|Justice League International|
|Group publication information|
|First appearance||Justice League #1 (May 1987)|
|Created by||Keith Giffen|
J. M. DeMatteis
|Type of organization||Team|
|See: List of Justice League members|
|Justice League International|
|Series publication information|
|Number of issues|
J. M. DeMatteis
|Volume 1||ISBN 1-4012-1666-8|
|Volume 2||ISBN 1-4012-1826-1|
|Volume 3||ISBN 1-4012-1941-1|
|Volume 4||ISBN 1-4012-2196-3|
Following the events of company-wide crossovers Crisis on Infinite Earths and Legends, Justice League of America writer J. M. DeMatteis was paired with writer Keith Giffen and artist Kevin Maguire on a new Justice League series. However, at the time, most of the core Justice League characters were unavailable. Superman was limited to John Byrne's reboot, George Pérez was relaunching Wonder Woman and Mike Baron was launching the Wally West version of The Flash.
As a result, the initial team consisted of:
The resulting comedic tone was Giffen's idea, introducing new characterizations to old characters: Guy Gardner was now a loutish hothead, Booster Gold was greedier and more inept than he had been in Dan Jurgens' series, and Captain Marvel displayed a childlike personality.
The series would go on to become nominated as "Best New Series" in 1988 by the Harvey Awards, but was beat out by Paul Chadwick's Concrete. It would also feature Adam Hughes' first work for a major comic publisher.
They fight the Champions of Angor, other-dimensional super-heroes intent on destroying all nuclear weapons. Bialya's dictator Rumaan Harjavti takes advantage of the Champions to eliminate his rivals. In Russia the League fights the Rocket Red Brigade, until Gorbachev allows them to help. Wandjina sacrifices himself to stop a nuclear meltdown, and the League are sent home by international law. Millionaire entrepreneur Maxwell Lord takes an interest in the team, breaching their security and suggesting Booster Gold as a new member.
Booster proves himself in combat against the Royal Flush Gang, and Lord declares himself their press liaison. Manhunter saves the world when they battle against a conscious psychic plague and he consumes it. Gardner challenges Batman to a fight over leadership, but Batman knocks him out in one punch. Doctor Fate is captured by the Gray Man, a rogue servant to the Lords of Order. Teaming up with the Creeper, they release Fate and stop Gray Man from taking over the world.
Earth is attacked by a mysterious satellite, and the League travels into space. Miracle recognizes it as a modified New Genesis Device, and neutralizes it. They return home as heroes. Maxwell Lord introduces a proposal to get United Nations funding, and they are given sponsorship in exchange for government regulation. This plan allows them to act as an independent city-state with worldwide embassies. Captain Atom and Rocket Red #7 are added to the team by the United States and Russia respectively. Captain Marvel and Doctor Fate quit the team for personal reasons; Batman steps down as leader, appointing Martian Manhunter to replace him. They are reintroduced to the world as Justice League International. Despite a series of embarrassing accidents, they successfully move in to embassies around the world. This includes Moscow, New York City and Paris.
With issue seven, the series was renamed Justice League International to reflect the team's new international status. The name change spawned the term JLI, which is used when referring to this period in Justice League history. The series was again renamed following the launch of Justice League Europe in 1989. The series would be known as Justice League America until its cancellation in 1996.
"Breakdowns" was a 16-issue crossover between the Justice League America (#53-60) and Justice League Europe (#29-36) Green Lantern #18 titles, changing the tone of both series from a humorous one to a more serious one, and introducing new creative teams to both books. The major events that occurred were the following:
The Justice League titles continued to expand into the early to mid-1990s. Titles included: Justice League America, Justice League Europe, Justice League Task Force, Extreme Justice and Justice League Quarterly. Justice League Europe was later retitled to become the second volume of Justice League International.
In the latter part of the series, more recognizable characters, including Superman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern and Aquaman, joined, followed by lesser known characters such as Bloodwynd, Maya, Maxima, Nuklon, Obsidian, Tasmanian Devil, and Triumph. Longtime JLI-era characters such as Captain Atom, Martian Manhunter, and Power Girl were revised and revamped.
By 1996, with the commercial success of the series fading, each of the titles was eventually cancelled.
In 2003, Giffen, DeMatteis, and Maguire reunited for the six-issue miniseries Formerly Known as the Justice League. This depicted Maxwell Lord trying to get the gang back together as The Super Buddies - a Hero-For-Hire group that operated out of a strip mall. 2005 saw a second storyline, I Can't Believe It's Not the Justice League, by the same creative team published in the pages of JLA Classified. This tale told a story of the characters attempt to rescue Ice from Hell.
