Jupiter

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a giant planet with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two-and-a-half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter and Saturn are gas giants; the other two giant planets, Uranus and Neptune, are ice giants. Jupiter has been known to astronomers since antiquity.[17] It is named after the Roman god Jupiter.[18] When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of −2.94, bright enough for its reflected light to cast shadows,[19] and making it on average the third-brightest natural object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus.

Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium, though helium comprises only about a tenth of the number of molecules. It may also have a rocky core of heavier elements,[20] but like the other giant planets, Jupiter lacks a well-defined solid surface. Because of its rapid rotation, the planet's shape is that of an oblate spheroid (it has a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator). The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the 17th century when it was first seen by telescope. Surrounding Jupiter is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. Jupiter has 79 known moons,[21] including the four large Galilean moons discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Ganymede, the largest of these, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury.

Jupiter has been explored on several occasions by robotic spacecraft, most notably during the early Pioneer and Voyager flyby missions and later by the Galileo orbiter. In late February 2007, Jupiter was visited by the New Horizons probe, which used Jupiter's gravity to increase its speed and bend its trajectory en route to Pluto. The latest probe to visit the planet is Juno, which entered into orbit around Jupiter on July 4, 2016.[22][23] Future targets for exploration in the Jupiter system include the probable ice-covered liquid ocean of its moon Europa.

Jupiter Astronomical symbol of Jupiter
An image of Jupiter taken by the Hubble Space Telescope
Full-disc view in natural color in April 2014[a]
Designations
Pronunciation/ˈdʒuːpɪtər/ (listen)[1]
Orbital characteristics[6]
Epoch J2000
Aphelion816.62 million km (5.4588 AU)
Perihelion740.52 million km (4.9501 AU)
778.57 million km (5.2044 AU)
Eccentricity0.0489
398.88 d
13.07 km/s (8.12 mi/s)
20.020°[3]
Inclination
100.464°
273.867°[3]
Known satellites79 (as of 2018)[5]
Physical characteristics[6][13][14]
Mean radius
69,911 km (43,441 mi)[b]
Equatorial radius
  • 71,492 km (44,423 mi)[b]
  • 11.209 Earths
Polar radius
  • 66,854 km (41,541 mi)[b]
  • 10.517 Earths
Flattening0.06487
  • 6.1419×1010 km2 (2.3714×1010 sq mi)[b][7]
  • 121.9 Earths
Volume
  • 1.4313×1015 km3 (3.434×1014 cu mi)[b]
  • 1,321 Earths
Mass
  • 1.8982×1027 kg (4.1848×1027 lb)
  • 317.8 Earths
  • 1/1047 Sun[8]
Mean density
1,326 kg/m3 (2,235 lb/cu yd)[c]
24.79 m/s2 (81.3 ft/s2)[b]
2.528 g
0.254 I/MR2 (estimate)
59.5 km/s (37.0 mi/s)[b]
9.925 hours[9] (9 h 55 m 30 s)
Equatorial rotation velocity
12.6 km/s (7.8 mi/s; 45,000 km/h)
3.13° (to orbit)
North pole right ascension
268.057°;  17h 52m 14s
North pole declination
64.495°
Albedo0.503 (Bond)[10]
0.538 (geometric)[11]
Surface temp. min mean max
1 bar level 165 K (−108 °C)
0.1 bar 112 K (−161 °C)
−2.94[12] to −1.66[12]
29.8″ to 50.1″
Atmosphere[6]
Surface pressure
20–200 kPa;[15] 70 kPa[16]
27 km (17 mi)
Composition by volumeby volume:
89%±2.0% hydrogen (H
2
)
10%±2.0% helium (He)
0.3%±0.1% methane (CH
4
)
0.026%±0.004% ammonia (NH
3
)
0.0028%±0.001% hydrogen deuteride (HD)
0.0006%±0.0002% ethane (C
2
H
6
)
0.0004%±0.0004% water (H
2
O)

Ices:

Formation and migration

Astronomers have discovered nearly 500 planetary systems with multiple planets. Regularly these systems include a few planets with masses several times greater than Earth's (super-Earths), orbiting closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun, and sometimes also Jupiter-mass gas giants close to their star.

Earth and its neighbor planets may have formed from fragments of planets after collisions with Jupiter destroyed those super-Earths near the Sun. As Jupiter came toward the inner Solar System, in what theorists call the grand tack hypothesis, gravitational tugs and pulls occurred causing a series of collisions between the super-Earths as their orbits began to overlap.[24]

Jupiter moving out of the inner Solar System would have allowed the formation of inner planets, including Earth.[25]

Physical characteristics

Jupiter is composed primarily of gaseous and liquid matter. It is the largest of the four giant planets in the Solar System and hence its largest planet. It has a diameter of 142,984 km (88,846 mi) at its equator. The average density of Jupiter, 1.326 g/cm3, is the second highest of the giant planets, but lower than those of the four terrestrial planets.

Composition

Jupiter's upper atmosphere is about 88–92% hydrogen and 8–12% helium by percent volume of gas molecules. A helium atom has about four times as much mass as a hydrogen atom, so the composition changes when described as the proportion of mass contributed by different atoms. Thus, Jupiter's atmosphere is approximately 75% hydrogen and 24% helium by mass, with the remaining one percent of the mass consisting of other elements. The atmosphere contains trace amounts of methane, water vapor, ammonia, and silicon-based compounds. There are also traces of carbon, ethane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, oxygen, phosphine, and sulfur. The outermost layer of the atmosphere contains crystals of frozen ammonia. The interior contains denser materials—by mass it is roughly 71% hydrogen, 24% helium, and 5% other elements.[26][27] Through infrared and ultraviolet measurements, trace amounts of benzene and other hydrocarbons have also been found.[28]

The atmospheric proportions of hydrogen and helium are close to the theoretical composition of the primordial solar nebula. Neon in the upper atmosphere only consists of 20 parts per million by mass, which is about a tenth as abundant as in the Sun.[29] Helium is also depleted to about 80% of the Sun's helium composition. This depletion is a result of precipitation of these elements into the interior of the planet.[30]

Based on spectroscopy, Saturn is thought to be similar in composition to Jupiter, but the other giant planets Uranus and Neptune have relatively less hydrogen and helium and relatively more ices and are thus now termed ice giants.[31]

Mass and size

SolarSystem OrdersOfMagnitude Sun-Jupiter-Earth-Moon
Jupiter's diameter is one order of magnitude smaller (×0.10045) than that of the Sun, and one order of magnitude larger (×10.9733) than that of Earth. The Great Red Spot is roughly the same size as Earth.

Jupiter's mass is 2.5 times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined—this is so massive that its barycenter with the Sun lies above the Sun's surface at 1.068 solar radii from the Sun's center.[32] Jupiter is much larger than Earth and considerably less dense: its volume is that of about 1,321 Earths, but it is only 318 times as massive.[6][33] Jupiter's radius is about 1/10 the radius of the Sun,[34] and its mass is 0.001 times the mass of the Sun, so the densities of the two bodies are similar.[35] A "Jupiter mass" (MJ or MJup) is often used as a unit to describe masses of other objects, particularly extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. So, for example, the extrasolar planet HD 209458 b has a mass of 0.69 MJ, while Kappa Andromedae b has a mass of 12.8 MJ.[36]

Theoretical models indicate that if Jupiter had much more mass than it does at present, it would shrink.[37] For small changes in mass, the radius would not change appreciably, and above about 500 M (1.6 Jupiter masses)[37] the interior would become so much more compressed under the increased pressure that its volume would decrease despite the increasing amount of matter. As a result, Jupiter is thought to have about as large a diameter as a planet of its composition and evolutionary history can achieve.[38] The process of further shrinkage with increasing mass would continue until appreciable stellar ignition was achieved, as in high-mass brown dwarfs having around 50 Jupiter masses.[39]

Although Jupiter would need to be about 75 times as massive to fuse hydrogen and become a star, the smallest red dwarf is only about 30 percent larger in radius than Jupiter.[40][41] Despite this, Jupiter still radiates more heat than it receives from the Sun; the amount of heat produced inside it is similar to the total solar radiation it receives.[42] This additional heat is generated by the Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism through contraction. This process causes Jupiter to shrink by about 2 cm each year.[43] When it was first formed, Jupiter was much hotter and was about twice its current diameter.[44]

