Jutland

Jutland (/ˈdʒʌtlənd/; Danish: Jylland [ˈjylanˀ]; German: Jütland [ˈjyːtlant]), also known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula (Latin: Cimbricus Chersonesus; Danish: Den Kimbriske Halvø or Den Jyske Halvø; German: Kimbrische Halbinsel), is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and part of northern Germany. The names are derived from the Jutes and the Cimbri, respectively.

As the rest of Denmark, Jutland's terrain is flat, with a slightly elevated ridge down the central parts and relatively hilly terrains in the east. West Jutland is characterised by open lands, heaths, plains and peat bogs, while East Jutland is more fertile with lakes and lush forests. Southwest Jutland is characterised by the Wadden Sea, a large unique international coastal region stretching through Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands.

Jutland Peninsula map
  The North Jutlandic Island is still regarded a part of Jutland although it was separated from mainland Jutland by a flood in 1825.
  Northern Jutland (Denmark)
  South Jutland or Northern Slesvig (Denmark)
  Southern Schleswig (Germany)
  Holstein (Germany)

Geography

Sandy cliff beach at North Sea, Denmark 2004 ubt.jpeg
Dunes on Jutland's northwest coast.

Jutland is a peninsula bounded by the North Sea to the west, the Skagerrak to the north, the Kattegat and Baltic Sea to the east and Germany to the south. Geographically and historically, Jutland comprises the regions of South Jutland (historically also Slesvig), West Jutland, East Jutland (including Djursland) and North Jutland (including Himmerland, Vendsyssel, Hanherred and Thy). Since the mid-20th century, it has also become common to design an area as Central Jutland (Midtjylland), but its definition varies a lot. There are several historical subdivisions and regional names, some of which are still encountered today. They include Nørrejyllland (a historical name for the whole area north of South Jutland, and not identical with Nordjylland), Sydvestjylland, Sydjylland (the southernmost stretch of Nørrejylland, as opposed to the more southern Sønderjylland), Nordvestjylland and others. Politically, Jutland currently comprises the three contemporary Danish Administrative Regions of North Jutland Region, Central Denmark Region and the Region of Southern Denmark, along with portions of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.

The Danish part of Jutland is currently divided into three administrative regions: North Jutland Region, Central Denmark Region and Region of Southern Denmark.[1]

The northernmost part of Jutland is separated from the mainland by the Limfjord, a narrow stretch of water bisecting the peninsula from coast to coast. The Limfjord was formerly a long brackish water inlet, but a breaching North Sea flood in 1825 created a coast to coast connection.[2] This area is called the North Jutlandic Island, Vendsyssel-Thy (after its districts) or simply Jutland north of the Limfjord; it is only partly coterminous with the North Jutland Region.

The islands of Læsø, Anholt and Samsø in Kattegat and Als at the rim of the Baltic Sea are administratively and historically tied to Jutland, although the latter two are also regarded as traditional districts of their own. Inhabitants of Als, known as Alsinger, would agree to be South Jutlanders, but not necessarily Jutlanders.

The Danish Wadden Sea Islands and the German North Frisian Islands stretch along the southwest coast of Jutland in the German Bight.

Danish part

Hafen St Marien Flensburg2007
Flensburg has the largest Danish minority of any city in Germany.

The largest cities in the Danish section of Jutland are as follows:

  1. Aarhus
  2. Aalborg
  3. Esbjerg
  4. Randers
  5. Kolding
  6. Horsens
  7. Vejle
  8. Herning
  9. Silkeborg
  10. Fredericia

Aarhus, Silkeborg, Billund, Randers, Kolding, Horsens, Vejle, Fredericia and Haderslev, along with a number of smaller towns, make up the suggested East Jutland metropolitan area, which is more densely populated than the rest of Jutland, although far from forming one consistent city.

Administratively, Danish Jutland comprises three of Denmark's five regions, namely Nordjylland, Midtjylland and the western half of Southern Denmark, which includes Funen. The five administrative regions came into effect on 1 January 2007, following a structural reform.[3]

German part

KielerStadtzentrumLuftaufnahme
Kiel is the largest city on the German side of the Jutland Peninsula.

The southern third of the peninsula is made up of the German Bundesland of Schleswig-Holstein. The German parts are usually not seen as Jutland proper, but often described more abstract as part of the Jutlandic Peninsula, Cimbrian Peninsula or Jutland-Schleswig-Holstein.

Schleswig-Holstein has two historical parts: the former duchies of Schleswig (a Danish fief) and Holstein (a German fief), both of which have passed back and forth between Danish and German rulers. The last adjustment of the Danish–German border followed the Schleswig Plebiscites in 1920 and resulted in Denmark regaining Northern Schleswig (Danish: Nordslesvig or more commonly today: Sønderjylland).

The historical southern border of Jutland was the river Eider, which forms the border between the former duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, as well as the border between the Danish and German realms from c. 850 to 1864. Although most of Schleswig-Holstein is geographically part of the peninsula, most German residents there would not identify themselves with Jutland or even as Jutlanders, but rather with Schleswig-Holstein.

