Jurassic

The Jurassic (/dʒʊəˈræsɪk/; from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period 201.3 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period 145 Mya.[note 1] The Jurassic constitutes the middle period of the Mesozoic Era, also known as the Age of Reptiles. The start of the period was marked by the major Triassic–Jurassic extinction event. Two other extinction events occurred during the period: the Pliensbachian-Toarcian extinction in the Early Jurassic, and the Tithonian event at the end[7]; however, neither event ranks among the "Big Five" mass extinctions.

The Jurassic period is divided into three epochs: Early, Middle, and Late. Similarly, in stratigraphy, the Jurassic is divided into the Lower Jurassic, Middle Jurassic, and Upper Jurassic series of rock formations.

The Jurassic is named after the Jura Mountains within the European Alps, where limestone strata from the period were first identified. By the beginning of the Jurassic, the supercontinent Pangaea had begun rifting into two landmasses: Laurasia to the north, and Gondwana to the south. This created more coastlines and shifted the continental climate from dry to humid, and many of the arid deserts of the Triassic were replaced by lush rainforests.

On land, the fauna transitioned from the Triassic fauna, dominated by both dinosauromorph and crocodylomorph archosaurs, to one dominated by dinosaurs alone. The first birds also appeared during the Jurassic, having evolved from a branch of theropod dinosaurs. Other major events include the appearance of the earliest lizards, and the evolution of therian mammals, including primitive placentals. Crocodilians made the transition from a terrestrial to an aquatic mode of life. The oceans were inhabited by marine reptiles such as ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs, while pterosaurs were the dominant flying vertebrates.

Jurassic Period
201.3–145 million years ago
J
Mean atmospheric O
2
content over period duration
c. 26 vol %[1][2]
(130 % of modern level)
Mean atmospheric CO
2
content over period duration
c. 1950 ppm[3]
(7 times pre-industrial level)
Mean surface temperature over period duration c. 16.5 °C[4]
(3 °C above modern level)
Key events in the Jurassic
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-200 —
-195 —
-190 —
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-175 —
-170 —
-165 —
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-150 —
-145 —
An approximate timescale of key Jurassic events.
Vertical axis: millions of years ago.

History of term

The chronostratigraphic term "Jurassic" is directly linked to the Jura Mountains, a mountain range mainly following the course of the France–Switzerland border. During a tour of the region in 1795,[8] Alexander von Humboldt recognized the mainly limestone dominated mountain range of the Jura Mountains as a separate formation that had not been included in the established stratigraphic system defined by Abraham Gottlob Werner, and he named it "Jura-Kalkstein" ('Jura limestone') in 1799.[9][10][11][12]

Etymology

The name "Jura" is derived from the Celtic root *jor via Gaulish *iuris "wooded mountain", which, borrowed into Latin as a place name, evolved into Juria and finally Jura.[10][11][13]

Divisions

The Jurassic period is divided into three epochs: Early, Middle, and Late. Similarly, in stratigraphy, the Jurassic is divided into the Lower Jurassic, Middle Jurassic, and Upper Jurassic series of rock formations, also known as Lias, Dogger and Malm in Europe.[14] The separation of the term Jurassic into three sections originated with Leopold von Buch.[12] The faunal stages from youngest to oldest are:

Upper/Late Jurassic
Tithonian (152.1 ± 4 – 145 ± 4 Mya)
Kimmeridgian (157.3 ± 4 – 152.1 ± 4 Mya)
Oxfordian (163.5 ± 4 – 157.3 ± 4 Mya)
Middle Jurassic
Callovian (166.1 ± 4 – 163.5 ± 4 Mya)
Bathonian (168.3 ± 3.5 – 166.1 ± 4 Mya)
Bajocian (170.3 ± 3 – 168.3 ± 3.5 Mya)
Aalenian (174.1 ± 2 – 170.3 ± 3 Mya)
Lower/Early Jurassic
Toarcian (182.7 ± 1.5 – 174.1 ± 2 Mya)
Pliensbachian (190.8 ± 1.5 – 182.7 ± 1.5 Mya)
Sinemurian (199.3 ± 1 – 190.8 ± 1.5 Mya)
Hettangian (201.3 ± 0.6 – 199.3 ± 1 Mya)

Paleogeography and tectonics

Dilophosaurus wetherilli
Depiction of Early Jurassic environment preserved at the St. George Dinosaur Discovery Site at Johnson Farm, with Dilophosaurus wetherilli in bird-like resting pose

During the early Jurassic period, the supercontinent Pangaea broke up into the northern supercontinent Laurasia and the southern supercontinent Gondwana; the Gulf of Mexico opened in the new rift between North America and what is now Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. The Jurassic North Atlantic Ocean was relatively narrow, while the South Atlantic did not open until the following Cretaceous period, when Gondwana itself rifted apart.[15] The Tethys Sea closed, and the Neotethys basin appeared. Climates were warm, with no evidence of glaciation. As in the Triassic, there was apparently no land over either pole, and no extensive ice caps existed.

The Jurassic geological record is good in western Europe, where extensive marine sequences indicate a time when much of that future landmass was submerged under shallow tropical seas; famous locales include the Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site in southern England and the renowned late Jurassic lagerstätten of Holzmaden and Solnhofen in Germany.[16] In contrast, the North American Jurassic record is the poorest of the Mesozoic, with few outcrops at the surface.[17] Though the epicontinental Sundance Sea left marine deposits in parts of the northern plains of the United States and Canada during the late Jurassic, most exposed sediments from this period are continental, such as the alluvial deposits of the Morrison Formation.