Internal structure

Jupiter is thought to consist of a dense core with a mixture of elements, a surrounding layer of liquid metallic hydrogen with some helium, and an outer layer predominantly of molecular hydrogen.[43] Beyond this basic outline, there is still considerable uncertainty. The core is often described as rocky, but its detailed composition is unknown, as are the properties of materials at the temperatures and pressures of those depths (see below). In 1997, the existence of the core was suggested by gravitational measurements,[43] indicating a mass of from 12 to 45 times that of Earth, or roughly 4%–14% of the total mass of Jupiter.[42][45] The presence of a core during at least part of Jupiter's history is suggested by models of planetary formation that require the formation of a rocky or icy core massive enough to collect its bulk of hydrogen and helium from the protosolar nebula. Assuming it did exist, it may have shrunk as convection currents of hot liquid metallic hydrogen mixed with the molten core and carried its contents to higher levels in the planetary interior. A core may now be entirely absent, as gravitational measurements are not yet precise enough to rule that possibility out entirely.[43][46]

PIA19640-Jupiter-Infrared-Animation-20150516
Animation of four images showing Jupiter in infrared light as seen by NASA's Infrared telescope facility on May 16, 2015

The uncertainty of the models is tied to the error margin in hitherto measured parameters: one of the rotational coefficients (J6) used to describe the planet's gravitational moment, Jupiter's equatorial radius, and its temperature at 1 bar pressure. The Juno mission, which arrived in July 2016,[22] is expected to further constrain the values of these parameters for better models of the core.[47]

The core region may be surrounded by dense metallic hydrogen, which extends outward to about 78% of the radius of the planet.[42] Rain-like droplets of helium and neon precipitate downward through this layer, depleting the abundance of these elements in the upper atmosphere.[30][48] Rainfalls of diamonds have been suggested to occur on Jupiter, as well as on Saturn[49] and ice giants Uranus and Neptune.[50]

Above the layer of metallic hydrogen lies a transparent interior atmosphere of hydrogen. At this depth, the pressure and temperature are above hydrogen's critical pressure of 1.2858 MPa and critical temperature of only 32.938 K.[51] In this state, there are no distinct liquid and gas phases—hydrogen is said to be in a supercritical fluid state. It is convenient to treat hydrogen as gas in the upper layer extending downward from the cloud layer to a depth of about 1,000 km,[42] and as liquid in deeper layers. Physically, there is no clear boundary—the gas smoothly becomes hotter and denser as one descends.[52][53]

The temperature and pressure inside Jupiter increase steadily toward the core, due to the Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism. At the pressure level of 10 bars (1 MPa), the temperature is around 340 K (67 °C; 152 °F). At the phase transition region where hydrogen—heated beyond its critical point—becomes metallic, it is calculated the temperature is 10,000 K (9,700 °C; 17,500 °F) and the pressure is 200 GPa. The temperature at the core boundary is estimated to be 36,000 K (35,700 °C; 64,300 °F) and the interior pressure is roughly 3,000–4,500 GPa.[42]

Jupiter diagram
This cut-away illustrates a model of the interior of Jupiter, with a rocky core overlaid by a deep layer of liquid metallic hydrogen.

Atmosphere

Jupiter has the largest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System, spanning over 5,000 km (3,000 mi) in altitude.[54][55] Because Jupiter has no surface, the base of its atmosphere is usually considered to be the point at which atmospheric pressure is equal to 100 kPa (1.0 bar).

Cloud layers

PIA02863 - Jupiter surface motion animation
The movement of Jupiter's counter-rotating cloud bands. This looping animation maps the planet's exterior onto a cylindrical projection.
Map of Jupiter
South polar view of Jupiter
PIA21641-Jupiter-SouthernStorms-JunoCam-20170525
Enhanced color view of Jupiter's southern storms

Jupiter is perpetually covered with clouds composed of ammonia crystals and possibly ammonium hydrosulfide. The clouds are located in the tropopause and are arranged into bands of different latitudes, known as tropical regions. These are sub-divided into lighter-hued zones and darker belts. The interactions of these conflicting circulation patterns cause storms and turbulence. Wind speeds of 100 m/s (360 km/h) are common in zonal jets.[56] The zones have been observed to vary in width, color and intensity from year to year, but they have remained sufficiently stable for scientists to give them identifying designations.[33]

PIA21973-AboveTheCloudsOfJupiter-JunoSpacecraft-20171216
Jupiter clouds
(Juno; December 2017)

The cloud layer is only about 50 km (31 mi) deep, and consists of at least two decks of clouds: a thick lower deck and a thin clearer region. There may also be a thin layer of water clouds underlying the ammonia layer. Supporting the idea of water clouds are the flashes of lightning detected in the atmosphere of Jupiter. These electrical discharges can be up to a thousand times as powerful as lightning on Earth.[57] The water clouds are assumed to generate thunderstorms in the same way as terrestrial thunderstorms, driven by the heat rising from the interior.[58]

The orange and brown coloration in the clouds of Jupiter are caused by upwelling compounds that change color when they are exposed to ultraviolet light from the Sun. The exact makeup remains uncertain, but the substances are thought to be phosphorus, sulfur or possibly hydrocarbons.[42][59] These colorful compounds, known as chromophores, mix with the warmer, lower deck of clouds. The zones are formed when rising convection cells form crystallizing ammonia that masks out these lower clouds from view.[60]

Jupiter's low axial tilt means that the poles constantly receive less solar radiation than at the planet's equatorial region. Convection within the interior of the planet transports more energy to the poles, balancing out the temperatures at the cloud layer.[33]

Great Red Spot and other vortices

790106-0203 Voyager 58M to 31M reduced
Time-lapse sequence from the approach of Voyager 1, showing the motion of atmospheric bands and circulation of the Great Red Spot. Recorded over 32 days with one photograph taken every 10 hours (once per Jovian day). See full size video.

The best known feature of Jupiter is the Great Red Spot,[61] a persistent anticyclonic storm that is larger than Earth, located 22° south of the equator. It is known to have been in existence since at least 1831,[62] and possibly since 1665.[63][64] Images by the Hubble Space Telescope have shown as many as two "red spots" adjacent to the Great Red Spot.[65][66] The storm is large enough to be visible through Earth-based telescopes with an aperture of 12 cm or larger.[67] The oval object rotates counterclockwise, with a period of about six days.[68] The maximum altitude of this storm is about 8 km (5 mi) above the surrounding cloudtops.[69]

NASA14135-Jupiter-GreatRedSpot-Shrinks-20140515
Great Red Spot is decreasing in size (May 15, 2014).[70]

The Great Red Spot is large enough to accommodate Earth within its boundaries.[71] Mathematical models suggest that the storm is stable and may be a permanent feature of the planet.[72] However, it has significantly decreased in size since its discovery. Initial observations in the late 1800s showed it to be approximately 41,000 km (25,500 mi) across. By the time of the Voyager flybys in 1979, the storm had a length of 23,300 km (14,500 mi) and a width of approximately 13,000 km (8,000 mi).[73] Hubble observations in 1995 showed it had decreased in size again to 20,950 km (13,020 mi), and observations in 2009 showed the size to be 17,910 km (11,130 mi). As of 2015, the storm was measured at approximately 16,500 by 10,940 km (10,250 by 6,800 mi),[73] and is decreasing in length by about 930 km (580 mi) per year.[71][74]

Storms such as this are common within the turbulent atmospheres of giant planets. Jupiter also has white ovals and brown ovals, which are lesser unnamed storms. White ovals tend to consist of relatively cool clouds within the upper atmosphere. Brown ovals are warmer and located within the "normal cloud layer". Such storms can last as little as a few hours or stretch on for centuries.

Even before Voyager proved that the feature was a storm, there was strong evidence that the spot could not be associated with any deeper feature on the planet's surface, as the Spot rotates differentially with respect to the rest of the atmosphere, sometimes faster and sometimes more slowly.