The medieval law Code of Jutland applied to Schleswig until 1900, when it was replaced by the Prussian Civil Code. Some rarely used clauses of the Jutlandic Code still apply north of the Eider.

Cities

The largest cities in the German part of the Jutland Peninsula are as follows:

  1. Hamburg
  2. Kiel
  3. Flensburg.
  4. Lübeck

Geology

Geologically the Mid Jutland Region and the North Jutland Region as well as the Capital Region of Denmark are located in the north of Denmark which is rising because of post-glacial rebound.

History

Cimbrians and Teutons
Military stratagem in the Maneuver against the Romans by Cimbri and Teutons circa 100 B.C.

Jutland has historically been one of the three lands of Denmark, the other two being Scania and Zealand. Before that, according to Ptolemy, Jutland or the Cimbric Chersonese was the home of Teutons, Cimbri and Charudes.

Many Angles, Saxons and Jutes migrated from Continental Europe to Great Britain starting in c. 450 AD. The Angles themselves gave their name to the new emerging kingdoms called England (i.e., "Angle-land").

Saxons and Frisii migrated to the region in the early part of the Christian era. To protect themselves from invasion by the Christian Frankish emperors, beginning in the 5th century, the pagan Danes initiated the Danevirke, a defensive wall stretching from present day Schleswig and inland half-way across the Jutland peninsula.

The pagan Saxons inhabited the southernmost part of the peninsula at the Baltic Sea until the Saxon Wars in 772-804 AD in the Nordic Iron Age, when Charlemagne violently subdued them and forced them to be Christianised. Old Saxony was politically absorbed into the Carolingian Empire and Abodrites (or Obotrites), a group of Wendish Slavs who pledged allegiance to Charlemagne and who had for the most part converted to Christianity, were moved into the area to populate it.[4] Old Saxony was later on referred to as Holstein.

In medieval times, Jutland was regulated by the Law Code of Jutland (Jyske Lov). This civic code covered the Danish part of the Jutland Peninsula, i.e. north of the Eider (river), Funen as well as Fehmarn. Part of this area are now in Germany.

During the industrialisation of the 1800s, Jutland experienced a large and accelerating urbanisation and many people from the countryside chose to emigrate. Among the reasons was a high and accelerating population growth; in the course of the century, the Danish population grew two and a half times to about 2.5 million in 1901, with a million people added in the last part of the 1800s. This growth was not caused by in increase in the fertility rate, but by better nutrition, sanitation, hygiene and health care services. More children survived, and people lived longer and more healthy lives. Combined with falling grain prices on the international markets because of the Long Depression, and better opportunities in the cities due to an increasing industrialisation, many people in the countryside found it necessary, or was inspired, to relocate to larger towns or emigrate. In the later half of the century, around 300,000 Danes, mainly unskilled labourers from rural areas, emigrated to the US or Canada.[5] This sums up to more than 10% of the total population in those days, but some areas experienced an even higher emigration rate.[6][7] In 1850, the largest Jutland towns of Aalborg, Aarhus and Randers had no more than about 8,000 inhabitants each; by 1901, Aarhus had grown to 51,800 citizens.[8]

To speed transit between the Baltic and the North Sea, canals have been built across the peninsula, including the Eider Canal in the late 18th century, and the Kiel Canal, completed in 1895 and still in use.

World War I and Battle of Jutland

Denmark was neutral throughout the First World War. However, Danes living in North Slesvig, since it was part of the German Empire from 1864 to 1920, were conscripted for the imperial German army. 5000 Danish South Jutlanders are estimated to have fallen in German military service during the War.

The 1916 Battle of Jutland was fought in the North Sea west of Jutland as one of the largest naval battles in history. In this pitched battle, the British Royal Navy engaged the Imperial German Navy, leading to heavy casualties and losses of ships on both sides. The British fleet sustained greater losses, but remained in control of the North Sea, so in strategic terms, most historians regard Jutland either as a British victory or as indecisive.[9] The battle is commemorated and explained at the Sea War Museum Jutland in Thyborøn.

World War II

Danish soldiers on 9 April 1940
Danish troops at Bredevad, 10 km north of the border, on the morning of the German invasion. Two of these soldiers were killed in action.
Bunker verschoben - panoramio
Bunker remnants from WWII in Thyborøn. German fortifications remain along the entire west coast of Jutland.

Denmark had declared itself neutral, but was invaded and occupied by the German army within a few hours on 9 April 1940. Scattered fighting took place in South Jutland and in Copenhagen. 16 Danish soldiers were killed.

Some months before the invasion, Germany had considered only occupying the northern tip of Jutland with Aalborg airfield, but Jutland was soon regarded as of high strategic importance. Work commenced on extending the Atlantic Wall along the entire west coast of the peninsula. Its task was to resist a potential allied attack on Germany by landing on the west coast of Jutland. The Hanstholm fortress at the northwestern promontory of Jutland became the largest fortification of Northern Europe. The local villagers were evacuated to Hirtshals. Coastal areas of Jutland were declared a military zone where Danish citizens were required to carry identity cards, and access was regulated.