The Jurassic was a time of calcite sea geochemistry in which low-magnesium calcite was the primary inorganic marine precipitate of calcium carbonate. Carbonate hardgrounds were thus very common, along with calcitic ooids, calcitic cements, and invertebrate faunas with dominantly calcitic skeletons (Stanley and Hardie, 1998, 1999).

The first of several massive batholiths were emplaced in the northern American cordillera beginning in the mid-Jurassic, marking the Nevadan orogeny.[18] Important Jurassic exposures are also found in Russia, India, South America, Japan, Australasia and the United Kingdom.

In Africa, Early Jurassic strata are distributed in a similar fashion to Late Triassic beds, with more common outcrops in the south and less common fossil beds which are predominated by tracks to the north.[19] As the Jurassic proceeded, larger and more iconic groups of dinosaurs like sauropods and ornithopods proliferated in Africa.[19] Middle Jurassic strata are neither well represented nor well studied in Africa.[19] Late Jurassic strata are also poorly represented apart from the spectacular Tendaguru fauna in Tanzania.[19] The Late Jurassic life of Tendaguru is very similar to that found in western North America's Morrison Formation.[19]

Upper Matmor Jurassic Israel

Jurassic limestones and marls (the Matmor Formation) in southern Israel.

MorrisonType-2

The late Jurassic Morrison Formation in Colorado is one of the most fertile sources of dinosaur fossils in North America.

Gigandipus

Gigandipus, a dinosaur footprint in the Lower Jurassic Moenave Formation at the St. George Dinosaur Discovery Site at Johnson Farm, southwestern Utah.

SEUtahStrat

The Permian through Jurassic stratigraphy of the Colorado Plateau area of southeastern Utah.

Fauna

Aquatic and marine

During the Jurassic period, the primary vertebrates living in the sea were fish and marine reptiles. The latter include ichthyosaurs, which were at the peak of their diversity, plesiosaurs, pliosaurs, and marine crocodiles of the families Teleosauridae and Metriorhynchidae.[20] Numerous turtles could be found in lakes and rivers.[21][22]

In the invertebrate world, several new groups appeared, including rudists (a reef-forming variety of bivalves) and belemnites. Calcareous sabellids (Glomerula) appeared in the Early Jurassic.[23][24] The Jurassic also had diverse encrusting and boring (sclerobiont) communities, and it saw a significant rise in the bioerosion of carbonate shells and hardgrounds. Especially common is the ichnogenus (trace fossil) Gastrochaenolites.[25]

During the Jurassic period, about four or five of the twelve clades of planktonic organisms that exist in the fossil record either experienced a massive evolutionary radiation or appeared for the first time.[14]

Leedsi&Liopl DB

A Pliosaurus (right) harassing a Leedsichthys in a Jurassic sea.

Fischsaurier fg01

Ichthyosaurus from lower (early) Jurassic slates in southern Germany featured a dolphin-like body shape.

Muraenosaurus l2

Plesiosaurs like Muraenosaurus roamed Jurassic oceans.

JurassicMarineIsrael

Gastropod and attached mytilid bivalves on a Jurassic limestone bedding plane in southern Israel.

Terrestrial

Drzewica Formation Reconstruction
Example of Rare Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian) Ecosystem, the Drzewica Formation of Szydłowiec, Poland. This zone was characterised by a very damp ecosystem populated by dinosaur megafauna, more related in several aspects to Middle or Late Jurassic dinosaurs

On land, various archosaurian reptiles remained dominant. The Jurassic was a golden age for the large herbivorous dinosaurs known as the sauropodsCamarasaurus, Apatosaurus, Diplodocus, Brachiosaurus, and many others—that roamed the land late in the period; their foraging grounds were either the prairies of ferns, palm-like cycads and bennettitales, or the higher coniferous growth, according to their adaptations. The smaller Ornithischian herbivore dinosaurs, like stegosaurs and small ornithopods were less predominant, but played important roles. They were preyed upon by large theropods, such as Ceratosaurus, Megalosaurus, Torvosaurus and Allosaurus. All these belong to the 'lizard hipped' or saurischian branch of the dinosaurs.[26] During the Late Jurassic, the first avialans, like Archaeopteryx, evolved from small coelurosaurian dinosaurs. In the air, pterosaurs were common; they ruled the skies, filling many ecological roles now taken by birds,[27] and may have already produced some of the largest flying animals of all time.[28][29] Within the undergrowth were various types of early mammals, as well as tritylodonts, lizard-like sphenodonts, and early lissamphibians. The rest of the Lissamphibia evolved in this period, introducing the first salamanders and caecilians.[30]

Diplodocus BW

Diplodocus, reaching lengths over 30 m, was a common sauropod during the late Jurassic.

Allosaurus BW

Allosaurus was one of the largest land predators during the Jurassic.

Stegosaurus BW

Stegosaurus is one of the most recognizable genera of dinosaurs and lived during the mid to late Jurassic.

Archaeopteryx 2

Archaeopteryx, a primitive bird-like dinosaur, appeared in the Late Jurassic.

