Jurassic Park is a 1990 science fiction novel written by Michael Crichton, divided into seven sections (iterations). A cautionary tale about genetic engineering, it presents the collapse of an amusement park showcasing genetically recreated dinosaurs to illustrate the mathematical concept of chaos theory and its real world implications. A sequel titled The Lost World, also written by Crichton, was published in 1995. In 1997, both novels were re-published as a single book titled Michael Crichton's Jurassic World, unrelated to the film of the same name.
In 1993, Steven Spielberg adapted the book into the blockbuster film Jurassic Park. The book's sequel, The Lost World, was also adapted by Spielberg into a film in 1997. A third film, directed by Joe Johnston and released in 2001, drew several elements, themes, and scenes from both books that were ultimately not utilized in either of the previous films, such as the aviary and boat scenes. A fourth entry, directed by Colin Trevorrow was released in 2015, and a fifth, was released in 2018, directed by J. A. Bayona.
The novel began as a screenplay Crichton wrote in 1983, about a graduate student who recreates a dinosaur. Eventually, given his reasoning that genetic research is expensive and "there is no pressing need to create a dinosaur", Crichton concluded that it would emerge from a "desire to entertain", leading to a wildlife park of extinct animals. Originally, the story was told from the point of view of a child, but Crichton changed it as everyone who read the draft felt it would be better if told by an adult.
First edition cover
|Cover artist||Chip Kidd|
|Genre||Hard science fiction,|
Techno-thriller, Horror fiction
|Publisher||Alfred A. Knopf|
|November 20, 1990|
|Media type||Print (Hardcover)|
|LC Class||PS3553.R48 J87 1990|
|Followed by||The Lost World|
In 1989, a series of strange animal attacks occur in Costa Rica and on the nearby fictional island of Isla Nublar, the story's main setting, one of which is a worker severely injured on a construction project on Isla Nublar, whose employers refuse to disclose any information about. One of the species is eventually identified as a Procompsognathus. Paleontologist Alan Grant and his paleobotanist graduate student, Ellie Sattler, are contacted to confirm the identification, but are abruptly whisked away by billionaire John Hammond — founder and chief executive officer of International Genetic Technologies, or InGen — for a weekend visit to a "biological preserve" he has established on Isla Nublar.
Upon arrival, the preserve is revealed to be Jurassic Park, a theme park showcasing cloned dinosaurs. The animals have been recreated using damaged dinosaur DNA found in blood inside of gnats, ticks, and mosquitoes fossilized and preserved in amber. Gaps in the genetic code have been filled in with "compatible" reptilian, avian or amphibian DNA. To control the population, all specimens on the island are lysine-deficient and X-Ray sterilized females. Hammond proudly touts InGen's advances in genetic engineering and shows his guests through the island's vast array of automated systems.
Recent incidents in the park have spooked Hammond's investors. To placate them, Hammond uses Grant and Sattler as fresh consultants. They stand in counterbalance to a famous mathematician and chaos theorist, Ian Malcolm, and a lawyer representing the investors, Donald Gennaro, who are pessimistic about the park's prospects. Malcolm, having been consulted before the park's creation, is especially emphatic in his prediction that the park will collapse, as it is an unsustainable simple structure bluntly forced upon a complex system with too many unpredictable variables, such as an uncontrollable population, attempting to contain animals with no real equivalent to extant animals with no predictable behavior patterns, and an untested computer system that continually fails to monitor and feed the population.
Countering Malcolm's dire predictions with youthful energy, Hammond groups the consultants with his grandchildren, Tim and Alexis "Lex" Murphy. While touring the park, Grant finds a Velociraptor eggshell, seemingly proving Malcolm's earlier assertion that the dinosaurs have somehow been breeding against the geneticists' design.