The small Danish airfield of Aalborg was seized as one of the first objects in the invasion and expanded by the Germans in order to secure their traffic to Norway, and more airfields were built. Danish contractors and 50,000–100,000 workers were hired to fulfill the German projects. The alternative for workers was to be unemployed or sent to work in Germany. The fortifications have been estimated to be the largest construction project ever performed in Denmark at a cost of then 10 billion kroner, or 300-400 billion DKK today (45-60 billion USD or 40-54 billion euro in 2019). The Danish National Bank was forced to cover most of the cost.[10] After the war, the remaining German prisoners of war were recruited to perform extensive mine clearance of 1.4 million mines along the coast.

Many of the seaside bunkers from World War II are still present at the west coast. Several of the fortifications in Denmark have been turned into museums, including Tirpitz Museum in Blåvand, Bunkermuseum Hanstholm, and Hirtshals Bunkermuseum.

In Southern Jutland, parts of the German minority openly sided with Germany and volunteered for German military service. While Danes initially feared a border revision, the German occupational force did not pursue such an issue. In a judicial aftermath after the end of the war, many members of the German minority were convicted, and German schools were confiscated by Danish authorities. There were instances of mob attacks on German-minded citizens. In December 1945, the remaining part of the German minority issued a declaration of loyalty to Denmark and democracy, renouncing any demands for a border revision.

Culture

Up until the industrialisation of the 19th century, most people in Jutland lived a rural life as farmers and fishers. Farming and herding have formed a significant part of the culture since the late Neolithic Stone Age, and fishing ever since humans first populated the peninsula after the last Ice Age, some 12,000 years ago.

Thorvald Niss - Mark med korntraver - KMS3458 - Statens Museum for Kunst
Art tied to Jutland specifically, in particular paintings and literature, boomed during the industrialisation in the later half of the 1800s and the beginning of the 1900s. Thorvald Niss, part of Skagen Painters collective.

The local culture of Jutland commoners before industrial times was not described in much detail by contemporary texts. It was generally viewed with contempt by the Danish cultural elite in Copenhagen who perceived it as uncultivated, misguided or useless.[11]

While the peasantry of eastern Denmark was dominated by the upper feudal class, manifested in large estates owned by families of noble birth and an increasingly subdued class of peasant tenants, the farmers of Western Jutland were mostly free owners of their own land or leasing it from the Crown, although under frugal conditions. Most of the less fertile and sparsely populated land of Western Jutland was never feudalised. East Jutland was more similar to Eastern Denmark in this respect. The north-south ridge forming the border between the fertile eastern hills and sandy western plains has been a significant cultural border until this day, also reflected in differences between the West and East Jutlandic dialect.

Frederik Vermehren - A Jutland Sheperd on the Moors - Google Art Project
Until the late 19th century, West Jutland was marked by vast moors covered with heather, a small population and low-intensive agriculture. (Frederik Vermehren: A Jutish shepherd on the moors, 1855)

When the industrialisation began in the 19th century, the social order was upheaved and with it the focus of the intelligentsia and the educated changed as well. Søren Kierkegaard (1818-1855) grew up in Copenhagen as the son of a stern and religious West Jutlandic wool merchant who had worked his way up from a frugal childhood. The very urban Kierkegaard visited his sombre ancestral lands in 1840, then a very traditional society. Writers like Steen Steensen Blicher (1782-1848) and H.C. Andersen (1805-1875) were among the first writers to find genuine inspiration in local Jutlandic culture and present it with affection and non-prejudice.[11] Blicher was himself of Jutish origin and soon after his pioneering work, many other writers followed with stories and tales set in Jutland and written in the homestead dialect. Many of these writers are often referred to as the Jutland Movement, artisticly connected through their engagement with public social realism of the Jutland region. The Golden Age painters also found inspiration and motives in the natural beauty of Jutland, including P.C. Skovgaard, Dankvart Dreyer, and art collective of the Skagen Painters. Writer Evald Tang Kristensen (1843-1929) collected and published extensive accounts on the local rural Jutlandic folklore through many interviews and travels across the peninsula, including songs, legends, sayings and everyday life.

Peter Skautrup Centret at Aarhus University is dedicated to collect and archive information on Jutland culture and dialects from before the industrialisation. The centre was established in 1932 by Professor in Nordic languages Peter Skautrup (1896-1982).[12]

Wahlkarte Folketing Dänemark 2015 da
Strongest parties at the 2015 Danish general election. Blue: Liberal Party (centre-right), Yellow: Danish People's Party (national populist), Red: Social Democrats, Orange: Red-Green Alliance

With the railway system, and later the automobile and mass communication, the culture of Jutland has merged with and formed the overall Danish national culture, although some unique local traits are still present in some cases. West Jutland is often claimed to have a mentality of self-sustainment, a superior work ethic and entrepreneurial spirit as well as slightly more religious and socially conservative values, and there are other voting patterns than in the rest of Denmark.