Aurornis

Aurornis xui, which lived in the late Jurassic, may be the most primitive avialan dinosaur known to date, and is one of the earliest avialans found to date.

Flora

Douglas fir leaves and bud
Conifers were the dominant land plants of the Jurassic
Europasaurus holgeri Scene 2
Various dinosaurs roamed forests of similarly large conifers during the Jurassic period.

The arid, continental conditions characteristic of the Triassic steadily eased during the Jurassic period, especially at higher latitudes; the warm, humid climate allowed lush jungles to cover much of the landscape.[31] Gymnosperms were relatively diverse during the Jurassic period.[14] The Conifers in particular dominated the flora, as during the Triassic; they were the most diverse group and constituted the majority of large trees.

Extant conifer families that flourished during the Jurassic included the Araucariaceae, Cephalotaxaceae, Pinaceae, Podocarpaceae, Taxaceae and Taxodiaceae.[32] The extinct Mesozoic conifer family Cheirolepidiaceae dominated low latitude vegetation, as did the shrubby Bennettitales.[33] Cycads, similar to palm trees, were also common, as were ginkgos and Dicksoniaceous tree ferns in the forest.[14] Smaller ferns were probably the dominant undergrowth. Caytoniaceous seed ferns were another group of important plants during this time and are thought to have been shrub to small-tree sized.[34] Ginkgo plants were particularly common in the mid- to high northern latitudes.[14] In the Southern Hemisphere, podocarps were especially successful, while Ginkgos and Czekanowskiales were rare.[31][33]

In the oceans, modern coralline algae appeared for the first time.[14] However, they were a part of another major extinction that happened within the next major time period.

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ A 140 Ma age for the Jurassic-Cretaceous instead of the usually accepted 145 Ma was proposed in 2014 based on a stratigraphic study of Vaca Muerta Formation in Neuquén Basin, Argentina.[5] Víctor Ramos, one of the authors of the study proposing the 140 Ma boundary age, sees the study as a "first step" toward formally changing the age in the International Union of Geological Sciences.[6]