Meanwhile, the disgruntled chief programmer of Jurassic Park's controlling software, Dennis Nedry, attempts corporate espionage for Lewis Dodgson, a geneticist and agent of InGen's archrival, Biosyn. By activating a backdoor he wrote into the park's computer system, Nedry shuts down its security systems and steals frozen embryos for each of the park's fifteen species in an attempt to smuggle them to a contact waiting at an auxiliary dock at the eastern end of the park. However, during a sudden tropical storm, he exits his vehicle to get his bearings and is killed by a Dilophosaurus. Without Nedry to reactivate the park's security, the electrified fences remain off and all the dinosaurs escape. The Tyrannosaurus attacks the guests on tour. In the aftermath, Grant and the children become lost in the park. Malcolm is gravely injured during the incident, but is found by Gennaro and park game warden Robert Muldoon, spending the remainder of the novel slowly dying as – between lucid lectures and morphine-induced rants – he tries to help the others understand their predicament and survive.
The park's upper management — engineer and park supervisor John Arnold, biotechnologist Henry Wu, Muldoon, and Hammond — struggle to return power to the park, while the veterinarian, Dr. Harding, takes care of Malcolm. They manage to temporarily get the park largely back in order, restoring the computer system by shutting down and restarting the power and resetting the system. When trying to restore the park to working order, they fail to notice that the system has been running on auxiliary power since the restart; this power soon runs out, shutting the park down a second time. The park's intelligent and aggressive raptors escape their enclosure, and kill Wu and Arnold. Meanwhile, Grant and the children slowly make their way back to the Visitor Center by rafting down the jungle river, carrying news that several young raptors were on board the island's supply ship when it departed for the mainland. Tim manages to reactivate the park's main power, allowing Gennaro to force the supply ship to return.
Gennaro orders that the island be destroyed, but Grant rejects his authority, claiming that they must first inspect the whole situation. Grant, Sattler, Muldoon, and Gennaro set out into the park to find the wild raptor nests and compare hatched eggs with the island's revised population tally, and return unscathed. Meanwhile, Hammond, taking a walk and contemplating building a new park improving on his previous mistakes, hears a T. rex roar and, startled, falls down a hill, where he is eaten by a pack of Procompsognathus.
With regard to the dinosaurs' breeding, it eventually transpires that using frog DNA to fill gaps in the dinosaurs' genetic code enabled a measure of dichogamy, in which some of the female animals changed into males in response to the same-sex environment.
The survivors are rescued by the fictitious Costa Rican Air Force, where Grant reveals that the dinosaurs have been killing people. The Costa Rican Air Force then declare the island hazardous and unsafe, and proceed to raze the island with napalm. Survivors of the incident are indefinitely detained by the United States and Costa Rican governments at a hotel. Weeks later, Grant is visited by Dr. Martin Guitierrez, an American doctor who lives in Costa Rica. Guitierrez informs Grant that an unknown pack of animals has been migrating through the Costa Rican jungle, eating lysine-rich crops and chickens. He also informs Grant that none of them, with the possible exception of Tim and Lex, are going to leave any time soon.
Jurassic Park critiques the dystopia potentialities of science. There are Christian undertones in the skepticism of Ian Malcolm, though Christian terminology and imagery is never used. Malcolm is the conscience that reminds John Hammond of the sacrilegious path that has been taken. The final condition of the park is epitomized by the word 'hell', which highlights the nature of Hammond's sacrilegious attempt.
Michael Crichton's novel is another version of Mary Shelley's Frankenstein tale where humanity creates without knowing. Henry Wu is unable to name the things that he creates, which alludes to Victor Frankenstein not knowing what to call his flawed imitation of God's creative powers. The immorality of these actions lead to human destruction, echoing Frankenstein.
Similar to how his other novels represent science and technology as both hazardous and life-changing, Michael Crichton's novel highlights the hypocrisy and superiority complex of the scientific community that inspired John Hammond to recreate dinosaurs and treat them as commodities, which only lead to catastrophe. The similar fears of atomic power from the Cold War are adapted by Michael Crichton onto the anxieties evoked by genetic manipulation.
The book became a bestseller and Michael Crichton's signature novel. It also received largely favorable reviews by critics. In a review for The New York Times, Christopher Lehmann-Haupt described it as "a superior specimen of the [Frankenstein] myth" and "easily the best of Mr. Crichton's novels to date." Writing for Entertainment Weekly, Gene Lyons held that the book was "hard to beat for sheer intellectual entertainment" largely because it was "[f]illed with diverting, up-to-date information in easily digestible form." Both Lyons' Entertainment Weekly piece and Andrew Ferguson's review in the Los Angeles Times, however, criticized Crichton's characterization as heavy-handed and his characters as cliched. Ferguson further complained about Ian Malcolm's "dime-store philosophizing" and predicted that the movie adaptation of the book would be "undoubtedly trashy." He conceded that the book's "only real virtue" was "its genuinely interesting discussions of dinosaurs, DNA research, paleontology and chaos theory."