Dialect

The distinctive Jutish (or Jutlandic) dialects differ substantially from standard Danish, especially those in the West Jutland and South Jutland parts. The Peter Skautrup Centre maintains and publishes an official dictionary of the Jutlandic dialects.[13] Dialect usage, although in decline, is better preserved in Jutland than in eastern Denmark, and Jutlander speech remains a stereotype among many Copenhageners and eastern Danes.

Musicians and entertainers Ib Grønbech[14][15][16][17] and Niels Hausgaard, both from Vendsyssel in Northern Jutland, use a distinct Jutish dialect.[18]

In the southernmost and northernmost parts of Jutland, there are associations striving to conserve the respective dialects.

Literature

In the Danish part of Jutland, literature tied to Jutland and Jutland culture grew significantly in the 1800s and early 1900s. That was a time when large numbers of people migrated to the towns during the industrialisation, and there was a surge of nationalism as well as a quest for social reform during the public foundation of the modern democratic national state.[11]

Steen Steensen Blicher wrote about the Jutland rural culture of his times in the early 1800s. Through his writings, he promoted and preserved the various Jutland dialects, as in E Bindstouw, published in 1842.

Danish social realist and radical writer Jeppe Aakjær used Jutlanders and Jutland culture in most of his works, for example in Af gammel Jehannes hans Bivelskistaarri. En bette Bog om stur Folk. from 1911, which was widely read in its time. He also translated poems of Robert Burns to his particular Central Western Jutish dialect.

Karsten Thomsen (1837-89), an inn-keeper in Frøslev with artistic aspirations, wrote warmly about his homestead of South Jutland, using the dialect of his region explicitly.

Two songs are often regarded the regional anthem of Jutland: Jylland mellem tvende have (Jutland between two seas, 1859) by Hans Christian Andersen and Jyden han æ stærk aa sej (The Jute is strong and tough, 1846) by Steen Steensen Blicher, the latter in dialect.

Jutland native Maren Madsen (c. 1872-1965) emigrated to the American town of Yarmouth, Maine, in the late 19th century. She wrote a memoir documenting the transition, titled From Jutland's Brown Heather to the Land Across the Sea.[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Region Nordjylland". Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  2. ^ "Fishery Before the flood the land was connected to the west. History". Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  3. ^ "Strukturreform" (in Danish). Danske Regioner. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
  4. ^ Nugent, Thomas (1766). The History of Vandalia, Vol. 1. London. pp. 165–66. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  5. ^ Karen Lerbech (9 November 2019). "Da danskerne udvandrede" [When the Danes emigrated] (in Danish). Danmarks Radio (DR). Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  6. ^ Henning Bender (20 November 2019). "Udvandringen fra Thisted amt 1868-1910" [The emigration from Thisted county 1868-1910] (in Danish). Historisk Årbog for Thy og Vester Hanherred 2009. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  7. ^ Kristian Hvidt (1972). "Mass Emigration from Denmark to the United States 1868-1914". American Studies in Scandinavia (vol.5, no.2). Copenhagen Business School. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  8. ^ Erik Strange Petersen. "Det unge demokrati, 1848-1901 - Befolkningsudviklingen" [The young democracy, 1848-1901 - The population trends] (in Danish). Aarhus University. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  9. ^ "The Battle of Jutland". History Learning Site. Retrieved 2016-07-27.
  10. ^ Historien bag 10. batteri (in Danish) (History behind 10th battery), Vendsyssel Historic Museum
  11. ^ a b c Inge Lise Pedersen. "Jysk som litteratursprog" [Jutlandic as literary language] (PDF) (in Danish). Peter Skautrup Centret.
  12. ^ "Peter Skautrup Centret" (in Danish). Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  13. ^ "Jysk Ordbog" (in Danish). Peter Skautrup Centret. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  14. ^ Evanthore Vestergard (2007). Beatleshår og behagesyge: bogen om Ib Grønbech (in Danish). Lindtofte. ISBN 9788792096081 8792096085 Check |isbn= value: length (help).
  15. ^ "Musik og kærlighed på nordjysk" (in Danish). Appetize. 14 May 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  16. ^ Ib Grønbechs whole catalog of songs are performed in his homestead dialect of Vendelbomål. (Maria Præst (1 April 2007). "Grønbechs genstart" (in Danish). Nordjyske. Retrieved 15 January 2019.)
  17. ^ Palle W. Nielsen (18 July 2007). "Hvad med en onsdag aften med Ib Grønbech i Den Musiske Park?" [What about a Wednesday evening with Ib Grønbech in Den Musiske Park?] (in Danish). Nordjyske. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  18. ^ Dialect researcher brands Hausgaard as ambassador of dialects. (Josefine Brader (9 April 2014). "Hausgaard: Folk havde svært ved at forstå mig" [Hausgaard: People had a hard time understanding me] (in Danish). TV2 Nord. Retrieved 15 January 2019.)
  19. ^ Bouchard, Kelley (March 2012). "Yarmouth history center to break ground in April". Portland Press Herald.
Aalborg Municipality

Aalborg Municipality is a municipality (Danish, kommune) in Region Nordjylland on the Jutland peninsula in northern Denmark. The municipality straddles the Limfjord, the waterway which connects the North Sea and the Kattegat east-to-west, and which separates the main body of the Jutland peninsula from the island of Vendsyssel-Thy north-to-south. It has a land area of 1,143.99 km², population 197,426 (2010) and belongs to Region Nordjylland ("North Jutland Region").