Notes

  1. ^ Image:Sauerstoffgehalt-1000mj.svg
  2. ^ File:OxygenLevel-1000ma.svg
  3. ^ Image:Phanerozoic Carbon Dioxide.png
  4. ^ Image:All palaeotemps.png
  5. ^ Vennari, Verónica V.; Lescano, Marina; Naipauer, Maximiliano; Aguirre-Urreta, Beatriz; Concheyro, Andrea; Schaltegger, Urs; Armstrong, Richard; Pimentel, Marcio; Ramos, Victor A. (2014). "New constraints on the Jurassic–Cretaceous boundary in the High Andes using high-precision U–Pb data". Gondwana Research. 26 (1): 374–385. Bibcode:2014GondR..26..374V. doi:10.1016/j.gr.2013.07.005. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  6. ^ Jaramillo, Jessica. "Entrevista al Dr. Víctor Alberto Ramos, Premio México Ciencia y Tecnología 2013" (in Spanish). Si logramos publicar esos nuevos resultados, sería el primer paso para cambiar formalmente la edad del Jurásico-Cretácico. A partir de ahí, la Unión Internacional de la Ciencias Geológicas y la Comisión Internacional de Estratigrafía certificaría o no, depende de los resultados, ese cambio.
  7. ^ Hallam, A. (1986). "The Pliensbachian and Tithonian extinction events". Nature. 319 (6056): 765–768. Bibcode:1986Natur.319..765H. doi:10.1038/319765a0. Retrieved 2018-07-02.
  8. ^ Alexander von Humboldt, Kosmos, volume 4 (Stuttgart: Cotta, 1858), p. 632: "Ich hatte mich auf einer geognostischen Reise, die ich 1795 durch das südliche Franken, die westliche Schweiz und Ober-Italien machte, davon überzeugt, daß der Jura-Kalkstein, welchen Werner zu seinem Muschelkalk rechnete, eine eigne Formation bildete. In meiner Schrift über die unterirdischen Gasarten, welche mein Bruder Wilhelm von Humboldt 1799 während meines Aufenthalts in Südamerika herausgab, wird der Formation, die ich vorläufig mit dem Namen Jura-Kalkstein bezeichnete, zuerst (S. 39) gedacht." ('On a geological tour that I made in 1795 through southern France, western Switzerland and upper Italy, I convinced myself that the Jura limestone, which Werner included in his shell limestone, constituted a separate formation. In my paper about subterranean types of gases, which my brother Wilhelm von Humboldt published in 1799 during my stay in South America, the formation, which I provisionally designated with the name "Jura limestone", is first conceived (p. 39).'
  9. ^ Alexander von Humboldt, Ueber die unterirdischen Gasarten und die Mittel, ihren Nachteil zu vermindern, ein Beitrag zur Physik der praktischen Bergbaukunde ['On the types of subterranean gases and means of minimizing their harm, a contribution to the physics of practical mining'] (Braunschweig: Vieweg, 1799), p. 39: "[…] die ausgebreitete Formation, welche zwischen dem alten Gips und neueren Sandstein liegt, und welchen ich vorläufig mit dem Nahmen Jura-Kalkstein bezeichne." ('… the widespread formation which lies between the old gypsum and the more recent sandstone and which I provisionally designate with the name "Jura limestone".')
  10. ^ a b Hölder, H. 1964. Jura – Handbuch der stratigraphischen Geologie, IV. Enke-Verlag, Stuttgart.
  11. ^ a b Arkell, W.J. 1956. Jurassic Geology of the World. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh und London.
  12. ^ a b Pieńkowski, G.; Schudack, M.E.; Bosák, P.; Enay, R.; Feldman-Olszewska, A.; Golonka, J.; Gutowski, J.; Herngreen, G.F.W.; Jordan, P.; Krobicki, M.; Lathuiliere, B.; Leinfelder, R.R.; Michalík, J.; Mönnig, E.; Noe-Nygaard, N.; Pálfy, J.; Pint, A.; Rasser, M.W.; Reisdorf, A.G.; Schmid, D.U.; Schweigert, G.; Surlyk, F.; Wetzel, A. & Theo E. Wong, T.E. 2008. "Jurassic". In: McCann, T. (ed.): The Geology of Central Europe. Volume 2: Mesozoic and Cenozoic, Geological Society, London, pp. 823–922.
  13. ^ Rollier, L. 1903. Das Schweizerische Juragebirge (Sonderabdruck aus dem Geographischen Lexikon der Schweiz). Verlag von Gebr. Attinger, Neuenburg.
  14. ^ a b c d e f Kazlev, M. Alan (2002). "Palaeos website". Archived from the original on 2006-01-05. Retrieved July 22, 2008.
  15. ^ Late Jurassic
  16. ^ "Jurassic Period". Archived from the original on 2007-07-14.
  17. ^ "map". Archived from the original on 2007-07-15.
  18. ^ Monroe and Wicander, 607.
  19. ^ a b c d e Jacobs, Louis, L. (1997). "African Dinosaurs". Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Edited by Phillip J. Currie and Kevin Padian. Academic Press. p. 2-4.
  20. ^ Motani, R. (2000), Rulers of the Jurassic Seas, Scientific American vol.283, no. 6
  21. ^ Wings, Oliver; Rabi, Márton; Schneider, Jörg W.; Schwermann, Leonie; Sun, Ge; Zhou, Chang-Fu; Joyce, Walter G. (2012), "An enormous Jurassic turtle bone bed from the Turpan Basin of Xinjiang, China", Naturwissenschaften, 114 (11): 925–935, Bibcode:2012NW.....99..925W, doi:10.1007/s00114-012-0974-5, PMID 23086389
  22. ^ Gannon, Megan (October 31, 2012), "Jurassic turtle graveyard found in China", Livescience.com
  23. ^ Vinn, O.; Mutvei, H. (2009). "Calcareous tubeworms of the Phanerozoic" (PDF). Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences. 58 (4): 286–296. doi:10.3176/earth.2009.4.07. Retrieved 2012-09-16.
  24. ^ Vinn, O.; ten Hove, H.A.; Mutvei, H. (2008). "On the tube ultrastructure and origin of calcification in sabellids (Annelida, Polychaeta)". Palaeontology. 51 (2): 295–301. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2008.00763.x. Retrieved 2014-06-11.
  25. ^ Taylor, P. D.; Wilson, M. A. (2003). "Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities". Earth-Science Reviews. 62 (1–2): 1–103. Bibcode:2003ESRv...62....1T. doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00131-9.
  26. ^ Haines, Tim (2000). Walking with Dinosaurs: A Natural History. New York: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 978-0-7894-5187-3.
  27. ^ Feduccia, A. (1996). The Origin and Evolution of Birds. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-06460-5.
  28. ^ Witton, Mark P.; Martill, David M.; Loveridge, Robert F. (2010). "Clipping the Wings of Giant Pterosaurs: Comments on Wingspan Estimations and Diversity". Acta Geoscientica Sinica. 31 (Supp 1): 79–81.
  29. ^ Why the giant azhdarchid Arambourgiania philadelphiae needs a fanclub
  30. ^ Carroll, R. L. (1988). Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. New York: WH Freeman. ISBN 978-0-7167-1822-2.
  31. ^ a b Haines, 2000.
  32. ^ Behrensmeyer et al., 1992, 349.
  33. ^ a b Behrensmeyer et al., 1992, 352
  34. ^ Behrensmeyer et al., 1992, 353

References

  • Behrensmeyer, Damuth, J.D., DiMichele, W.A., Potts, R., Sues, H.D. & Wing, S.L. (eds.) (1992), Terrestrial Ecosystems through Time: the Evolutionary Paleoecology of Terrestrial Plants and Animals, University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, ISBN 0-226-04154-9 (cloth), ISBN 0-226-04155-7 (paper).
  • Haines, Tim (2000) Walking with Dinosaurs: A Natural History, New York: Dorling Kindersley Publishing, Inc., p. 65. ISBN 0-563-38449-2.
  • Kazlev, M. Alan (2002) Palaeos website Accessed Jan. 8, 2006.
  • Mader, Sylvia (2004) Biology, eighth edition.
  • Monroe, James S., and Reed Wicander. (1997) The Changing Earth: Exploring Geology and Evolution, 2nd ed. Belmont: West Publishing Company, 1997. ISBN 0-314-09577-2.
  • Ogg, Jim; June, 2004, Overview of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSP's), International Commission on Stratigraphy, pp. 17
  • Stanley, S.M.; Hardie, L.A. (1998). "Secular oscillations in the carbonate mineralogy of reef-building and sediment-producing organisms driven by tectonically forced shifts in seawater chemistry". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 144 (1–2): 3–19. Bibcode:1998PPP...144....3S. doi:10.1016/s0031-0182(98)00109-6.
  • Stanley, S.M.; Hardie, L.A. (1999). "Hypercalcification; paleontology links plate tectonics and geochemistry to sedimentology". GSA Today. 9: 1–7.
  • Taylor, P.D.; Wilson, M.A. (2003). "Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities" (PDF). Earth-Science Reviews. 62 (1): 1–103. Bibcode:2003ESRv...62....1T. doi:10.1016/s0012-8252(02)00131-9. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-25.

