.
  • Green, Peter (trans.) (1998): Juvenal. The Sixteen Satires. London: Penguin Books. (3rd revised edn; first edn published 1967).
  • Highet, Gilbert (1961) Juvenal the Satirist, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Juvenal (1992) The Satires, Trans. Niall Rudd, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Juvenal (1992) Persi et Juvenalis Saturae, ed. W. V. Clausen. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Kelk, Christopher (2010), The Satires of Juvenal: A Verse Translation, Edwin Mellen Press.
  • Macleane, Arthur J. (1867). Decii Junii Juvenalis et A. Persii Flacci Satirae. With a commentary.
  • The Oxford Classical Dictionary 3rd ed., 1996, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Richlin, Amy (1992) The Garden of Priapus, New York : Oxford University Press.
  • Rudd, Niall (1982) Themes in Roman Satire, Los Angeles: University of California Press.
  • Rudd, Niall (tr.) (1991): Juvenal Juvenal: The Satires, with an Introduction and Notes by William Barr. Oxford.
  • Syme, Ronald (1939) The Roman Revolution, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Uden, James (2015) The Invisible Satirist: Juvenal and Second-Century Rome. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Stramaglia, Antonio; Grazzini, Stefano; Dimatteo, Giuseppe (2015): Giovenale tra storia, poesia e ideologia, Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter.

External links

Abolla

An abolla was a cloak-like garment worn by ancient Greeks and Romans. Nonius Marcellus quotes a passage of Varro to show that it was a garment worn by soldiers (vestis militaris), and thus opposed to the toga.

The abolla was, however, not confined to military occasions, but was also worn in the city. It was especially used by the Stoic philosophers at Rome as the pallium philosophicum, just as the Greek philosophers were accustomed to distinguish themselves by a particular dress. Hence the expression of Juvenal facinus majoris abollae merely signifies, "a crime committed by a very deep philosopher".The word abolla is actually a Latinization of the Greek ambolla (ἀμβόλλα) or anabole (ἀναβολή), for a loose woolen cloak.

Assassination of Juvénal Habyarimana and Cyprien Ntaryamira

On the evening of 6 April 1994, the airplane carrying Rwandan president Juvénal Habyarimana and Burundian president Cyprien Ntaryamira, both Hutu, was shot down with surface-to-air missiles as it prepared to land in Kigali, Rwanda. The assassination set in motion two of the bloodiest events of the late 20th century: the Rwandan genocide and the First Congo War.

Responsibility for the attack is disputed, with most theories proposing as suspects either the Tutsi rebel Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) or government-aligned Hutu Power followers opposed to negotiation with the RPF. Within hours of the attack, the mass slaughter of Tutsi people began, resulting in the genocide of hundreds of thousands of Tutsi in the following three months.

Bread and circuses

"Bread and circuses" (or bread and games; from Latin: panem et circenses) is a metonymic phrase critiquing superficial appeasement. It is attributed to Juvenal, a Roman poet active in the late first and early second century AD — and is used commonly in cultural, particularly political, contexts.

In a political context, the phrase means to generate public approval, not by excellence in public service or public policy, but by diversion, distraction or by satisfying the most immediate or base requirements of a populace — by offering a palliative: for example food (bread) or entertainment (circuses).

Juvenal, who originated the phrase, used it to decry the selfishness of common people and their neglect of wider concerns. The phrase implies a population's erosion or ignorance of civic duty as a priority.

Cordax

The cordax (Ancient Greek: Κόρδαξ), was a provocative, licentious, and often obscene mask dance of ancient Greek comedy. In his play The Clouds, Aristophanes complains that other playwrights of his time try to hide the feebleness of their plays by bringing an old woman onto the stage to dance the cordax. He notes with pride that his patrons will not find such gimmicks in his plays.

The dance can be compared with the modern Tsifteteli.Petronius Arbiter in his Roman novel the Satyricon has Trimalchio boast to his dinner guests that no one dances the cordax better than his wife, Fortunata. The nature of this dance is described in the satires of Juvenal, who says "the girls encouraged by applause sink to the ground with tremulous buttocks." The poet Horace and playwright Plautus refer to the same dance as iconici motus.

Juvenal makes specific mention of the testarum crepitus (clicking of castanets). In the earlier Greek form, finger cymbals were used.

Human rights in Rwanda

Human rights in Rwanda have been violated on a grand scale. The greatest violation is the Rwandan genocide of Tutsi in 1994. The post-genocide government is also responsible for grave violations of human rights.

Iván Ríos

José Juvenal Velandia, a.k.a. Iván Ríos, a.k.a. Manuel Jesús Muñoz Ortiz, (19 December 1961 – 3 March 2008), born in San Francisco, Putumayo, Colombia, was the Head of the Central Bloc of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC-EP) and the youngest member of this guerrilla's Central High Command.

James Juvenal

James Benner Juvenal (January 12, 1874 – September 1, 1942) was an American rower, born in Philadelphia, who competed in the 1900 Summer Olympics and in the 1904 Summer Olympics.