Following Blackest Night, DC launched two alternating 24-issue biweekly comic book limited series, one being Brightest Day and the other being Justice League: Generation Lost, written by Keith Giffen and Judd Winick. This second series features Captain Atom, Booster Gold, the new Blue Beetle Jaime Reyes, Fire, Ice and a new Rocket Red (by the name of Gavril Ivanovich) and will, essentially, see the return of Justice League International, as explained by Giffen:
Over the course of the series, Power Girl and Batman joined the group as well, with Wonder Woman appearing in the book's final three issues. The title was heavily tied to Winick's run on Power Girl, which had the title character dealing with villains connected to Max Lord's plans in Generation Lost, and eventually had her rejoin the Justice League International after a crossover between the two titles. The title also indirectly tied into Odyssey, a storyline published in Wonder Woman that saw the title character being removed from history with her existence forgotten by most of her fellow heroes. This formed the basis of the book's finale, with the members of the Justice League International racing to track down Wonder Woman before Lord could find her and kill her. Plot threads from Kingdom Come and The OMAC Project also appeared.
Generation Lost ended with a teaser that a new Justice League International series would be coming in a few months (with Booster Gold as leader).
As part of The New 52, Justice League International was relaunched in September 2011, after the conclusion of the "Flashpoint" storyline, written by Dan Jurgens and drawn by Aaron Lopresti.
This Justice League International is formed by United Nations director Andre Briggs as a UN-controlled counterpart to the original Justice League and is based out of the Hall of Justice. The founding lineup of the team consists of Booster Gold, Fire, Ice, Rocket Red (Gavril Ivanovich), Green Lantern (Guy Gardner), Vixen, August General in Iron, and Godiva, who are recruited to the team due to having their identities publicly known. Batman is denied membership due to having a secret identity, but is allowed to accompany the group as part of an effort to foster good relations between the JLI and the original Justice League. The team goes on to defeat the Signal Men and the alien conqueror Peraxxus.
During a press conference outside the Hall of Justice, Rocket Red is killed when a bomb explodes, while Fire, Ice and Vixen are hospitalized and become comatose. This leads Booster Gold to recruit Batwing, OMAC and Firehawk to the team.
In 1989, the first seven issues of the original Justice League International series were collected in a trade paperback called Justice League: A New Beginning (ISBN 0930289404) and issues #8-12 in the follow-up Justice League International: The Secret Gospel of Maxwell Lord in 1992 (ISBN 1563890399).
In 2008, DC announced plans to collect the early years of the JLI as individual volumes, initially as hardcovers and later on as trade paperbacks; starting with volume 5 the books will be released solely as trade paperbacks:
It was clear that the [Justice League] needed a major overhaul. But no one quite expected how drastic the transformation would truly be in the hands of writers Keith Giffen and J. M. DeMatteis and artist Kevin Maguire.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
Alan Gordon (born June 22, 1953) is an American comic book creator primarily known as an inker and writer. He is best known for his 1990s work on DC Comics' Legion of Super Heroes and the Justice League of America, Marvel Comics' Fantastic Four, and Image Comics' creator-owned WildStar.Bialya
Bialya is a fictional country appearing in multiple comic book series published by DC Comics. It was featured in issues of Justice League International as written by Keith Giffen and J.M. DeMatteis. It originally appeared in Justice League #2 (June 1987)Booster Gold
Booster Gold (Michael Jon Carter) is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by Dan Jurgens, the character first appeared in Booster Gold #1 (February 1986) and has been a member of the Justice League.
He is initially depicted as a glory-seeking showboat from the future, using knowledge of historical events and futuristic technology to stage high-publicity heroics. Booster develops over the course of his publication history and through personal tragedies to become a true hero weighed down by the reputation he created for himself.Catherine Cobert
Catherine Maureen Cobert is a fictional character published by DC Comics. She first appeared in Justice League International vol. 1 #8 (December, 1987), and was created by Keith Giffen, J. M. DeMatteis and Kevin Maguire.Extreme Justice
Extreme Justice was a monthly Justice League spin off title in the DC Comics universe. It replaced the cancelled Justice League International (formerly Justice League Europe) and ran for nineteen issues from 1994 to 1996.Fire (comics)
Fire (Beatriz da Costa) is a fictional comic book superheroine from the DC Comics universe.G'nort
G'nort (pronunciation: "nort") Esplanade G'neesmacher is a fictional character, a DC Comics superhero. G'nort is a member of the Green Lantern Corps and later a Darkstar and a member of the Justice League Antarctica. He resembles a humanoid dog and is thoroughly incompetent and generally disliked by other heroes; in fact, he is usually portrayed as being a loser and used as comic relief.Hawkman (Fel Andar)
Fel Andar is a DC Comics character who also called himself Hawkman. There are two different versions of Fel Andar: the pre-Hawkworld version (named Fell Andar) was created by Tony Isabella and Richard Howell, while the post-Hawkworld version was created by John Ostrander and Graham Nolan.