External links

Allosaurus

Allosaurus () is a genus of carnivorous theropod dinosaur that lived 155 to 150 million years ago during the late Jurassic period (Kimmeridgian to early Tithonian). The name "Allosaurus" means "different lizard" alluding to its unique concave vertebrae (at the time of its discovery). It is derived from the Greek ἄλλος/allos ("different, other") and σαῦρος/sauros ("lizard / generic reptile"). The first fossil remains that could definitively be ascribed to this genus were described in 1877 by paleontologist Othniel Charles Marsh. As one of the first well-known theropod dinosaurs, it has long attracted attention outside of paleontological circles. Indeed, it has been a top feature in several films and documentaries about prehistoric life.

Allosaurus was a large bipedal predator. Its skull was large and equipped with dozens of sharp, serrated teeth. It averaged 8.5 m (28 ft) in length, though fragmentary remains suggest it could have reached over 12 m (39 ft). Relative to the large and powerful hindlimbs, its three-fingered forelimbs were small, and the body was balanced by a long and heavily muscled tail. It is classified as an allosaurid, a type of carnosaurian theropod dinosaur. The genus has a complicated taxonomy, and includes an uncertain number of valid species, the best known of which is A. fragilis. The bulk of Allosaurus remains have come from North America's Morrison Formation, with material also known from Portugal and possibly Tanzania. It was known for over half of the 20th century as Antrodemus, but a study of the copious remains from the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry brought the name "Allosaurus" back to prominence and established it as one of the best-known dinosaurs.

As the most abundant large predator in the Morrison Formation, Allosaurus was at the top of the food chain, probably preying on contemporaneous large herbivorous dinosaurs, and perhaps even other predators. Potential prey included ornithopods, stegosaurids, and sauropods. Some paleontologists interpret Allosaurus as having had cooperative social behavior, and hunting in packs, while others believe individuals may have been aggressive toward each other, and that congregations of this genus are the result of lone individuals feeding on the same carcasses. Due to having a much weaker bite force and a much wider gape than most other large carnivorous dinosaurs, it may have attacked large prey by ambush, using its upper jaw like a hatchet.

Avialae

Avialae ("bird wings") is a clade of flying dinosaurs containing their only living representatives, the birds. It is usually defined as all theropod dinosaurs more closely related to modern birds (Aves) than to deinonychosaurs, though alternative definitions are occasionally used (see below).

Archaeopteryx lithographica, from the late Jurassic Period Solnhofen Formation of Germany, is the earliest known avialan which may have had the capability of powered flight. However, several older avialans are known from the late Jurassic Tiaojishan Formation of China, dated to about 160 million years ago.

Bryce Dallas Howard

Bryce Dallas Howard (born March 2, 1981) is an American actress and director. She is the eldest daughter of actor and director Ron Howard. She attended New York University's Tisch School of the Arts, but left before graduating to take on roles on Broadway. While starring as Rosalind in the play As You Like It, Howard caught the attention of director M. Night Shyamalan, and he cast her in what would be her breakout film, the psychological thriller The Village (2004). She then starred in Shyamalan's fantasy thriller Lady in the Water (2006). Her performance in Kenneth Branagh's 2006 film adaptation of As You Like It earned her a Golden Globe Award nomination. In 2006, she co-wrote and directed the short film Orchids. Howard also appeared as Gwen Stacy in Sam Raimi's superhero film Spider-Man 3 (2007).

Howard became more recognizable to audiences as the vampire Victoria in The Twilight Saga: Eclipse (2010). This project, as well as the action film Terminator Salvation (2009), were financially successful, but garnered mixed reviews from critics. In 2011, she had supporting roles in the films 50/50 and The Help. She gained further international recognition for playing Claire Dearing in the science fiction adventure films Jurassic World (2015) and Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom (2018), the fourth and fifth installments in the Jurassic Park series, and her most financially successful films to date.

Chris Pratt

Christopher Michael Pratt (born June 21, 1979) is an American actor. He rose to prominence for his television roles, particularly as Andy Dwyer in the NBC sitcom Parks and Recreation (2009–2015), for which he received critical acclaim and was nominated for the Critics' Choice Television Award for Best Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series in 2013. He also starred earlier in his career as Bright Abbott in The WB drama series Everwood (2002–2006) and has notable roles in Wanted (2008), Jennifer's Body (2009), Moneyball (2011), The Five-Year Engagement (2012), Zero Dark Thirty (2013), Delivery Man (2013), and Her (2013).