In 1900, he was part of the American boat Vesper Boat Club, which won the gold medal in the eights.

Four years later, he won the silver medal in the single sculls event.

Jules Dupuit

Arsène Jules Étienne Juvenel Dupuit (18 May 1804 – 5 September 1866) was an Italian-born French civil engineer and economist.

He was born in Fossano, Italy then under the rule of Napoleon Bonaparte. At the age of ten he emigrated to France with his family where he studied in Versailles — winning a Physics prize at graduation. He then studied in the École Polytechnique as a civil engineer. He gradually took on more responsibility in various regional posts. He received a Légion d'honneur in 1843 for his work on the French road system, and shortly after moved to Paris. He also studied flood management in 1848 and supervised the construction of the Paris sewer system. He died in Paris.

Engineering questions led to his interest in economics, a subject in which he was self-taught. His 1844 article was concerned with deciding the optimum toll for a bridge. It was here that he introduced his curve of diminishing marginal utility. As the quantity of a good consumed rises, the marginal utility of the good declines for the user. So the lower the toll (lower marginal utility), the more people who would use the bridge (higher consumption). Conversely as the quantity rises (people allowed on the bridge), the willingness of a person to pay for that good (the price) declines.

Thus, the concept of diminishing marginal utility should translate itself into a downward-sloping demand function. In this way he identified the demand curve as the marginal utility curve. This was the first time an economist had put forward a theory of demand derived from marginal utility. Although not the first time that the demand curve had been drawn, it was the first time that it had been proved rather than asserted. Dupuit, however, did not include a supply curve in his theory.

Dupuit went on to define "relative utility" as the area under the demand/marginal utility curve above the price and used it as a measure of the welfare effects of different prices – concluding that public welfare is maximized when the price (or bridge toll) is zero. This was later known as Marshall's "consumer surplus".

Dupuit's reputation as an economist does not rest on his advocacy of laissez-faire economics (he wrote "Commercial Freedom" in 1861) but on frequent contributions to periodicals. Wanting to evaluate the net economic benefit of public services, Dupuit analysed capacities for economic development, and attempted to construct a framework for utility theory and measuring the prosperity derived with public works. He also wrote on monopoly and price discrimination.

Dupuit also considered the groundwater flow equation, which governs the flow of groundwater. He assumed that the equation could be simplified for analytical solutions by assuming that groundwater is hydrostatic and flows horizontally. This assumption is regularly used today, and is known by hydrogeologists as the Dupuit assumption.

Juvenal Edjogo-Owono

Juvenal Edjogo-Owono Montalbán (born 3 April 1979), known simply as Juvenal, is an Equatoguinean footballer who plays for Andorran club FC Santa Coloma as a midfielder.

Juvenal Olmos

Juvenal Olmos (born October 4, 1962) is a Chilean football manager who is current manager of Mexican club Veracruz.

Olmos was born in Santiago de Chile. His management of the Chile national team was unsuccessful, as they failed to get past the first round in Copa América 2004 and he was later fired, five games before the end of the qualifying round for the 2006 FIFA World Cup.

Juvenal Ordoñez

Juvenal Ubaldo Ordoñez Salazar (1948-2009) was a Peruvian politician and a Congressman representing Tacna for the 2006-2011 term. Ordoñez belonged to the Union for Peru party.

Juvenal of Jerusalem

Saint Juvenal (Greek: Άγιος Ιουβενάλιος) was a bishop of Jerusalem from about 422. In 451, on the See of Jerusalem being recognised as a Patriarchate by the Council of Chalcedon, he became the first Patriarch of Jerusalem, an office he occupied until his death in 458.

Juvénal Habyarimana

Juvénal Habyarimana (Kinyarwanda: [hɑbɟɑ̂ːɾimɑ̂ːnɑ]; French: [ʒy.ve.nal a.bja.ʁi.ma.na]; March 8, 1937 – April 6, 1994)) was the 2nd President of Rwanda, serving longer than any other president to date, from 1973 until 1994. He was nicknamed "Kinani", a Kinyarwanda word meaning "invincible".

Habyarimana was a dictator, and electoral fraud was suspected for his unopposed re-elections: 98.99% of the vote on 24 December 1978, 99.97% of the vote on 19 December 1983, and 99.98% of the vote on 19 December 1988. During his rule, Rwanda became a totalitarian order in which his MRND-party enforcers required people to chant and dance in adulation of the President at mass pageants of political "animation". While the country as a whole had become slightly less impoverished during Habyarimana's tenure, the great majority of Rwandans remained in circumstances of extreme poverty.On April 6, 1994, he was killed when his aircraft, also carrying the President of neighbouring Burundi, Cyprien Ntaryamira, was shot down near Kigali, Rwanda. His assassination ignited ethnic tensions in the region and helped spark the Rwandan genocide.

Love in the Time of Cholera

Love in the Time of Cholera (Spanish: El amor en los tiempos del cólera) is a novel by Colombian Nobel prize winning author Gabriel García Márquez. The novel was first published in Spanish in 1985. Alfred A. Knopf published an English translation in 1988, and an English-language movie adaptation was released in 2007.