It is also the name of the municipality's main city Aalborg and the site of its municipal council, as well as the name of a seaport.

The municipality and the town have chosen to retain the traditional spelling of the name as Aalborg, although the new spelling Ålborg is used in other contexts, such as Ålborg Bight (Ålborg Bugt), the body of water which lies to the east of the Jutland peninsula.

Battle of Jutland

The Battle of Jutland (German: Skagerrakschlacht, the Battle of Skagerrak) was a naval battle fought between Britain's Royal Navy Grand Fleet, under Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, and the Imperial German Navy's High Seas Fleet, under Vice-Admiral Reinhard Scheer, during the First World War. The battle unfolded in extensive manoeuvring and three main engagements (the battlecruiser action, the fleet action and the night action), from 31 May to 1 June 1916, off the North Sea coast of Denmark's Jutland Peninsula. It was the largest naval battle and the only full-scale clash of battleships in that war. Jutland was the third fleet action between steel battleships, following the long range gunnery duel at the Yellow Sea (1904) and the decisive Battle of Tsushima in 1905, during the Russo-Japanese War. Jutland was the last major battle in world history fought primarily by battleships.Germany's High Seas Fleet intended to lure out, trap, and destroy a portion of the Grand Fleet, as the German naval force was insufficient to openly engage the entire British fleet. This formed part of a larger strategy to break the British blockade of Germany and to allow German naval vessels access to the Atlantic. Meanwhile, Great Britain's Royal Navy pursued a strategy of engaging and destroying the High Seas Fleet, thereby keeping German naval forces contained and away from Britain and her shipping lanes.The Germans planned to use Vice-Admiral Franz Hipper's fast scouting group of five modern battlecruisers to lure Vice-Admiral Sir David Beatty's battlecruiser squadrons into the path of the main German fleet. They stationed submarines in advance across the likely routes of the British ships. However, the British learned from signal intercepts that a major fleet operation was likely, so on 30 May Jellicoe sailed with the Grand Fleet to rendezvous with Beatty, passing over the locations of the German submarine picket lines while they were unprepared. The German plan had been delayed, causing further problems for their submarines, which had reached the limit of their endurance at sea.

On the afternoon of 31 May, Beatty encountered Hipper's battlecruiser force long before the Germans had expected. In a running battle, Hipper successfully drew the British vanguard into the path of the High Seas Fleet. By the time Beatty sighted the larger force and turned back towards the British main fleet, he had lost two battlecruisers from a force of six battlecruisers and four powerful battleships—though he had sped ahead of his battleships of 5th Battle Squadron earlier in the day, effectively losing them as an integral component for much of this opening action against the five ships commanded by Hipper. Beatty's withdrawal at the sight of the High Seas Fleet, which the British had not known were in the open sea, would reverse the course of the battle by drawing the German fleet in pursuit towards the British Grand Fleet. Between 18:30, when the sun was lowering on the western horizon, back-lighting the German forces, and nightfall at about 20:30, the two fleets—totalling 250 ships between them—directly engaged twice.

Fourteen British and eleven German ships sank, with a total of 9,823 casualties. After sunset, and throughout the night, Jellicoe manoeuvred to cut the Germans off from their base, hoping to continue the battle the next morning, but under the cover of darkness Scheer broke through the British light forces forming the rearguard of the Grand Fleet and returned to port.Both sides claimed victory. The British lost more ships and twice as many sailors but succeeded in containing the German fleet. The British press criticised the Grand Fleet's failure to force a decisive outcome, while Scheer's plan of destroying a substantial portion of the British fleet also failed. The British strategy of denying Germany access to both the United Kingdom and the Atlantic did succeed, which was the British long-term goal. The Germans' "fleet in being" continued to pose a threat, requiring the British to keep their battleships concentrated in the North Sea, but the battle reinforced the German policy of avoiding all fleet-to-fleet contact. At the end of 1916, after further unsuccessful attempts to reduce the Royal Navy's numerical advantage, the German Navy accepted that its surface ships had been successfully contained, subsequently turning its efforts and resources to unrestricted submarine warfare and the destruction of Allied and neutral shipping, which—along with the Zimmermann Telegram—by April 1917 triggered the United States of America's declaration of war on Germany.Subsequent reviews commissioned by the Royal Navy generated strong disagreement between supporters of Jellicoe and Beatty concerning the two admirals' performance in the battle. Debate over their performance and the significance of the battle continues to this day.