Pratt achieved leading man status in 2014 after starring in two critically and commercially successful films, Warner Animation Group's The Lego Movie as Emmet Brickowski and Marvel Studios' Guardians of the Galaxy as Star-Lord. In 2015, he starred in Jurassic World, the fourth installment in the Jurassic Park franchise, which was his most financially successful film up until the release of Infinity War; he reprised the former role in the sequel Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom in 2018. In 2015, Time named Pratt one of the 100 most influential people in the world on the annual Time 100 list.Pratt continued his leading man run in 2016 with The Magnificent Seven and Passengers. He reprises his role as Star-Lord in the Marvel Cinematic Universe in Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 (2017), Avengers: Infinity War (2018) and its upcoming sequel, Avengers: Endgame (2019).

Early Jurassic

The Early Jurassic epoch (in chronostratigraphy corresponding to the Lower Jurassic series) is the earliest of three epochs of the Jurassic period. The Early Jurassic starts immediately after the Triassic-Jurassic extinction event, 201.3 Ma (million years ago), and ends at the start of the Middle Jurassic 174.1 Ma.

Certain rocks of marine origin of this age in Europe are called "Lias" and that name was used for the period, as well, in 19th-century geology. In southern Germany rocks of this age are called Black Jurassic.

Eutheria

Eutheria (; from Greek εὐ-, eu- "good" or "right" and θηρίον, thēríon "beast" hence "true beasts") is one of two mammalian clades with extant members that diverged in the Early Cretaceous or perhaps the Late Jurassic. Except for the Virginia opossum, from North America, which is a metatherian, all post-Miocene mammals indigenous to Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America north of Mexico are eutherians. Extant eutherians, their last common ancestor, and all extinct descendants of that ancestor are members of Placentalia.

Eutherians are distinguished from noneutherians by various phenotypic traits of the feet, ankles, jaws and teeth. All extant eutherians lack epipubic bones, which are present in all other living mammals (marsupials and monotremes). This allows for expansion of the abdomen during pregnancy.The oldest-known eutherian species is Juramaia sinensis, dated at 161 million years ago from the Jurassic in China.Eutheria was named in 1872 by Theodore Gill; in 1880 Thomas Henry Huxley defined it to encompass a more broadly defined group than Placentalia.

Jurassic Coast

The Jurassic Coast is a World Heritage Site on the English Channel coast of southern England. It stretches from Exmouth in East Devon to Studland Bay in Dorset, a distance of about 96 miles (154 km), and was inscribed on the World Heritage List in mid-December 2001.The site spans 185 million years of geological history, coastal erosion having exposed an almost continuous sequence of rock formation covering the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. At different times, this area has been desert, shallow tropical sea and marsh, and the fossilised remains of the various creatures that lived here have been preserved in the rocks.

Natural features seen on this stretch of coast include arches, pinnacles and stack rocks. In some places the sea has broken through resistant rocks to produce coves with restricted entrances, and in one place, the Isle of Portland is connected to the land by a narrow spit. In some parts of the coast, landslides are common. These have exposed a wide range of fossils, the different rock types each having its own typical fauna and flora, thus providing evidence of how animals and plants evolved in this region.

The area around Lulworth Cove contains a fossil forest, and 71 different rock strata have been identified at Lyme Regis, each with its own species of ammonite. The fossil collector Mary Anning lived here and her major discoveries of marine reptiles and other fossils were made at a time when the study of palaeontology was just starting to develop. The Charmouth Heritage Coast Centre provides information on the heritage coast, and the whole length of the site can be visited via the South West Coast Path.

Jurassic Park

Jurassic Park is an American science fiction media franchise centered on a disastrous attempt to create a theme park of cloned dinosaurs. It began in 1990 when Universal Pictures and Amblin Entertainment bought the rights to the novel by Michael Crichton before it was even published.

The book was successful, as was Steven Spielberg's 1993 film adaptation, which led to four sequels, although only the first two films were based on the novels. Numerous video games based on the franchise have been created by various software developers since the release of the 1993 film. Since 1996, several water rides based on the series have been opened at various Universal theme parks.

The Jurassic Park Ultimate Trilogy was released on DVD and Blu-ray on October 25, 2011, in North America. The first film was re-released in 3D on April 5, 2013.The fourth film, Jurassic World, was initially scheduled to be released in the summer of 2005, but was delayed numerous times and was ultimately released in June 2015. It became the first film to gross over $500 million worldwide in its opening weekend, and grossed over $1.6 billion through the course of its theatrical run, making it the fifth highest-grossing film of all time. It was also the second highest-grossing film of 2015. When adjusted for monetary inflation, this film is the second highest grossing in the franchise after Jurassic Park. An animated film, Lego Jurassic World: The Indominus Escape, was released in October 2016 with the home media release of Jurassic World, alongside a short film, Employee Safety Video. Two other interactive Lego short films, Lego Jurassic World: Rescue Blue/Escape the Indoraptor, were also released in 2018, followed by an animated special, Lego Jurassic World: The Secret Exhibit, which aired on NBC later that year.

A fifth film, Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, was released in June 2018. The film grossed over $1.3 billion worldwide, making it the third Jurassic film to pass the billion dollar mark. It is the third highest-grossing film of 2018 and the 12th highest-grossing film of all time. A sixth film, tentatively titled Jurassic World 3, is scheduled to be released on June 11, 2021. As of 2000, the franchise had generated $5 billion in revenue, making it one of the highest-grossing media franchises of all time.In 2018, the first film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant."