Pato Branco

Pato Branco ("White Duck" in English) is a city in the southwest part of the Brazilian state Paraná. The municipality covers 537,8 km² (206.7 mi²) and has a population of 81,893 (2007 IBGE estimate). Pato Branco started off as a village in 1942 and was given status as a city December 14th 1952. It has two private colleges, Faculdade Mater Dei and Faculdade de Pato Branco, and a campus of the Federal University of Technology - Paraná. The city has experienced a positive economic development throughout the last few years.

Pato Branco is located 760 meters above sea level and has a sub-tropical climate with warm summers and mild winters, morning frost being usual during the winter season. Occasional snowfall. There is no defined period of drought. The coldest month of the year is July with an average temperature of 14.2°C (57.6°F). January is the warmest month with an average of 22.5°C (72.5°F).

The current mayor (elected for 2013-2016) is Augustinho Zucchi.

The city has a small general aviation airport (Juvenal Loureiro Cardoso Airport).

Quis custodiet ipsos custodes?

Quis custodiet ipsos custodes? is a Latin phrase found in the work of the Roman poet Juvenal from his Satires (Satire VI, lines 347–348). It is literally translated as "Who will guard the guards themselves?", though it is also known by variant translations, such as "Who watches the watchers?" and "Who'll watch the watchmen?".

The original context deals with the problem of ensuring marital fidelity, though the phrase is now commonly used more generally to refer to the problem of controlling the actions of persons in positions of power, an issue discussed by Plato in the Republic. It is not clear whether the phrase was written by Juvenal, or whether the passage in which it appears was interpolated into his works.

Satires (Juvenal)

The Satires are a collection of satirical poems by the Latin author Juvenal written in the early 2nd century AD.

Juvenal is credited with sixteen known poems divided among five books; all are in the Roman genre of satire, which, at its most basic in the time of the author, comprised a wide-ranging discussion of society and social mores in dactylic hexameter. The sixth and tenth satires are some of the most renowned works in the collection. The poems are not individually titled, but translators have often added titles for the convenience of readers.

Book I: Satires 1–5

Book II: Satire 6

Book III: Satires 7–9

Book IV: Satires 10–12

Book V: Satires 13–16 (Satire 16 is incompletely preserved)Roman Satura was a formal literary genre rather than being simply clever, humorous critique in no particular format. Juvenal wrote in this tradition, which originated with Lucilius and included the Sermones of Horace and the Satires of Persius. In a tone and manner ranging from irony to apparent rage, Juvenal criticizes the actions and beliefs of many of his contemporaries, providing insight more into value systems and questions of morality and less into the realities of Roman life. The author employs outright obscenity less frequently than Martial or Catullus, but the scenes painted in his text are no less vivid or lurid for that discretion.

The author makes constant allusion to history and myth as a source of object lessons or exemplars of particular vices and virtues. Coupled with his dense and elliptical Latin, these tangential references indicate that the intended reader of the Satires was highly educated. The Satires are concerned with perceived threats to the social continuity of the Roman citizens: social-climbing foreigners, unfaithfulness, and other more extreme excesses of their own class. The intended audience of the Satires constituted a subset of the Roman elite, primarily adult males of a more conservative social stance.

Scholarly estimates for the dating of the individual books have varied. It is generally accepted that the fifth book must date to a point after 127 A.D., because of a reference to the Roman consul Iuncus in Satire 15. A recent scholar has argued that the first book should be dated to 100 or 101. Juvenal's works are contemporary with those of Martial, Tacitus and Pliny the Younger.

The Vanity of Human Wishes

The Vanity of Human Wishes: The Tenth Satire of Juvenal Imitated is a poem by the English author Samuel Johnson. It was written in late 1748 and published in 1749 (see 1749 in poetry). It was begun and completed while Johnson was busy writing A Dictionary of the English Language and it was the first published work to include Johnson's name on the title page.

As the subtitle suggests, it is an imitation of Satire X by the Latin poet Juvenal. Unlike Juvenal, Johnson attempts to sympathize with his poetic subjects. Also, the poem focuses on human futility and humanity's quest after greatness like Juvenal but concludes that Christian values are important to living properly. It was Johnson's second imitation of Juvenal (the first being his 1738 poem London). Unlike London, The Vanity of Human Wishes emphasizes philosophy over politics. The poem was not a financial success, but later critics, including Walter Scott and T. S. Eliot, considered it to be Johnson's greatest poem. Howard D. Weinbrot called it "one of the great poems in the English language".

Ucalegon

Ucalegon (Ancient Greek: Οὐκαλέγων) was one of the Elders of Troy, whose house was set afire by the Achaeans when they sacked the city. He is one of Priam's friends in the Iliad, and the destruction of his house is referred to in the Aeneid.He is referenced in the Satires of Juvenal. His name in Greek is translated as "doesn't worry." The name has become an eponym for "neighbor whose house is on fire," and Will Shortz, editor of The New York Times crossword puzzle, has stated that it's his favorite word in the English language.

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