Central Denmark Region

Central Denmark Region (Danish: Region Midtjylland), or more directly translated as Central Jutland Region and sometimes simply Mid Jutland, is an administrative region of Denmark established on 1 January 2007 as part of the 2007 Danish Municipal Reform. The reform abolished the traditional counties (amter) and replaced them with five new administrative regions. At the same time, smaller municipalities were merged into larger units, cutting the total number of municipalities from 271 to 98. Central Denmark Region comprises 19 municipalities.

Christopher of Bavaria

Christopher of Bavaria (26 February 1416 – 5/6 January 1448) was King of Denmark (1440–48, as Christopher III), Sweden (1441–48) and Norway (1442–48) during the era of the Kalmar Union.

Förden and East Jutland Fjorde

The eastern coast of the Jutland Peninsula, consisting of Danish Jutland and German Schleswig-Holstein features a type of narrow bay called Förde (plural: Förden) in German and fjord (plural fjorde) in Danish. These bays are of glacial origin, but the glacial mechanics were different from those of Norwegian Fjords and also from those of Swedish and Finnish Fjards.

The words Förde, fjord and fjard are of the same origin as the English word firth, but today there are differences in the meaning between firth (Förde) and fjord in general.

Geography of Denmark

Denmark is a Nordic country located in Northern Europe. It consists of the Jutland peninsula and several islands in the Baltic sea, referred to as the Danish Archipelago. Denmark is located southwest of Sweden and due south of Norway and is bordered by the German state (and former possession) Schleswig-Holstein to the south, on Denmark's only land border, 68 kilometers (42 miles) long.

Denmark borders both the Baltic and North Seas along its 8,750 km (5,440 mi) tidal shoreline. Denmark's general coastline is much shorter, at 1,701 km (1,057 mi), as it would not include most of the 1,419 offshore islands (each defined as exceeding 100 square meters in area) and the 180 km long Limfjorden, which separates Denmark's second largest island, North Jutlandic Island, 4,686 km2 in size, from the rest of Jutland. No location in Denmark is further from the coast than 52 km (32 mi). The size of the land area of Denmark cannot be stated exactly since the ocean constantly erodes and adds material to the coastline, and because of human land reclamation projects (to counter erosion). On the southwest coast of Jutland, the tide is between 1 and 2 m (3.28 and 6.56 ft), and the tideline moves outward and inward on a 10 km (6.2 mi) stretch.A circle enclosing the same area as Denmark would be 742 km (461 miles) long. Denmark has 443 named islands (1,419 islands above 100 m²), of which 72 are inhabited (as of 1 January 2007, Statistics Denmark). The largest islands are Zealand (Sjælland) and Funen (Fyn). The island of Bornholm is located east of the rest of the country, in the Baltic Sea. Many of the larger islands are connected by bridges; the Øresund Bridge connects Zealand with Sweden; the Great Belt Bridge connects Funen with Zealand; and the Little Belt Bridge connects Jutland with Funen. Ferries or small aircraft connect to the smaller islands. Main cities are the capital Copenhagen on Zealand; Århus, Aalborg and Esbjerg in Jutland; and Odense on Funen.

Denmark experiences a temperate climate. This means that the winters are mild and windy and the summers are cool. The local terrain is generally flat with a few gently rolling plains. The territory of Denmark includes the island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of metropolitan Denmark, but excludes the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Its position gives Denmark complete control of the Danish Straits (Skagerrak and Kattegat) linking the Baltic and North Seas. The country's natural resources include petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone, chalk, stone, gravel and sand.

HMS Queen Mary

HMS Queen Mary was the last battlecruiser built by the Royal Navy before World War I. The sole member of her class, Queen Mary shared many features with the Lion-class battlecruisers, including her eight 13.5-inch (343 mm) guns. She was completed in 1913 and participated in the Battle of Heligoland Bight as part of the Grand Fleet in 1914. Like most of the modern British battlecruisers, she never left the North Sea during the war. As part of the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron, she attempted to intercept a German force that bombarded the North Sea coast of England in December 1914, but was unsuccessful. She was refitting in early 1915 and missed the Battle of Dogger Bank in January, but participated in the largest fleet action of the war, the Battle of Jutland in mid-1916. She was hit twice by the German battlecruiser Derfflinger during the early part of the battle and her magazines exploded shortly afterwards, sinking the ship.

Her wreck was discovered in 1991 and rests in pieces, some of which are upside down, on the floor of the North Sea. Queen Mary is designated as a protected place under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986 as it is the grave of 1,266 officers and ratings.

Jut Line

Jut Line or Jutland Lines (Urdu: جٹ لائنز ‎) is one of the neighbourhoods of Jamshed Town in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.There are several ethnic groups in Jamshed Town including Muhajirs, Punjabis, Sindhis, Kashmiris, Seraikis, Pakhtuns, Balochis, Memons, Bohras, Ismailis, etc. Over 95% of the population is Muslim. There is also small Hindu community with a newly built Temple in this neighborhood. The population of Jamshed Town is estimated to be nearly one million.