Jurassic Park (film)

Jurassic Park is a 1993 American science fiction adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and produced by Kathleen Kennedy and Gerald R. Molen. The first installment in the Jurassic Park franchise, it is based on the 1990 novel of the same name by Michael Crichton and a screenplay written by Crichton and David Koepp. The film is set on the fictional island of Isla Nublar, located off Central America's Pacific Coast near Costa Rica. There billionaire philanthropist John Hammond and a small team of genetic scientists have created a wildlife park of de-extinct dinosaurs. When industrial sabotage leads to a catastrophic shutdown of the park's power facilities and security precautions, a small group of visitors, and Hammond's grandchildren, struggle to survive and escape the perilous island.

Before Crichton's novel was published, four studios put in bids for its film rights. With the backing of Universal Studios, Spielberg acquired the rights for $1.5 million before its publication in 1990; Crichton was hired for an additional $500,000 to adapt the novel for the screen. Koepp wrote the final draft, which left out much of the novel's exposition and violence and made numerous changes to the characters. Filming took place in California and Hawaii between August and November 1992, and post-production rolled until May 1993, supervised by Spielberg in Poland as he filmed Schindler's List.

The dinosaurs were created with groundbreaking computer-generated imagery by Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) and with life-sized animatronic dinosaurs built by Stan Winston's team. To showcase the film's sound design, which included a mixture of various animal noises for the dinosaur roars, Spielberg invested in the creation of DTS, a company specializing in digital surround sound formats. Following an extensive $65 million marketing campaign, which included licensing deals with 100 companies, Jurassic Park premiered on June 9, 1993, at the Uptown Theater in Washington, D.C., and was released on June 11 in the United States. It went on to gross over $914 million worldwide in its original theatrical run becoming the highest-grossing film of 1993 and the highest-grossing film ever at the time, a record held until the release of Titanic in 1997. It was well received by critics, who praised its special effects, John Williams' musical score, and Spielberg's direction. Following its 3D re-release in 2013 to celebrate its 20th anniversary, Jurassic Park became the seventeenth film in history to surpass $1 billion in ticket sales.

The film won more than twenty awards, including three Academy Awards for its technical achievements in visual effects and sound design. Jurassic Park is considered a landmark in the development of computer-generated imagery and animatronic visual effects and was followed by four commercially successful sequels, The Lost World: Jurassic Park (1997), Jurassic Park III (2001), Jurassic World (2015) and Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom (2018), with a fifth and final sequel, currently titled Jurassic World 3, scheduled for a 2021 release.

In 2018, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".

Jurassic Park III

Jurassic Park III is a 2001 American science fiction adventure film and the third installment in the Jurassic Park film series. The film stars Sam Neill, William H. Macy, Téa Leoni, Alessandro Nivola, Trevor Morgan, and Michael Jeter. It is the first film in the series Steven Spielberg did not direct; neither was it based on a book by Michael Crichton, although numerous scenes in the film were taken from Crichton's novels Jurassic Park and The Lost World. Events depicted in the film take place on Isla Sorna, an island off Central America's Pacific coast, where a divorced couple have tricked Dr. Alan Grant into helping them find their son.

After the success of Spielberg's film Jurassic Park, Joe Johnston expressed interest in directing a sequel. Spielberg gave Johnston permission to direct a third film in the series, if there was to be one. Production of Jurassic Park III began on August 30, 2000. Despite mixed reviews from critics, the film was successful at the box office, grossing $368 million worldwide. A sequel, Jurassic World, was released on June 12, 2015.

Jurassic World

Jurassic World is a 2015 American science fiction adventure film, the fourth installment of the Jurassic Park film series, and the first film in a planned Jurassic World trilogy. It was directed by Colin Trevorrow, written by Derek Connolly and Trevorrow, produced by Frank Marshall and Patrick Crowley, and stars Chris Pratt, Bryce Dallas Howard, Vincent D'Onofrio, Ty Simpkins, Nick Robinson, Omar Sy, BD Wong, and Irrfan Khan.

Set 22 years after the events of Jurassic Park, Jurassic World takes place on the same fictional Central American island of Isla Nublar, which is located off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, where a theme park of cloned dinosaurs has operated for nearly a decade. The park plunges into chaos when a genetically-engineered dinosaur escapes from its enclosure and goes on a rampage.

Universal Pictures intended to begin production of a fourth Jurassic Park film in 2004 for a mid-2005 release but development stalled while the script underwent several revisions. Following a suggestion from Spielberg, writers Rick Jaffa and Amanda Silver explored the idea of a functional dinosaur park. Once Trevorrow was hired as director in 2013, he followed the same idea while developing a new script with Derek Connolly. Filming lasted from April to August 2014 in Louisiana and at the original Jurassic Park locations in Hawaii. The dinosaurs were created by Industrial Light & Magic using CGI and by Legacy Effects using life-sized animatronics.

Production was completed on May 10, 2015, and Jurassic World was released in over 60 countries beginning on June 10, 2015. After a record-breaking opening weekend during which it became the first film to gross over $500 million, Jurassic World generated $1.6 billion in box office revenue, ranking fifth among the highest-grossing films of all time. It was also the second-highest-grossing film of 2015 and the highest-grossing in the franchise. A sequel titled Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom was released in June 2018.