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Charles "Chip" Kidd (born 1964) is an American graphic designer, best known for his book covers. Based in New York city, Kidd has become one of the most famous book cover designers to date.Gregory S. Paul
Gregory Scott Paul (born December 24, 1954) is an American freelance researcher, author and illustrator who works in paleontology, and more recently has examined sociology and theology. He is best known for his work and research on theropod dinosaurs and his detailed illustrations, both live and skeletal. Professionally investigating and restoring dinosaurs for three decades, Paul received an on-screen credit as dinosaur specialist on Jurassic Park and Discovery Channel's When Dinosaurs Roamed America and Dinosaur Planet. He is the author and illustrator of Predatory Dinosaurs of the World (1988), The Complete Illustrated Guide to Dinosaur Skeletons (1996), Dinosaurs of the Air (2001), The Princeton Field Guide to Dinosaurs (2010), Gregory S. Paul's Dinosaur Coffee Table Book (2010), and editor of The Scientific American Book of Dinosaurs (2000).
Paul's recent research on the interactions of religion and society has received international press and media coverage.Jurassic Park
Jurassic Park is an American science fiction media franchise centered on a disastrous attempt to create a theme park of cloned dinosaurs. It began in 1990 when Universal Pictures and Amblin Entertainment bought the rights to the novel by Michael Crichton before it was even published.
The book was successful, as was Steven Spielberg's 1993 film adaptation, which led to four sequels, although only the first two films were based on the novels. Numerous video games based on the franchise have been created by various software developers since the release of the 1993 film. Since 1996, several water rides based on the series have been opened at various Universal theme parks.
The Jurassic Park Ultimate Trilogy was released on DVD and Blu-ray on October 25, 2011, in North America. The first film was re-released in 3D on April 5, 2013.The fourth film, Jurassic World, was initially scheduled to be released in the summer of 2005, but was delayed numerous times and was ultimately released in June 2015. It became the first film to gross over $500 million worldwide in its opening weekend, and grossed over $1.6 billion through the course of its theatrical run, making it the fifth highest-grossing film of all time. It was also the second highest-grossing film of 2015. When adjusted for monetary inflation, this film is the second highest grossing in the franchise after Jurassic Park. An animated film, Lego Jurassic World: The Indominus Escape, was released in October 2016 with the home media release of Jurassic World, alongside a short film, Employee Safety Video. Two other interactive Lego short films, Lego Jurassic World: Rescue Blue/Escape the Indoraptor, were also released in 2018, followed by an animated special, Lego Jurassic World: The Secret Exhibit, which aired on NBC later that year.
A fifth film, Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, was released in June 2018. The film grossed over $1.3 billion worldwide, making it the third Jurassic film to pass the billion dollar mark. It is the third highest-grossing film of 2018 and the 12th highest-grossing film of all time. A sixth film, tentatively titled Jurassic World 3, is scheduled to be released on June 11, 2021. As of 2000, the franchise had generated $5 billion in revenue, making it one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time.In 2018, the first film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant."Jurassic Park (computer video game)
Jurassic Park is a 1993 action video game developed and published by Ocean Software, for DOS and Amiga computers. The game is based on director Steven Spielberg's 1993 film, Jurassic Park, and also includes elements from author Michael Crichton's 1990 novel of the same name, which the film is based upon.
The player controls the character of Dr. Alan Grant, a paleontologist who becomes trapped at Jurassic Park, an island theme park and zoo populated by genetically engineered dinosaurs. Grant's initial objective is to search for Lex and Tim, the grandchildren of park owner John Hammond. Upon locating the children, Grant must contact a helicopter so survivors can escape the island. Gameplay consists of a bird's-eye view during the game's large exterior environment, but switches to a first-person perspective whenever Grant enters a building.