The Baltistani Society and Abyssinia Lines are located close to Jutland Lines.

Jutland, New Jersey

Jutland is an unincorporated community located within Union Township in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, United States.Jutland is located approximately 1.2 mi (1.9 km) south of Interstate 78. Jutland Lake and Jutland Dam are located east of the settlement.

Jutland (board game)

Jutland is a wargame designed by Jim Dunnigan and published by Avalon Hill Game Company in 1967. The game covers the Battle of Jutland, fought in May and June 1916 between the British Grand Fleet and the German High Seas Fleet off the Jutland coast of Denmark.

The game is unusual for an Avalon Hill game in that there is no mapboard. Instead, the game operates on two levels: a higher level in which the two players use pencil marks on pre-printed paper maps of the North Sea to plot movements of their fleets, and, once fleets come into contact, a lower level in which the players deploy cardboard pieces each representing a single capital ship or a flotilla of light cruisers or destroyers on any convenient flat (and large) surface. Game play at the lower level is more like miniature play than like Avalon Hill's traditional hexgrid mapboard game. The game provided custom rulers for determining movement. The rulers had a rounded end for changing the direction of a line of ships. The game's instructions noted that the ship counters were not to scale in relation to movement rulers. Instructions were included for the gamer to make scale movement rulers. A large room was required to play at this scale.

Jutland Art Academy

Jutland Art Academy (Danish: Det Jyske Kunstakademi, abbreviated DJK), is a state recognized institute for higher education in Aarhus, Denmark, offering a 5-year programme in contemporary art. The academy has no departments and focuses on conceptually driven practices and transdisciplinary work. The academy has about 40 students. The school is located in the street of Mejlgade in the Latin Quarter of Aarhus.

Other recognized Art Academies in Denmark comprise the Royal Danish Academy of Art in Copenhagen, and Funen Art Academy in Odense. There are other institutions which also use the name 'art academy', but none of these are state recognized as institutions of higher education.

Jyllands-Posten

Morgenavisen Jyllands-Posten (Danish pronunciation: [ˈmɒːˀn̩æˌviːˀsn̩ ˈjylænsˌpʌsdn̩] (listen); English: The Morning Newspaper "The Jutland Post"), commonly shortened to JP, is a Danish daily broadsheet newspaper. It is based in Viby, a suburb of Århus, Jutland, and with a weekday circulation of approximately 120,000 copies, it is among the largest-selling newspapers in Denmark.The foundation behind the newspaper, Jyllands-Postens Fond, defines it as an independent liberal (centre-right) newspaper. The paper officially supported the Conservative People's Party until 1938.The newspaper was the subject of a major controversy concerning cartoons that depicted the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 2005–2006 which sparked violent protests around the world, and have led to several attempted terrorist plots against the newspaper or its employees in the years since.

North Jutland County

North Jutland County (Danish: Nordjyllands Amt) is a former county (Danish: amt) in northern Denmark. It was located on the eastern half of Vendsyssel-Thy and the northernmost part of the Jutland peninsula. It was the largest county in Denmark, but with a relatively low population. The county seat was Aalborg, Denmark's fourth largest city. The county was abolished effective January 1, 2007, when it merged into North Denmark Region (Danish: Region Nordjylland).

North Jutland Region

The North Jutland Region (Danish: Region Nordjylland), on one official website altered to North Denmark Region, is an administrative region of Denmark established on 1 January 2007 as part of the 2007 Danish Municipal Reform, which abolished the traditional counties ("amter") and set up five larger regions. At the same time, smaller municipalities were merged into larger units, cutting the number of municipalities from 271 before 1 January 2006, when Ærø Municipality was created, to 98. North Jutland Region has 11 municipalities. The reform was implemented in Denmark on 1 January 2007.

SMS Grosser Kurfürst (1913)

SMS Grosser Kurfürst was the second battleship of the four-ship König class. Grosser Kurfürst (or Großer Kurfürst) served in the German Imperial Navy during World War I. The battleship was laid down in October 1911 and launched on 5 May 1913. She was formally commissioned into the Imperial Navy on 30 July 1914, days before the outbreak of war between Germany and the United Kingdom. Her name means Great Elector, and refers to Frederick William I, the Prince-elector of Brandenburg. Grosser Kurfürst was armed with ten 30.5-centimeter (12.0 in) guns in five twin turrets and could steam at a top speed of 21 knots (39 km/h; 24 mph).