Late Jurassic

The Late Jurassic is the third epoch of the Jurassic period, and it spans the geologic time from 163.5 ± 1.0 to 145.0 ± 0.8 million years ago (Ma), which is preserved in Upper Jurassic strata. In European lithostratigraphy, the name "malm" indicates rocks of Late Jurassic age. In the past, this name was also used to indicate the unit of geological time, but this usage is now discouraged to make a clear distinction between lithostratigraphic and geochronologic/chronostratigraphic units.

List of Jurassic Park characters

The following is a list of fictional characters from Michael Crichton's novel Jurassic Park, its sequel The Lost World, and their film adaptations, Jurassic Park and The Lost World: Jurassic Park. Also included are characters from the films Jurassic Park III, Jurassic World and Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom, which are not adaptations and have no original source novels but contain characters and events based on the fictional universe of Crichton's novels.

Mesozoic

The Mesozoic Era ( or ) is an interval of geological time from about 252 to 66 million years ago. It is also called the Age of Reptiles, a phrase introduced by the 19th century paleontologist Gideon Mantell who viewed it as dominated by diapsids such as Iguanodon, Megalosaurus, Plesiosaurus and Pterodactylus. To paleobotanists, this Era is also called the Age of Conifers.Mesozoic means "middle life", deriving from the Greek prefix meso-/μεσο- for "between" and zōon/ζῷον meaning "animal" or "living being". The name "Mesozoic" was proposed in 1840 by the British geologist John Phillips (1800–1874). It is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon, preceded by the Paleozoic ("ancient life") and succeeded by the Cenozoic ("new life"). The era is subdivided into three major periods: the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous, which are further subdivided into a number of epochs and stages.

The era began in the wake of the Permian–Triassic extinction event, the largest well-documented mass extinction in Earth's history, and ended with the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, another mass extinction whose victims included the non-avian dinosaurs. The Mesozoic was a time of significant tectonic, climate and evolutionary activity. The era witnessed the gradual rifting of the supercontinent Pangaea into separate landmasses that would move into their current positions during the next era. The climate of the Mesozoic was varied, alternating between warming and cooling periods. Overall, however, the Earth was hotter than it is today. Dinosaurs appeared in the Late Triassic and became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates early in the Jurassic, occupying this position for about 135 million years until their demise at the end of the Cretaceous. Birds first appeared in the Jurassic, having evolved from a branch of theropod dinosaurs. The first mammals also appeared during the Mesozoic, but would remain small—less than 15 kg (33 lb)—until the Cenozoic.

Middle Jurassic

The Middle Jurassic is the second epoch of the Jurassic Period. It lasted from about 174 to 163 million years ago.

Fossil-bearing rocks from the Middle Jurassic are relatively rare, but some important formations include the Forest Marble Formation in England, the Kilmaluag Formation in Scotland, the Daohugou Beds in China, Itat Formation in Russia, and the Isalo III Formation of western Madagascar.

Morrison Formation

The Morrison Formation is a distinctive sequence of Upper Jurassic sedimentary rock found in the western United States which has been the most fertile source of dinosaur fossils in North America. It is composed of mudstone, sandstone, siltstone, and limestone and is light gray, greenish gray, or red. Most of the fossils occur in the green siltstone beds and lower sandstones, relics of the rivers and floodplains of the Jurassic period.

It is centered in Wyoming and Colorado, with outcrops in Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, the panhandles of Oklahoma and Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Idaho. Equivalent rocks under different names are found in Canada. It covers an area of 1.5 million square kilometers (600,000 square miles), although only a tiny fraction is exposed and accessible to geologists and paleontologists. Over 75% is still buried under the prairie to the east, and much of its western paleogeographic extent was eroded during exhumation of the Rocky Mountains.

It was named after Morrison, Colorado, where the first fossils in the formation were discovered by Arthur Lakes in 1877. That same year, it became the center of the Bone Wars, a fossil-collecting rivalry between early paleontologists Othniel Charles Marsh and Edward Drinker Cope. In Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah, the Morrison Formation was a major source of uranium ore.

Triassic

The Triassic ( ) is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period 201.3 Mya. The Triassic is the first period of the Mesozoic Era. Both the start and end of the period are marked by major extinction events.Triassic began in the wake of the Permian–Triassic extinction event, which left the Earth's biosphere impoverished; it was well into the middle of the Triassic before life recovered its former diversity. Therapsids and archosaurs were the chief terrestrial vertebrates during this time. A specialized subgroup of archosaurs, called dinosaurs, first appeared in the Late Triassic but did not become dominant until the succeeding Jurassic Period.The first true mammals, themselves a specialized subgroup of therapsids, also evolved during this period, as well as the first flying vertebrates, the pterosaurs, who, like the dinosaurs, were a specialized subgroup of archosaurs. The vast supercontinent of Pangaea existed until the mid-Triassic, after which it began to gradually rift into two separate landmasses, Laurasia to the north and Gondwana to the south.

The global climate during the Triassic was mostly hot and dry, with deserts spanning much of Pangaea's interior. However, the climate shifted and became more humid as Pangaea began to drift apart. The end of the period was marked by yet another major mass extinction, the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event, that wiped out many groups and allowed dinosaurs to assume dominance in the Jurassic.

The Triassic was named in 1834 by Friedrich von Alberti, after the three distinct rock layers (tri meaning "three") that are found throughout Germany and northwestern Europe—red beds, capped by marine limestone, followed by a series of terrestrial mud- and sandstones—called the "Trias".

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