In 2000, an atmospheric feature formed in the southern hemisphere that is similar in appearance to the Great Red Spot, but smaller. This was created when several smaller, white oval-shaped storms merged to form a single feature—these three smaller white ovals were first observed in 1938. The merged feature was named Oval BA, and has been nicknamed Red Spot Junior. It has since increased in intensity and changed color from white to red.[75][76][77]

In April 2017, scientists reported the discovery of a "Great Cold Spot" in Jupiter's thermosphere at its north pole that is 24,000 km (15,000 mi) across, 12,000 km (7,500 mi) wide, and 200 °C (360 °F) cooler than surrounding material. The feature was discovered by researchers at the Very Large Telescope in Chile, who then searched archived data from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility between 1995 and 2000. They found that, while the Spot changes size, shape and intensity over the short term, it has maintained its general position in the atmosphere across more than 15 years of available data. Scientists believe the Spot is a giant vortex similar to the Great Red Spot and also appears to be quasi-stable like the vortices in Earth's thermosphere. Interactions between charged particles generated from Io and the planet's strong magnetic field likely resulted in redistribution of heat flow, forming the Spot.[78][79][80][81]

Magnetosphere

Hubble Captures Vivid Auroras in Jupiter's Atmosphere
Aurorae on the north pole of Jupiter as viewed by Hubble
PIA21033 Juno's View of Jupiter's Southern Lights
Infrared view of Jupiter's southern lights, taken by the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper

Jupiter's magnetic field is fourteen times as strong as that of Earth, ranging from 4.2 gauss (0.42 mT) at the equator to 10–14 gauss (1.0–1.4 mT) at the poles, making it the strongest in the Solar System (except for sunspots).[60] This field is thought to be generated by eddy currents—swirling movements of conducting materials—within the liquid metallic hydrogen core. The volcanoes on the moon Io emit large amounts of sulfur dioxide forming a gas torus along the moon's orbit. The gas is ionized in the magnetosphere producing sulfur and oxygen ions. They, together with hydrogen ions originating from the atmosphere of Jupiter, form a plasma sheet in Jupiter's equatorial plane. The plasma in the sheet co-rotates with the planet causing deformation of the dipole magnetic field into that of magnetodisk. Electrons within the plasma sheet generate a strong radio signature that produces bursts in the range of 0.6–30 MHz.[82]

At about 75 Jupiter radii from the planet, the interaction of the magnetosphere with the solar wind generates a bow shock. Surrounding Jupiter's magnetosphere is a magnetopause, located at the inner edge of a magnetosheath—a region between it and the bow shock. The solar wind interacts with these regions, elongating the magnetosphere on Jupiter's lee side and extending it outward until it nearly reaches the orbit of Saturn. The four largest moons of Jupiter all orbit within the magnetosphere, which protects them from the solar wind.[42]

The magnetosphere of Jupiter is responsible for intense episodes of radio emission from the planet's polar regions. Volcanic activity on Jupiter's moon Io (see below) injects gas into Jupiter's magnetosphere, producing a torus of particles about the planet. As Io moves through this torus, the interaction generates Alfvén waves that carry ionized matter into the polar regions of Jupiter. As a result, radio waves are generated through a cyclotron maser mechanism, and the energy is transmitted out along a cone-shaped surface. When Earth intersects this cone, the radio emissions from Jupiter can exceed the solar radio output.[83]

Orbit and rotation

Solarsystem3DJupiter
Jupiter (red) completes one orbit of the Sun (center) for every 11.86 orbits of Earth (blue)

Jupiter is the only planet whose barycenter with the Sun lies outside the volume of the Sun, though by only 7% of the Sun's radius.[84] The average distance between Jupiter and the Sun is 778 million km (about 5.2 times the average distance between Earth and the Sun, or 5.2 AU) and it completes an orbit every 11.86 years. This is approximately two-fifths the orbital period of Saturn, forming a near orbital resonance between the two largest planets in the Solar System.[85] The elliptical orbit of Jupiter is inclined 1.31° compared to Earth. Because the eccentricity of its orbit is 0.048, Jupiter's distance from the Sun varies by 75 million km between its nearest approach (perihelion) and furthest distance (aphelion).

The axial tilt of Jupiter is relatively small: only 3.13°. As a result, it does not experience significant seasonal changes, in contrast to, for example, Earth and Mars.[86]

Jupiter's rotation is the fastest of all the Solar System's planets, completing a rotation on its axis in slightly less than ten hours; this creates an equatorial bulge easily seen through an Earth-based amateur telescope. The planet is shaped as an oblate spheroid, meaning that the diameter across its equator is longer than the diameter measured between its poles. On Jupiter, the equatorial diameter is 9,275 km (5,763 mi) longer than the diameter measured through the poles.[53]

Because Jupiter is not a solid body, its upper atmosphere undergoes differential rotation. The rotation of Jupiter's polar atmosphere is about 5 minutes longer than that of the equatorial atmosphere; three systems are used as frames of reference, particularly when graphing the motion of atmospheric features. System I applies from the latitudes 10° N to 10° S; its period is the planet's shortest, at 9h 50m 30.0s. System II applies at all latitudes north and south of these; its period is 9h 55m 40.6s. System III was first defined by radio astronomers, and corresponds to the rotation of the planet's magnetosphere; its period is Jupiter's official rotation.[87]

Observation

Conjunction of Jupiter and Moon
Conjunction of Jupiter and the Moon
Retrogradation1
The retrograde motion of an outer planet is caused by its relative location with respect to Earth

Jupiter is usually the fourth brightest object in the sky (after the Sun, the Moon and Venus);[60] at times Mars appears brighter than Jupiter. Depending on Jupiter's position with respect to the Earth, it can vary in visual magnitude from as bright as −2.94[12] at opposition down to[12] −1.66 during conjunction with the Sun. The mean apparent magnitude is -2.20 with a standard deviation of 0.33.[12] The angular diameter of Jupiter likewise varies from 50.1 to 29.8 arc seconds.[6] Favorable oppositions occur when Jupiter is passing through perihelion, an event that occurs once per orbit.

Earth overtakes Jupiter every 398.9 days as it orbits the Sun, a duration called the synodic period. As it does so, Jupiter appears to undergo retrograde motion with respect to the background stars. That is, for a period Jupiter seems to move backward in the night sky, performing a looping motion.

Because the orbit of Jupiter is outside that of Earth, the phase angle of Jupiter as viewed from Earth never exceeds 11.5°. That is, the planet always appears nearly fully illuminated when viewed through Earth-based telescopes. It was only during spacecraft missions to Jupiter that crescent views of the planet were obtained.[88] A small telescope will usually show Jupiter's four Galilean moons and the prominent cloud belts across Jupiter's atmosphere.[89] A large telescope will show Jupiter's Great Red Spot when it faces Earth.

Mythology

Jupiter-bonatti
Jupiter, woodcut from a 1550 edition of Guido Bonatti's Liber Astronomiae

The planet Jupiter has been known since ancient times. It is visible to the naked eye in the night sky and can occasionally be seen in the daytime when the Sun is low.[90] To the Babylonians, this object represented their god Marduk. They used Jupiter's roughly 12-year orbit along the ecliptic to define the constellations of their zodiac.[33][91]

The Romans called it "the star of Jupiter" (Iuppiter Stella), as they believed it to be sacred to the principal god of Roman mythology, whose name comes from the Proto-Indo-European vocative compound *Dyēu-pəter (nominative: *Dyēus-pətēr, meaning "Father Sky-God", or "Father Day-God").[92] In turn, Jupiter was the counterpart to the mythical Greek Zeus (Ζεύς), also referred to as Dias (Δίας), the planetary name of which is retained in modern Greek.[93] The ancient Greeks knew the planet as Phaethon, meaning "shining one" or "blazing star."[94][95] As supreme god of the Roman pantheon, Jupiter was the god of thunder, lightning and storms, and appropriately called the god of light and sky.

The astronomical symbol for the planet, Jupiter symbol.svg, is a stylized representation of the god's lightning bolt. The original Greek deity Zeus supplies the root zeno-, used to form some Jupiter-related words, such as zenographic.[d]

Jovian is the adjectival form of Jupiter. The older adjectival form jovial, employed by astrologers in the Middle Ages, has come to mean "happy" or "merry", moods ascribed to Jupiter's astrological influence.[96]

The Chinese, Vietnamese, Koreans and Japanese called it the "wood star" (Chinese: 木星; pinyin: mùxīng), based on the Chinese Five Elements.[97][98][99] Chinese Taoism personified it as the Fu star. The Greeks called it Φαέθων (Phaethon, meaning "blazing").

In Vedic astrology, Hindu astrologers named the planet after Brihaspati, the religious teacher of the gods, and often called it "Guru", which literally means the "Heavy One".[100]

In Germanic mythology, Jupiter is equated to Thor, whence the English name Thursday for the Roman dies Jovis.[101]

In the Central Asian-Turkic myths, Jupiter is called Erendiz or Erentüz, from eren (of uncertain meaning) and yultuz ("star"). There are many theories about the meaning of eren. These peoples calculated the period of the orbit of Jupiter as 11 years and 300 days. They believed that some social and natural events connected to Erentüz's movements on the sky.[102]

History of research and exploration

Pre-telescopic research

Almagest-planets
Model in the Almagest of the longitudinal motion of Jupiter (☉) relative to Earth (⊕)

The observation of Jupiter dates back to at least the Babylonian astronomers of the 7th or 8th century BC.[103] The ancient Chinese also observed the orbit of Suìxīng (歲星) and established their cycle of 12 earthly branches based on its approximate number of years; the Chinese language still uses its name (simplified as ) when referring to years of age. By the 4th century BC, these observations had developed into the Chinese zodiac,[104] with each year associated with a Tai Sui star and god controlling the region of the heavens opposite Jupiter's position in the night sky; these beliefs survive in some Taoist religious practices and in the East Asian zodiac's twelve animals, now often popularly assumed to be related to the arrival of the animals before Buddha. The Chinese historian Xi Zezong has claimed that Gan De, an ancient Chinese astronomer, discovered one of Jupiter's moons in 362 BC with the unaided eye. If accurate, this would predate Galileo's discovery by nearly two millennia.[105][106] In his 2nd century work the Almagest, the Hellenistic astronomer Claudius Ptolemaeus constructed a geocentric planetary model based on deferents and epicycles to explain Jupiter's motion relative to Earth, giving its orbital period around Earth as 4332.38 days, or 11.86 years.[107]