Fel Andar was created after DC Comics rebooted the Hawkman character after publication of the 1989 Hawkworld miniseries, as a stand-in for Katar Hol in Katar's post-Crisis, pre-Hawkworld adventures, including his brief membership with Justice League International.Ice (comics)
Ice (Tora Olafsdotter) is a fictional character, a comic book superheroine in publications from DC Comics.Injustice League
The Injustice League is the name of two fictional supervillain teams appearing in comic books published by DC Comics.Invasion! (DC Comics)
Invasion! was a three issue comic book limited series and crossover event published in late 1988-early 1989 by DC Comics. It was plotted by Keith Giffen, and ties up a great many plotlines from various Giffen-created DC series, including Omega Men, Justice League International, and Legion of Super-Heroes. A trade paperback collection of the three issues was released on September 3, 2008.The series was scripted by Bill Mantlo; it was his first work for DC after a long career at Marvel Comics. Pencils were by Todd McFarlane, Bart Sears, and Giffen himself; inks were by Joe Rubinstein, P. Craig Russell, Tom Christopher, Dick Giordano and Al Gordon. All three covers were pencilled by Bart Sears, including issue #1, contrary to DC's credits listing.J. M. DeMatteis
John Marc DeMatteis (; born December 15, 1953) is an American writer of comic books, television and novels.Justice League
The Justice League is a team of fictional superheroes appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The Justice League was conceived by writer Gardner Fox, and they first appeared together, as Justice League of America (JLA) in The Brave and the Bold #28 (March 1960).The Justice League is an assemblage of superheroes who join together as a team. The seven original members were Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, The Flash, Green Lantern, Aquaman, and Martian Manhunter. The team roster has rotated throughout the years, consisting of various superheroes from the DC Universe, such as The Atom, Big Barda, Black Canary, Cyborg, Green Arrow, Elongated Man, the Flash/Wally West, Green Lantern/John Stewart, Hawkgirl, Hawkman, Metamorpho, Plastic Man, Power Girl, Orion, Red Tornado, Stargirl, Captain Marvel/Shazam, and Zatanna, among many others.
The team received its own comic book title called Justice League of America in November 1960. With the 2011 relaunch, DC Comics released a second volume of Justice League. In July 2016, the DC Rebirth initiative again relaunched the Justice League comic book titles with the third volume of Justice League. Since its inception, the team has been featured in various films, television programs, and video games.Justice League Europe
Justice League Europe (JLE) was a DC Comics book run that was a spin-off of the comic book Justice League America (which was then named Justice League International (vol. 1) for issues #7 to #25).Justice League Europe was published for 68 issues (plus five Annuals) from 1989 to 1994. Starting with issue #51 the title was renamed Justice League International (vol. 2). Like Justice League America, the series featured tongue-in-cheek humor but was a much more action-centric series than Justice League America. The action-themed nature of the series was most overt with the series' most famous arc "The Extremists". The arc featured the JLE fighting The Extremists, a cadre of psychopathic villains patterned after Marvel Comics villains Doctor Doom, Magneto, Doctor Octopus, Sabretooth and Dormammu.The team was originally headquartered in Paris, France but later moved to an abandoned castle in Great Britain.L-Ron
L-Ron (Full name L-Ron H-bb-rd) is a fictional character, a robot in the DC Comics universe. L-Ron first appeared in Justice League International #14 (June 1988).List of Justice League members
The Justice League is a team of comic book superheroes in the DC Comics Universe. Over the years they have featured a large number of characters in a variety of combinations.
The JLA members are listed here in order of their first joining the team, and none are listed twice. No retconned members are listed (except where they historically took part in the stories). No associates and unofficial members, or members of the Super Friends (except when they are also Justice League members in the mainstream comics) are listed.
Non-full members and staff are also listed below.
Characters in bold are current Justice League active members.Rocket Red
Rocket Red is a fictional character and comic book superhero from the DC Comics universe. Created by Steve Englehart and Joe Staton, he first appeared in Green Lantern Corps #208 (January 1987), appearing shortly afterward in Justice League in issue #3 (July 1987); Rocket Red was inducted into the Justice League in Justice League #7 (November 1987).
The term "Rocket Reds" refers to any member of the Rocket Red Brigade; the name in the singular is used to refer to the three individual characters named Rocket Red who were members of the Justice League. These comprise the original Rocket Red #7 (later revealed as an android), Dmitri Pushkin (Rocket Red #4) and Gavril Ivanovich.Super Buddies
Super Buddies are a team of comic book superheroes in the DC Comics universe who appeared in the six-issue Formerly Known as the Justice League miniseries in 2003, and its 2005 sequel, I Can't Believe It's Not the Justice League (published in JLA Classified). The team was put together by former Justice League bank roller Maxwell Lord as a superhero team "accessible to the common man". The team is considered more or less inept and incapable of being of any help by many (including the actual Justice League). The team was created by writers Keith Giffen and J. M. DeMatteis, and artists Kevin Maguire and Joe Rubinstein.
Giffen, DeMatteis, and Maguire had previously created the tongue-in-cheek Justice League International comic book in the 1990s, and revived a similar style of comedy as that series featured.
Justice League International
|Publications and storylines|