Along with her three sister ships, König, Markgraf, and Kronprinz, Grosser Kurfürst took part in most of the fleet actions during the war, including the Battle of Jutland on 31 May and 1 June 1916. The ship was subjected to heavy fire at Jutland, but was not seriously damaged. She shelled Russian positions during Operation Albion in September and October 1917. Grosser Kurfürst was involved in a number of accidents during her service career; she collided with König and Kronprinz, grounded several times, was torpedoed once, and hit a mine.After Germany's defeat and the signing of the Armistice in November 1918, Grosser Kurfürst and most of the capital ships of the High Seas Fleet were interned by the Royal Navy in Scapa Flow. The ships were disarmed and limited to skeleton crews while the Allied powers negotiated the final version of the Treaty of Versailles. On 21 June 1919, days before the treaty was signed, the commander of the interned fleet, Rear Admiral Ludwig von Reuter, ordered the fleet to be scuttled to ensure that the British would not be able to seize the ships. Unlike her sister ships, Grosser Kurfürst was raised in 1938 for scrapping and subsequently broken up in Rosyth.

SMS Markgraf

SMS Markgraf was the third battleship of the four-ship König class. She served in the Imperial German Navy during World War I. The battleship was laid down in November 1911 and launched on 4 June 1913. She was formally commissioned into the Imperial Navy on 1 October 1914, just over two months after the outbreak of war in Europe. Markgraf was armed with ten 30.5-centimeter (12.0 in) guns in five twin turrets and could steam at a top speed of 21 knots (39 km/h; 24 mph). Markgraf was named in honor of the royal family of Baden. The name Markgraf is a rank of German nobility and is equivalent to the English Margrave, or Marquess.

Along with her three sister ships, König, Grosser Kurfürst, and Kronprinz, Markgraf took part in most of the fleet actions during the war, including the Battle of Jutland on 31 May and 1 June 1916. At Jutland, Markgraf was the third ship in the German line and heavily engaged by the opposing British Grand Fleet; she sustained five large-caliber hits and her crew suffered 23 casualties. Markgraf also participated in Operation Albion, the conquest of the Gulf of Riga, in late 1917. The ship was damaged by a mine while en route to Germany following the successful conclusion of the operation.

After Germany's defeat in the war and the signing of the Armistice in November 1918, Markgraf and most of the capital ships of the High Seas Fleet were interned by the Royal Navy in Scapa Flow. The ships were disarmed and reduced to skeleton crews while the Allied powers negotiated the final version of the Treaty of Versailles. On 21 June 1919, days before the treaty was signed, the commander of the interned fleet, Rear Admiral Ludwig von Reuter, ordered the fleet to be scuttled to ensure that the British would not be able to seize the ships. Unlike most of the scuttled ships, Markgraf was never raised for scrapping; the wreck is still sitting on the bottom of the bay.

South Jutland County

South Jutland County (Danish: Sønderjyllands Amt) is a former county (Danish: amt) on the south-central portion of the Jutland Peninsula in southern Denmark.

The county was formed on 1 April, 1970, comprising the former counties of Aabenraa (E), Haderslev (N), Sønderborg (SE), and Tønder (SW). The county was abolished effective 1 January, 2007, when the Region of Southern Denmark was formed.

Following the reunification of the region with Denmark, the Church of Denmark elevated Haderslev to a diocese in 1923 and divided the region between the dioceses of Ribe (W) and Haderslev (E). This arrangement remains in effect.

Southern Jutland

Southern Jutland (Danish: Sønderjylland) is the name for the region south of the Kongeå in Jutland, Denmark and north of the Eider (river) in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. The region north of the Kongeå is called Nørrejylland (Northern Jutland). Both territories had their own ting assemblies in the Middle Ages (in Viborg and Urnehoved). Southern Jutland is mentioned for the first time in the Knýtlinga saga.

In the 13th century South Jutland became a duchy. The first duke was Canute Lavard (Knud Lavard). In the late 14th century it took the name of the Duchy of Schleswig. The duchy was named after the city of Schleswig (Slesvig). The dukes of Schleswig also became kings of Denmark.

With the demise of the Holy Roman Empire in the 19th century, the term "Sønderjylland" was revived by Denmark and became the subject of a naming dispute between Danes and Germans (the latter continuing the centuries-old "Schleswig") - part of the struggle over possession of the territory itself, which came to war in 1848 and again in 1864.

Following the Schleswig Plebiscites in 1920, South Jutland was divided into Northern and Southern Schleswig. Northern Schleswig was also known as South Jutland County (1970–2006) and is now part of the Region of Southern Denmark. Southern Schleswig is a part of the German federal state Schleswig-Holstein.

Both parts cooperate today as a Euroregion called Sønderjylland–Schleswig, which covers most of Southern Jutland.

Spar Nord

Spar Nord Bank A/S (Nasdaq Copenhagen: SPNO) is a bank based in North Jutland, Denmark.

The history of the bank can be traced back to May 12th 1824, where "Bye og Omegns Sparekasse" (The Savings Bank for Town and County) was established in Aalborg. After a number of merges through the 20th century, the name was changed from "Sparekassen Nordjylland" (The Savings Bank of Northern Jutland) to its current short form.

In the last decade the bank has opened several offices in larger towns outside Northern Jutland in Denmark.

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