Ground-based telescope research

Galileo.arp.300pix
Galileo Galilei, discoverer of the four moons of Jupiter, now known as Galilean moons

In 1610, Italian polymath Galileo Galilei discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter (now known as the Galilean moons) using a telescope; thought to be the first telescopic observation of moons other than Earth's. One day after Galileo, Simon Marius independently discovered moons around Jupiter, though he did not publish his discovery in a book until 1614.[108] It was Marius's names for the four major moons, however, that stuck—Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. These findings were also the first discovery of celestial motion not apparently centered on Earth. The discovery was a major point in favor of Copernicus' heliocentric theory of the motions of the planets; Galileo's outspoken support of the Copernican theory placed him under the threat of the Inquisition.[109]

During the 1660s, Giovanni Cassini used a new telescope to discover spots and colorful bands on Jupiter and observed that the planet appeared oblate; that is, flattened at the poles. He was also able to estimate the rotation period of the planet.[110] In 1690 Cassini noticed that the atmosphere undergoes differential rotation.[42]

The Great Red Spot, a prominent oval-shaped feature in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter, may have been observed as early as 1664 by Robert Hooke and in 1665 by Cassini, although this is disputed. The pharmacist Heinrich Schwabe produced the earliest known drawing to show details of the Great Red Spot in 1831.[111]

The Red Spot was reportedly lost from sight on several occasions between 1665 and 1708 before becoming quite conspicuous in 1878. It was recorded as fading again in 1883 and at the start of the 20th century.[112]

Both Giovanni Borelli and Cassini made careful tables of the motions of Jupiter's moons, allowing predictions of the times when the moons would pass before or behind the planet. By the 1670s, it was observed that when Jupiter was on the opposite side of the Sun from Earth, these events would occur about 17 minutes later than expected. Ole Rømer deduced that light does not travel instantaneously (a conclusion that Cassini had earlier rejected),[27] and this timing discrepancy was used to estimate the speed of light.[113]

In 1892, E. E. Barnard observed a fifth satellite of Jupiter with the 36-inch (910 mm) refractor at Lick Observatory in California. The discovery of this relatively small object, a testament to his keen eyesight, quickly made him famous. This moon was later named Amalthea.[114] It was the last planetary moon to be discovered directly by visual observation.[115]

Jupiter MAD
Infrared image of Jupiter taken by ESO's Very Large Telescope

In 1932, Rupert Wildt identified absorption bands of ammonia and methane in the spectra of Jupiter.[116]

Three long-lived anticyclonic features termed white ovals were observed in 1938. For several decades they remained as separate features in the atmosphere, sometimes approaching each other but never merging. Finally, two of the ovals merged in 1998, then absorbed the third in 2000, becoming Oval BA.[117]

Radiotelescope research

In 1955, Bernard Burke and Kenneth Franklin detected bursts of radio signals coming from Jupiter at 22.2 MHz.[42] The period of these bursts matched the rotation of the planet, and they were also able to use this information to refine the rotation rate. Radio bursts from Jupiter were found to come in two forms: long bursts (or L-bursts) lasting up to several seconds, and short bursts (or S-bursts) that had a duration of less than a hundredth of a second.[118]

Scientists discovered that there were three forms of radio signals transmitted from Jupiter.

  • Decametric radio bursts (with a wavelength of tens of meters) vary with the rotation of Jupiter, and are influenced by interaction of Io with Jupiter's magnetic field.[119]
  • Decimetric radio emission (with wavelengths measured in centimeters) was first observed by Frank Drake and Hein Hvatum in 1959.[42] The origin of this signal was from a torus-shaped belt around Jupiter's equator. This signal is caused by cyclotron radiation from electrons that are accelerated in Jupiter's magnetic field.[120]
  • Thermal radiation is produced by heat in the atmosphere of Jupiter.[42]

Exploration

Since 1973 a number of automated spacecraft have visited Jupiter, most notably the Pioneer 10 space probe, the first spacecraft to get close enough to Jupiter to send back revelations about the properties and phenomena of the Solar System's largest planet.[121][122] Flights to other planets within the Solar System are accomplished at a cost in energy, which is described by the net change in velocity of the spacecraft, or delta-v. Entering a Hohmann transfer orbit from Earth to Jupiter from low Earth orbit requires a delta-v of 6.3 km/s[123] which is comparable to the 9.7 km/s delta-v needed to reach low Earth orbit.[124] Gravity assists through planetary flybys can be used to reduce the energy required to reach Jupiter, albeit at the cost of a significantly longer flight duration.[125]

Flyby missions

PIA21645-Jupiter-PerijovePass-JunoCam-20170525
Perijove 6 pass of Jupiter as viewed by JunoCam
Flyby missions
Spacecraft Closest
approach
Distance
Pioneer 10 December 3, 1973 130,000 km
Pioneer 11 December 4, 1974 34,000 km
Voyager 1 March 5, 1979 349,000 km
Voyager 2 July 9, 1979 570,000 km
Ulysses February 8, 1992[126] 408,894 km
February 4, 2004[126] 120,000,000 km
Cassini December 30, 2000 10,000,000 km
New Horizons February 28, 2007 2,304,535 km

Beginning in 1973, several spacecraft have performed planetary flyby maneuvers that brought them within observation range of Jupiter. The Pioneer missions obtained the first close-up images of Jupiter's atmosphere and several of its moons. They discovered that the radiation fields near the planet were much stronger than expected, but both spacecraft managed to survive in that environment. The trajectories of these spacecraft were used to refine the mass estimates of the Jovian system. Radio occultations by the planet resulted in better measurements of Jupiter's diameter and the amount of polar flattening.[33][127]

Six years later, the Voyager missions vastly improved the understanding of the Galilean moons and discovered Jupiter's rings. They also confirmed that the Great Red Spot was anticyclonic. Comparison of images showed that the Red Spot had changed hue since the Pioneer missions, turning from orange to dark brown. A torus of ionized atoms was discovered along Io's orbital path, and volcanoes were found on the moon's surface, some in the process of erupting. As the spacecraft passed behind the planet, it observed flashes of lightning in the night side atmosphere.[33][128]

The next mission to encounter Jupiter was the Ulysses solar probe. It performed a flyby maneuver to attain a polar orbit around the Sun. During this pass, the spacecraft conducted studies on Jupiter's magnetosphere. Ulysses has no cameras so no images were taken. A second flyby six years later was at a much greater distance.[126]

PIA02879 - A New Year for Jupiter and Io
Cassini views Jupiter and Io on January 1, 2001

In 2000, the Cassini probe flew by Jupiter on its way to Saturn, and provided some of the highest-resolution images ever made of the planet.[129]

The New Horizons probe flew by Jupiter for a gravity assist en route to Pluto. Its closest approach was on February 28, 2007.[130] The probe's cameras measured plasma output from volcanoes on Io and studied all four Galilean moons in detail, as well as making long-distance observations of the outer moons Himalia and Elara.[131] Imaging of the Jovian system began September 4, 2006.[132][133]

Galileo mission

Portrait of Jupiter from Cassini
Jupiter as seen by the space probe Cassini

The first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter was the Galileo probe, which entered orbit on December 7, 1995.[38] It orbited the planet for over seven years, conducting multiple flybys of all the Galilean moons and Amalthea. The spacecraft also witnessed the impact of Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 as it approached Jupiter in 1994, giving a unique vantage point for the event. Its originally designed capacity was limited by the failed deployment of its high-gain radio antenna, although extensive information was still gained about the Jovian system from Galileo.[134]

A 340-kilogram titanium atmospheric probe was released from the spacecraft in July 1995, entering Jupiter's atmosphere on December 7.[38] It parachuted through 150 km (93 mi) of the atmosphere at a speed of about 2,575 km/h (1600 mph)[38] and collected data for 57.6 minutes before the signal was lost at a pressure of about 23 atmospheres at a temperature of 153 °C.[135] It melted thereafter, and possibly vaporized. The Galileo orbiter itself experienced a more rapid version of the same fate when it was deliberately steered into the planet on September 21, 2003 at a speed of over 50 km/s to avoid any possibility of it crashing into and possibly contaminating Europa, a moon which has been hypothesized to have the possibility of harboring life.[134]