Development of the game began in November 1992. A development team of 13 people – considered large at that time – worked on the game. Spielberg was also involved in the game during its development to ensure that it would be faithful to his initial vision. Materials related to the film, including its script and photographs of the sets, aided the developers during the game's production. Jurassic Park was released in the United Kingdom in October 1993, and was subsequently released in the United States a year later. Many critics praised the game's indoor environments, but some criticized its large exterior environment, and its boring and repetitive gameplay.Jurassic Park (disambiguation)
Jurassic Park typically refers to the Jurassic Park franchise, a series of books, films, and video games centering on a fictional theme parkJurassic World
Jurassic World is a 2015 American science fiction adventure film, the fourth installment of the Jurassic Park film series, and the first film in a planned Jurassic World trilogy. It was directed by Colin Trevorrow, written by Derek Connolly and Trevorrow, produced by Frank Marshall and Patrick Crowley, and stars Chris Pratt, Bryce Dallas Howard, Vincent D'Onofrio, Ty Simpkins, Nick Robinson, Omar Sy, BD Wong, and Irrfan Khan.
Set 22 years after the events of Jurassic Park, Jurassic World takes place on the same fictional Central American island of Isla Nublar, which is located off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, where a theme park of cloned dinosaurs has operated for nearly a decade. The park plunges into chaos when a genetically-engineered dinosaur escapes from its enclosure and goes on a rampage.
Universal Pictures intended to begin production of a fourth Jurassic Park film in 2004 for a mid-2005 release but development stalled while the script underwent several revisions. Following a suggestion from Spielberg, writers Rick Jaffa and Amanda Silver explored the idea of a functional dinosaur park. Once Trevorrow was hired as director in 2013, he followed the same idea while developing a new script with Derek Connolly. Filming lasted from April to August 2014 in Louisiana and at the original Jurassic Park locations in Hawaii. The dinosaurs were created by Industrial Light & Magic using CGI and by Legacy Effects using life-sized animatronics.
Production was completed on May 10, 2015, and Jurassic World was released in over 60 countries beginning on June 10, 2015. After a record-breaking opening weekend during which it became the first film to gross over $500 million, Jurassic World generated $1.6 billion in box office revenue, ranking fifth among the highest-grossing films of all time. It was also the second-highest-grossing film of 2015 and the highest-grossing in the franchise. Furthermore, it is the highest grossing film ever released by Universal Pictures unadjusted for inflation. A sequel titled Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom was released in June 2018.Lex (given name)
Lex is a given name. It is a common male name in the Netherlands, and is sometimes short for Alexander, Alexandra, Alexandria or Lexington.List of Jurassic Park characters
The following is a list of fictional characters from Michael Crichton's novel Jurassic Park, its sequel The Lost World, and their film adaptations, Jurassic Park and The Lost World: Jurassic Park. Also included are characters from the films Jurassic Park III, Jurassic World, and Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, which are not adaptations and have no original source novels but contain characters and events based on the fictional universe of Crichton's novels.List of integral thinkers and supporters
This list of contemporary scholars, writers, academics, politicians, and pop culture figures who are known to have contributed to or been influenced specifically by Integral theory, the philosophy of Ken Wilber.Michael Crichton
John Michael Crichton (; October 23, 1942 – November 4, 2008) was an American author, screenwriter, and film director and producer best known for his work in the science fiction, thriller, and medical fiction genres. His books have sold over 200 million copies worldwide, and over a dozen have been adapted into films.
His literary works are usually within the action genre and heavily feature technology. His novels epitomize the techno-thriller genre of literature, often exploring technology and failures of human interaction with it, especially resulting in catastrophes with biotechnology. Many of his novels have medical or scientific underpinnings, reflecting his medical training and scientific background. He wrote, among other works, The Andromeda Strain (1969); The Great Train Robbery (1975); Congo (1980); Sphere (1987); Jurassic Park (1990); Rising Sun (1992); Disclosure (1994); The Lost World (1995); Airframe (1996); Timeline (1999); Prey (2002); State of Fear (2004); and Next (2006). Films he wrote and directed included Westworld (1973), Coma (1978), The Great Train Robbery (1979), Looker (1981), and Runaway (1984).
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