Data from this mission revealed that hydrogen composes up to 90% of Jupiter's atmosphere.[38] The recorded temperature was more than 300 °C (>570 °F) and the windspeed measured more than 644 km/h (>400 mph) before the probes vapourised.[38]

Juno mission

NASA's Juno mission arrived at Jupiter on July 4, 2016, and is expected to complete 37 orbits over the next 20 months.[22] The mission plan called for Juno to study the planet in detail from a polar orbit.[136] On August 27, 2016, the spacecraft completed its first fly-by of Jupiter and sent back the first-ever images of Jupiter’s north pole.[137]

Future probes

The next planned mission to the Jovian system will be the European Space Agency's Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE), due to launch in 2022,[138] followed by NASA's Europa Clipper mission in 2025.[139]

Canceled missions

There has been great interest in studying the icy moons in detail because of the possibility of subsurface liquid oceans on Jupiter's moons Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Funding difficulties have delayed progress. NASA's JIMO (Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter) was cancelled in 2005.[140] A subsequent proposal was developed for a joint NASA/ESA mission called EJSM/Laplace, with a provisional launch date around 2020. EJSM/Laplace would have consisted of the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter.[141] However, ESA had formally ended the partnership by April 2011, citing budget issues at NASA and the consequences on the mission timetable. Instead, ESA planned to go ahead with a European-only mission to compete in its L1 Cosmic Vision selection.[142]

Moons

Jupiter has 79 known natural satellites.[5][143] Of these, 63 are less than 10 kilometres in diameter and have only been discovered since 1975. The four largest moons, visible from Earth with binoculars on a clear night, known as the "Galilean moons", are Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

Galilean moons

The moons discovered by Galileo—Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto—are among the largest satellites in the Solar System. The orbits of three of them (Io, Europa, and Ganymede) form a pattern known as a Laplace resonance; for every four orbits that Io makes around Jupiter, Europa makes exactly two orbits and Ganymede makes exactly one. This resonance causes the gravitational effects of the three large moons to distort their orbits into elliptical shapes, because each moon receives an extra tug from its neighbors at the same point in every orbit it makes. The tidal force from Jupiter, on the other hand, works to circularize their orbits.[144]

The eccentricity of their orbits causes regular flexing of the three moons' shapes, with Jupiter's gravity stretching them out as they approach it and allowing them to spring back to more spherical shapes as they swing away. This tidal flexing heats the moons' interiors by friction. This is seen most dramatically in the extraordinary volcanic activity of innermost Io (which is subject to the strongest tidal forces), and to a lesser degree in the geological youth of Europa's surface (indicating recent resurfacing of the moon's exterior).

The Galilean moons, compared to Earth's Moon
Name IPA Diameter Mass Orbital radius Orbital period
km % kg % km % days %
Io /ˈaɪ.oʊ/ 3,643 105 8.9×1022 120 421,700 110 1.77 7
Europa /jʊˈroʊpə/ 3,122 90 4.8×1022 65 671,034 175 3.55 13
Ganymede /ˈɡænimiːd/ 5,262 150 14.8×1022 200 1,070,412 280 7.15 26
Callisto /kəˈlɪstoʊ/ 4,821 140 10.8×1022 150 1,882,709 490 16.69 61
The Galilean moons. From left to right, in order of increasing distance from Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto.
The Galilean moons Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto (in order of increasing distance from Jupiter)

Classification

Before the discoveries of the Voyager missions, Jupiter's moons were arranged neatly into four groups of four, based on commonality of their orbital elements. Since then, the large number of new small outer moons has complicated this picture. There are now thought to be six main groups, although some are more distinct than others.

A basic sub-division is a grouping of the eight inner regular moons, which have nearly circular orbits near the plane of Jupiter's equator and are thought to have formed with Jupiter. The remainder of the moons consist of an unknown number of small irregular moons with elliptical and inclined orbits, which are thought to be captured asteroids or fragments of captured asteroids. Irregular moons that belong to a group share similar orbital elements and thus may have a common origin, perhaps as a larger moon or captured body that broke up.[145][146]

Regular moons
Inner group The inner group of four small moons all have diameters of less than 200 km, orbit at radii less than 200,000 km, and have orbital inclinations of less than half a degree.
Galilean moons[147] These four moons, discovered by Galileo Galilei and by Simon Marius in parallel, orbit between 400,000 and 2,000,000 km, and are some of the largest moons in the Solar System.
Irregular moons
Themisto This is a single moon belonging to a group of its own, orbiting halfway between the Galilean moons and the Himalia group.
Himalia group A tightly clustered group of moons with orbits around 11,000,000–12,000,000 km from Jupiter.
Carpo Another isolated case; at the inner edge of the Ananke group, it orbits Jupiter in prograde direction.
Valetudo A third isolated case, which has a prograde orbit but overlaps the retrograde groups listed below; this may result in a future collision.
Ananke group This retrograde orbit group has rather indistinct borders, averaging 21,276,000 km from Jupiter with an average inclination of 149 degrees.
Carme group A fairly distinct retrograde group that averages 23,404,000 km from Jupiter with an average inclination of 165 degrees.
Pasiphae group A dispersed and only vaguely distinct retrograde group that covers all the outermost moons.

Planetary rings

Jupiter has a faint planetary ring system composed of three main segments: an inner torus of particles known as the halo, a relatively bright main ring, and an outer gossamer ring.[148] These rings appear to be made of dust, rather than ice as with Saturn's rings.[42] The main ring is probably made of material ejected from the satellites Adrastea and Metis. Material that would normally fall back to the moon is pulled into Jupiter because of its strong gravitational influence. The orbit of the material veers towards Jupiter and new material is added by additional impacts.[149] In a similar way, the moons Thebe and Amalthea probably produce the two distinct components of the dusty gossamer ring.[149] There is also evidence of a rocky ring strung along Amalthea's orbit which may consist of collisional debris from that moon.[150]

Interaction with the Solar System

Along with the Sun, the gravitational influence of Jupiter has helped shape the Solar System. The orbits of most of the system's planets lie closer to Jupiter's orbital plane than the Sun's equatorial plane (Mercury is the only planet that is closer to the Sun's equator in orbital tilt), the Kirkwood gaps in the asteroid belt are mostly caused by Jupiter, and the planet may have been responsible for the Late Heavy Bombardment of the inner Solar System's history.[151]

InnerSolarSystem-en
This diagram shows the Trojan asteroids in Jupiter's orbit, as well as the main asteroid belt.

Along with its moons, Jupiter's gravitational field controls numerous asteroids that have settled into the regions of the Lagrangian points preceding and following Jupiter in its orbit around the Sun. These are known as the Trojan asteroids, and are divided into Greek and Trojan "camps" to commemorate the Iliad. The first of these, 588 Achilles, was discovered by Max Wolf in 1906; since then more than two thousand have been discovered.[152] The largest is 624 Hektor.

Most short-period comets belong to the Jupiter family—defined as comets with semi-major axes smaller than Jupiter's. Jupiter family comets are thought to form in the Kuiper belt outside the orbit of Neptune. During close encounters with Jupiter their orbits are perturbed into a smaller period and then circularized by regular gravitational interaction with the Sun and Jupiter.[153]

Due to the magnitude of Jupiter's mass, the center of gravity between it and the Sun lies just above the Sun's surface.[154] Jupiter is the only body in the Solar System for which this is true.

Impacts

Hs-2009-23-crop
Hubble image taken on July 23, 2009, showing a blemish of about 8,000 km (5,000 mi) long left by the 2009 Jupiter impact.[155]

Jupiter has been called the Solar System's vacuum cleaner,[156] because of its immense gravity well and location near the inner Solar System. It receives the most frequent comet impacts of the Solar System's planets.[157] It was thought that the planet served to partially shield the inner system from cometary bombardment.[38] However, recent computer simulations suggest that Jupiter does not cause a net decrease in the number of comets that pass through the inner Solar System, as its gravity perturbs their orbits inward roughly as often as it accretes or ejects them.[158] This topic remains controversial among scientists, as some think it draws comets towards Earth from the Kuiper belt while others think that Jupiter protects Earth from the alleged Oort cloud.[159] Jupiter experiences about 200 times more asteroid and comet impacts than Earth.[38]

A 1997 survey of early astronomical records and drawings suggested that a certain dark surface feature discovered by astronomer Giovanni Cassini in 1690 may have been an impact scar. The survey initially produced eight more candidate sites as potential impact observations that he and others had recorded between 1664 and 1839. It was later determined, however, that these candidate sites had little or no possibility of being the results of the proposed impacts.[160]

More recent discoveries include the following:

  1. A fireball was photographed by Voyager 1 during its Jupiter encounter in March 1979.[161]
  2. During the period July 16, 1994, to July 22, 1994, over 20 fragments from the comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 (SL9, formally designated D/1993 F2) collided with Jupiter's southern hemisphere, providing the first direct observation of a collision between two Solar System objects. This impact provided useful data on the composition of Jupiter's atmosphere.[162][163]
  3. On July 19, 2009, an impact site was discovered at approximately 216 degrees longitude in System 2.[164][165] This impact left behind a black spot in Jupiter's atmosphere, similar in size to Oval BA. Infrared observation showed a bright spot where the impact took place, meaning the impact warmed up the lower atmosphere in the area near Jupiter's south pole.[166]
  4. A fireball, smaller than the previous observed impacts, was detected on June 3, 2010, by Anthony Wesley, an amateur astronomer in Australia, and was later discovered to have been captured on video by another amateur astronomer in the Philippines.[167]
  5. Yet another fireball was seen on August 20, 2010.[168]
  6. On September 10, 2012, another fireball was detected.[161][169]
  7. On March 17, 2016 an asteroid or comet struck and was filmed on video.[170]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ This image was taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, using the Wide Field Camera 3, on April 21, 2014. Jupiter's atmosphere and its appearance constantly changes, and hence its current appearance today may not resemble what it was when this image was taken. Depicted in this image, however, are a few features that remain consistent, such as the famous Great Red Spot, featured prominently in the lower right of the image, and the planet's recognizable banded appearance.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Refers to the level of 1 bar atmospheric pressure
  3. ^ Based on the volume within the level of 1 bar atmospheric pressure
  4. ^ See for example: "IAUC 2844: Jupiter; 1975h". International Astronomical Union. October 1, 1975. Retrieved October 24, 2010. That particular word has been in use since at least 1966. See: "Query Results from the Astronomy Database". Smithsonian/NASA. Retrieved July 29, 2007.

References

  1. ^ Simpson, J.A.; Weiner, E.S.C. (1989). "Jupiter". Oxford English Dictionary. 8 (2nd ed.). Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-861220-6.
  2. ^ Seligman, Courtney. "Rotation Period and Day Length". Retrieved August 13, 2009.
  3. ^ a b c d Simon, J.L.; Bretagnon, P.; Chapront, J.; Chapront-Touzé, M.; Francou, G.; Laskar, J. (February 1994). "Numerical expressions for precession formulae and mean elements for the Moon and planets". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 282 (2): 663–683. Bibcode:1994A&A...282..663S.
  4. ^ "The MeanPlane (Invariable plane) of the Solar System passing through the barycenter". April 3, 2009. Archived from the original on May 14, 2009. Retrieved April 10, 2009. (produced with Solex 10 Archived April 29, 2009, at WebCite written by Aldo Vitagliano; see also Invariable plane)
  5. ^ a b "A Dozen New Moons of Jupiter Discovered, Including One "Oddball"". Carnegie Institution for Science. July 16, 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d e Williams, David R. (June 30, 2017). "Jupiter Fact Sheet". NASA. Archived from the original on October 5, 2011. Retrieved October 13, 2017.
  7. ^ "Solar System Exploration: Jupiter: Facts & Figures". NASA. May 7, 2008.
  8. ^ "Astrodynamic Constants". JPL Solar System Dynamics. February 27, 2009. Retrieved August 8, 2007.
  9. ^ Seidelmann, P.K.; Abalakin, V.K.; Bursa, M.; Davies, M.E.; de Burgh, C.; Lieske, J.H.; Oberst, J.; Simon, J.L.; Standish, E.M.; Stooke, P.; Thomas, P.C. (2001). "Report of the IAU/IAG Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements of the Planets and Satellites: 2000". Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy. 82 (1): 83. Bibcode:2002CeMDA..82...83S. Retrieved February 2, 2007.
  10. ^ Li, Liming; et al. (2018). "Less absorbed solar energy and more internal heat for Jupiter". Nature Communications. 9 (1): 3709. Bibcode:2018NatCo...9.3709L. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-06107-2. PMC 6137063. PMID 30213944.
  11. ^ Mallama, Anthony; Krobusek, Bruce; Pavlov, Hristo (2017). "Comprehensive wide-band magnitudes and albedos for the planets, with applications to exo-planets and Planet Nine". Icarus. 282: 19–33. arXiv:1609.05048. Bibcode:2017Icar..282...19M. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2016.09.023.
  12. ^ a b c d e Mallama, A.; Hilton, J.L. (2018). "Computing Apparent Planetary Magnitudes for The Astronomical Almanac". Astronomy and Computing. 25: 10–24. arXiv:1808.01973. Bibcode:2018A&C....25...10M. doi:10.1016/j.ascom.2018.08.002.
  13. ^ Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Archinal, Brent A.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; et al. (2007). "Report of the IAU/IAG Working Group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements: 2006". Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy. 98 (3): 155–180. Bibcode:2007CeMDA..98..155S. doi:10.1007/s10569-007-9072-y.
  14. ^ de Pater, Imke; Lissauer, Jack J. (2015). Planetary Sciences (2nd updated ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 250. ISBN 978-0-521-85371-2.
  15. ^ "Probe Nephelometer". Galileo Messenger (6). March 1983. Archived from the original on July 19, 2009. Retrieved February 12, 2007.
  16. ^ Knecht, Robin (October 24, 2005). "On The Atmospheres Of Different Planets" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 14, 2017. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  17. ^ De Crespigny, Rafe. "Emperor Huan and Emperor Ling" (PDF). Asian studies, Online Publications. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 7, 2006. Retrieved May 1, 2012. Xu Huang apparently complained that the astronomy office had failed to give them proper emphasis to the eclipse and to other portents, including the movement of the planet Jupiter (taisui). At his instigation, Chen Shou/Yuan was summoned and questioned, and it was under this pressure that his advice implicated Liang Ji.
  18. ^ Stuart Ross Taylor (2001). Solar system evolution: a new perspective : an inquiry into the chemical composition, origin, and evolution of the solar system (2nd, illus., revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 208. ISBN 978-0-521-64130-2.
  19. ^ "Young astronomer captures a shadow cast by Jupiter: Bad Astronomy". Discover Blogs. November 18, 2011. Retrieved May 27, 2013.
  20. ^ Saumon, D.; Guillot, T. (2004). "Shock Compression of Deuterium and the Interiors of Jupiter and Saturn". The Astrophysical Journal. 609 (2): 1170–1180. arXiv:astro-ph/0403393. Bibcode:2004ApJ...609.1170S. doi:10.1086/421257.
  21. ^ "The Jupiter Satellite and Moon Page". June 2017. Retrieved June 13, 2017.
  22. ^ a b c Chang, Kenneth (July 5, 2016). "NASA's Juno Spacecraft Enters Jupiter's Orbit". New York Times. Retrieved July 5, 2016.
  23. ^ Chang, Kenneth (June 30, 2016). "All Eyes (and Ears) on Jupiter". New York Times. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  24. ^ Konstantin Batygin (2015). "Jupiter's decisive role in the inner Solar System's early evolution". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (14): 4214–4217. arXiv:1503.06945. Bibcode:2015PNAS..112.4214B. doi:10.1073/pnas.1423252112. PMC 4394287. PMID 25831540. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
  25. ^ Illustration by NASA/JPL-Caltech (2015-03-24). "Observe: Jupiter, Wrecking Ball of Early Solar System". nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
  26. ^ Gautier, D.; Conrath, B.; Flasar, M.; Hanel, R.; Kunde, V.; Chedin, A.; Scott N. (1981). "The helium abundance of Jupiter from Voyager". Journal of Geophysical Research. 86 (A10): 8713–8720. Bibcode:1981JGR....86.8713G. doi:10.1029/JA086iA10p08713. hdl:2060/19810016480.
  27. ^ a b Kunde, V.G.; et al. (September 10, 2004). "Jupiter's Atmospheric Composition from the Cassini Thermal Infrared Spectroscopy Experiment". Science. 305 (5690): 1582–86. Bibcode:2004Sci...305.1582K. doi:10.1126/science.1100240. PMID 15319491. Retrieved April 4, 2007.
  28. ^ Kim, S.J.; Caldwell, J.; Rivolo, A.R.; Wagner, R. (1985). "Infrared Polar Brightening on Jupiter III. Spectrometry from the Voyager 1 IRIS Experiment". Icarus. 64 (2): 233–48. Bibcode:1985Icar...64..233K. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(85)90201-5.
  29. ^ Niemann, H.B.; Atreya, S.K.; Carignan, G.R.; Donahue, T.M.; Haberman, J.A.; Harpold, D.N.; Hartle, R.E.; Hunten, D.M.; Kasprzak, W.T.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Owen, T.C.; Spencer, N.W.; Way, S.H. (1996). "The Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer: Composition of Jupiter's Atmosphere". Science. 272 (5263): 846–849. Bibcode:1996Sci...272..846N. doi:10.1126/science.272.5263.846. PMID 8629016.
  30. ^ a b von Zahn, U.; Hunten, D.M.; Lehmacher, G. (1998). "Helium in Jupiter's atmosphere: Results from the Galileo probe Helium Interferometer Experiment". Journal of Geophysical Research. 103 (E10): 22815–22829. Bibcode:1998JGR...10322815V. doi:10.1029/98JE00695.
  31. ^ Ingersoll, A.P.; Hammel, H.B.; Spilker, T.R.; Young, R.E. (June 1, 2005). "Outer Planets: The Ice Giants" (PDF). Lunar & Planetary Institute. Retrieved February 1, 2007.
  32. ^ MacDougal, Douglas W. (2012). "A Binary System Close to Home: How the Moon and Earth Orbit Each Other". Newton's Gravity. Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Physics. Springer New York. pp. 193–211. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-5444-1_10. ISBN 978-1-4614-5443-4. the barycenter is 743,000 km from the center of the sun. The Sun's radius is 696,000 km, so it is 47,000 km above the surface.
  33. ^ a b c d e f Burgess, Eric (1982). By Jupiter: Odysseys to a Giant. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-05176-7.
  34. ^ Shu, Frank H. (1982). The physical universe: an introduction to astronomy. Series of books in astronomy (12th ed.). University Science Books. p. 426. ISBN 978-0-935702-05-7.
  35. ^ Davis, Andrew M.; Turekian, Karl K. (2005). Meteorites, comets, and planets. Treatise on geochemistry. 1. Elsevier. p. 624. ISBN 978-0-08-044720-9.
  36. ^ Jean Schneider (2009). "The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia: Interactive Catalogue". Paris Observatory.
  37. ^ a b Seager, S.; Kuchner, M.; Hier-Majumder, C.A.; Militzer, B. (2007). "Mass-Radius Relationships for Solid Exoplanets". The Astrophysical Journal. 669 (2): 1279–1297. arXiv:0707.2895. Bibcode:2007ApJ...669.1279S. doi:10.1086/521346.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h How the Universe Works 3. Jupiter: Destroyer or Savior?. Discovery Channel. 2014.
  39. ^ Guillot, Tristan (1999). "Interiors of Giant Planets Inside and Outside the Solar System". Science. 286 (5437): 72–77. Bibcode:1999Sci...286...72G. doi:10.1126/science.286.5437.72. PMID 10506563. Retrieved August 28, 2007.
  40. ^ Burrows, A.; Hubbard, W.B.; Saumon, D.; Lunine, J.I. (1993). "An expanded set of brown dwarf and very low mass star models". Astrophysical Journal. 406 (1): 158–71. Bibcode:1993ApJ...406..158B. doi:10.1086/172427.
  41. ^ Queloz, Didier (November 19, 2002). "VLT Interferometer Measures the Size of Proxima Centauri and Other Nearby Stars". European Southern Observatory. Retrieved January 12, 2007.
  42. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Elkins-Tanton, Linda T. (2006). Jupiter and Saturn. New York: Chelsea House. ISBN 978-0-8160-5196-0.
  43. ^ a b c d Guillot, T.; Stevenson, D.J.; Hubbard, W.B.; Saumon, D. (2004). "Chapter 3: The Interior of Jupiter". In Bagenal, F.; Dowling, T.E.; McKinnon, W.B. Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-81808-7.
  44. ^ Bodenheimer, P. (1974). "Calculations of the early evolution of Jupiter". Icarus. 23. 23 (3): 319–25. Bibcode:1974Icar...23..319B. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(74)90050-5.
  45. ^ Guillot, T.; Gautier, D.; Hubbard, W.B. (1997). "New Constraints on the Composition of Jupiter from Galileo Measurements and Interior Models". Icarus. 130 (2): 534–539. arXiv:astro-ph/9707210. Bibcode:1997Icar..130..534G. doi:10.1006/icar.1997.5812.
  46. ^ Various (2006). McFadden, Lucy-Ann; Weissman, Paul; Johnson, Torrence, eds. Encyclopedia of the Solar System (2nd ed.). Academic Press. p. 412. ISBN 978-0-12-088589-3.
  47. ^ Horia, Yasunori; Sanoa, Takayoshi; Ikomaa, Masahiro; Idaa, Shigeru (2007). "On uncertainty of Jupiter's core mass due to observational errors". Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union. 3 (S249): 163–166. Bibcode:2008IAUS..249..163H. doi:10.1017/S1743921308016554.
  48. ^ Lodders, Katharina (2004). "Jupiter Formed with More Tar than Ice". The Astrophysical Journal. 611 (1): 587–597. Bibcode:2004ApJ...611..587L. doi:10.1086/421970.
  49. ^ Kramer, Miriam (October 9, 2013). "Diamond Rain May Fill Skies of Jupiter and Saturn". Space.com. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
  50. ^ Kaplan, Sarah (August 25, 2017). "It rains solid diamonds on Uranus and Neptune". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 27, 2017.
  51. ^ Züttel, Andreas (September 2003). "Materials for hydrogen storage". Materials Today. 6 (9): 24–33. doi:10.1016/S1369-7021(03)00922-2.
  52. ^ Guillot, T. (1999). "A comparison of the interiors of Jupiter and Saturn". Planetary and Space Science. 47 (10–11): 1183–200. arXiv:astro-ph/9907402. Bibcode:1999P&SS...47.1183G. doi:10.1016/S0032-0633(99)00043-4.
  53. ^ a b Lang, Kenneth R. (2003). "Jupiter: a giant primitive planet". NASA. Retrieved January 10, 2007.
  54. ^ Seiff, A.; Kirk, D.B.; Knight, T.C.D.; et al. (1998). "Thermal structure of Jupiter's atmosphere near the edge of a 5-μm hot spot in the north equatorial belt". Journal of Geophysical Research. 103 (E10): 22857–22889. Bibcode:1998JGR...10322857S. doi:10.1029/98JE01766.
  55. ^ Miller, Steve; Aylward, Alan; Millward, George (January 2005). "Giant Planet Ionospheres and Thermospheres: The Importance of Ion-Neutral Coupling". Space Science Reviews. 116 (1–2): 319–343. Bibcode:2005SSRv..116..319M. doi:10.1007/s11214-005-1960-4.
  56. ^ Ingersoll, A.P.; Dowling, T.E.; Gierasch, P.J.; Orton, G.S.; Read, P.L.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Showman, A.P.; Simon-Miller, A.A.; Vasavada, A.R. "Dynamics of Jupiter's Atmosphere" (PDF). Lunar & Planetary Institute. Retrieved February 1, 2007.
  57. ^ Watanabe, Susan, ed. (February 25, 2006). "Surprising Jupiter: Busy Galileo spacecraft showed jovian system is full of surprises". NASA. Retrieved February 20, 2007.
  58. ^ Kerr, Richard A. (2000). "Deep, Moist Heat Drives Jovian Weather". Science. 287 (5455): 946–947. doi:10.1126/science.287.5455.946b. Retrieved February 24, 2007.
  59. ^ Strycker, P.D.; Chanover, N.; Sussman, M.; Simon-Miller, A. (2006). A Spectroscopic Search for Jupiter's Chromophores. DPS meeting #38, #11.15. American Astronomical Society. Bibcode:2006DPS....38.1115S.
  60. ^ a b c Gierasch, Peter J.; Nicholson, Philip D. (2004). "Jupiter". World Book @ NASA. Archived from the original on January 5, 2005. Retrieved August 10, 2006.
  61. ^ Chang, Kenneth (December 13, 2017). "The Great Red Spot Descends Deep Into Jupiter". The New York Times. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
  62. ^ Denning, W.F. (1899). "Jupiter, early history of the great red spot on". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 59 (10): 574–584. Bibcode:1899MNRAS..59..574D. doi:10.1093/mnras/59.10.574.
  63. ^ Kyrala, A. (1982). "An explanation of the persistence of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter". Moon and the Planets. 26 (1): 105–7. Bibcode:1982M&P....26..105K. doi:10.1007/BF00941374.
  64. ^ Philosophical Transactions Vol. I (1665–1666.). Project Gutenberg. Retrieved on December 22, 2011.
  65. ^ "New Red Spot Appears on Jupiter". HubbleSite. NASA. Retrieved December 12, 2013.
  66. ^ "Three Red Spots Mix It Up on Jupiter". HubbleSite. NASA. Retrieved April 26, 2015.
  67. ^ Covington, Michael A. (2002). Celestial Objects for Modern Telescopes. Cambridge University Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-521-52419-3.
  68. ^ Cardall, C.Y.; Daunt, S.J. "The Great Red Spot". University of Tennessee. Retrieved February 2, 2007.
  69. ^ Phillips, Tony (March 3, 2006). "Jupiter's New Red Spot". NASA. Archived from the original on October 19, 2008. Retrieved February 2, 2007.
  70. ^ Harrington, J.D.; Weaver, Donna; Villard, Ray (May 15, 2014). "Release 14-135 – NASA's Hubble Shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot is Smaller than Ever Measured". NASA. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
  71. ^ a b White, Greg (November 25, 2015). "Is Jupiter's Great Red Spot nearing its twilight?". Space.news. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
  72. ^ Sommeria, Jöel; Meyers, Steven D.; Swinney, Harry L. (February 25, 1988). "Laboratory simulation of Jupiter's Great Red Spot". Nature. 331 (6158): 689–693. Bibcode:1988Natur.331..689S. doi:10.1038/331689a0.
  73. ^ a b Simon, A.A.; Wong, M.H.; Rogers, J.H.; et al. (March 2015). Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot. 46th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. March 16–20, 2015. The Woodlands, Texas. Bibcode:2015LPI....46.1010S.
  74. ^ Doctor, Rina Marie (October 21, 2015). "Jupiter's Superstorm Is Shrinking: Is Changing Red Spot Evidence Of Climate Change?". Tech Times. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
  75. ^ "Jupiter's New Red Spot". 2006. Archived from the original on October 19, 2008. Retrieved March 9, 2006.
  76. ^ Steigerwald, Bill (October 14, 2006). "Jupiter's Little Red Spot Growing Stronger". NASA. Retrieved February 2, 2007.
  77. ^ Goudarzi, Sara (May 4, 2006). "New storm on Jupiter hints at climate changes". USA Today. Retrieved February 2, 2007.
  78. ^ Stallard, Tom S.; Melin, Henrik; Miller, Steve; et al. (April 10, 2017). "The Great Cold Spot in Jupiter's upper atmosphere". Geophysical Research Letters. 44 (7): 3000–3008. Bibcode:2017GeoRL..44.3000S. doi:10.1002/2016GL071956. PMC 5439487. PMID 28603321.
  79. ^ "'Cold' Great Spot discovered on Jupiter" (Press release). University of Leicester. April 11, 2017. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
  80. ^ Yeager, Ashley (April 12, 2017). "Jupiter's Great Red Spot has company. Meet the Great Cold Spot". Science News. Retrieved April 16, 2017.
  81. ^ Dunn, Marcia (April 11, 2017). "Scientists discover the 'Great Cold Spot' on Jupiter in upper atmosphere". Toronto Star. Associated Press. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
  82. ^ Brainerd, Jim (November 22, 2004). "Jupiter's Magnetosphere". The Astrophysics Spectator. Retrieved August 10, 2008.
  83. ^ "Radio Storms on Jupiter". NASA. February 20, 2004. Archived from the original on February 13, 2007. Retrieved February 1, 2007.
  84. ^ Herbst, T.M.; Rix, H.-W. (1999). Guenther, Eike; Stecklum, Bringfried; Klose, Sylvio, eds. Star Formation and Extrasolar Planet Studies with Near-Infrared Interferometry on the LBT. Optical and Infrared Spectroscopy of Circumstellar Matter. 188. San Francisco, Calif.: Astronomical Society of the Pacific. pp. 341–350. Bibcode:1999ASPC..188..341H. ISBN 978-1-58381-014-9. – See section 3.4.
  85. ^ Michtchenko, T.A.; Ferraz-Mello, S. (February 2001). "Modeling the 5 : 2 Mean-Motion Resonance in the Jupiter–Saturn Planetary System". Icarus. 149 (2): 77–115. Bibcode:2001Icar..149..357M. doi:10.1006/icar.2000.6539.
  86. ^ "Interplanetary Seasons". Science@NASA. Archived from the original on October 16, 2007. Retrieved February 20, 2007.
  87. ^ Ridpath, Ian (1998). Norton's Star Atlas (19th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-582-35655-9.
  88. ^ "Encounter with the Giant". NASA. 1974. Retrieved February 17, 2007.
  89. ^ "How to Observe Jupiter". WikiHow. July 28, 2013. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
  90. ^ "Stargazers prepare for daylight view of Jupiter". ABC News. June 16, 2005. Archived from the original on May 12, 2011. Retrieved February 28, 2008.
  91. ^ Rogers, J.H. (1998). "Origins of the ancient constellations: I. The Mesopotamian traditions". Journal of the British Astronomical Association. 108: 9–28. Bibcode:1998JBAA..108....9R.
  92. ^ Harper, Douglas (November 2001). "Jupiter". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved February 23, 2007.
  93. ^ "Greek Names of the Planets". 2010-04-25. Retrieved July 14, 2012. In Greek the name of the planet Jupiter is Dias, the Greek name of god Zeus. See also the Greek article about the planet.
  94. ^ Cicero, Marcus Tullius (1888). Cicero's Tusculan Disputations; also, Treatises on The Nature of the Gods, and on The Commonwealth. Translated by Yonge, Charles Duke. New York, NY: Harper & Brothers. p. 274 – via Internet Archive.
  95. ^ Cicero, Marcus Tullus (1967) [1933]. Warmington, E. H., ed. De Natura Deorum [On The Nature of the Gods]. Cicero. 19. Translated by Rackham, H. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. p. 175 – via Internet Archive.
  96. ^ "Jovial". Dictionary.com. Retrieved July 29, 2007.
  97. ^ De Groot, Jan Jakob Maria (1912). Religion in China: universism. a key to the study of Taoism and Confucianism. American lectures on the history of religions. 10. G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 300. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
  98. ^ Crump, Thomas (1992). The Japanese numbers game: the use and understanding of numbers in modern Japan. Nissan Institute/Routledge Japanese studies series. Routledge. pp. 39–40. ISBN 978-0-415-05609-0.
  99. ^ Hulbert, Homer Bezaleel (1909). The passing of Korea. Doubleday, Page & company. p. 426. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
  100. ^ "Guru". Indian Divinity.com. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
  101. ^ Falk, Michael; Koresko, Christopher (2004). "Astronomical Names for the Days of the Week". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 93: 122–33. arXiv:astro-ph/0307398. Bibcode:1999JRASC..93..122F. doi:10.1016/j.newast.2003.07.002.
  102. ^ "Türk Astrolojisi-2" (in Turkish). NTV. Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2010.
  103. ^ A. Sachs (May 2, 1974). "Babylonian Observational Astronomy". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 276 (1257): 43–50 (see p. 44). Bibcode:1974RSPTA.276...43S. doi:10.1098/rsta.1974.0008. JSTOR 74273.
  104. ^ Dubs, Homer H. (1958). "The Beginnings of Chinese Astronomy". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 78 (4): 295–300. doi:10.2307/595793. JSTOR 595793.
  105. ^ Xi, Z.Z. (1981). "The Discovery of Jupiter's Satellite Made by Gan-De 2000 Years Before Galileo". Acta Astrophysica Sinica. 1 (2): 87. Bibcode:1981AcApS...1...85X.
  106. ^ Dong, Paul (2002). China's Major Mysteries: Paranormal Phenomena and the Unexplained in the People's Republic. China Books. ISBN 978-0-8351-2676-2.
  107. ^ Olaf Pedersen (1974). A Survey of the Almagest. Odense University Press. pp. 423, 428.
  108. ^ Pasachoff, Jay M. (2015). "Simon Marius's Mundus Iovialis: 400th Anniversary in Galileo's Shadow". Journal for the History of Astronomy. 46 (2): 218–234. Bibcode:2015AAS...22521505P. doi:10.1177/0021828615585493.
  109. ^ Westfall, Richard S. "Galilei, Galileo". The Galileo Project. Retrieved January 10, 2007.
  110. ^ O'Connor, J.J.; Robertson, E.F. (April 2003). "Giovanni Domenico Cassini". University of St. Andrews. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
  111. ^ Murdin, Paul (2000). Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics. Bristol: Institute of Physics Publishing. ISBN 978-0-12-226690-4.
  112. ^ "SP-349/396 Pioneer Odyssey—Jupiter, Giant of the Solar System". NASA. August 1974. Retrieved August 10, 2006.
  113. ^ "Roemer's Hypothesis". MathPages. Retrieved January 12, 2007.
  114. ^ Tenn, Joe (March 10, 2006). "Edward Emerson Barnard". Sonoma State University. Retrieved January 10, 2007.
  115. ^ "Amalthea Fact Sheet". NASA/JPL. October 1, 2001. Retrieved February 21, 2007.
  116. ^ Dunham Jr., Theodore (1933). "Note on the Spectra of Jupiter and Saturn". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 45 (263): 42–44. Bibcode:1933PASP...45...42D. doi:10.1086/124297.
  117. ^ Youssef, A.; Marcus, P.S. (2003). "The dynamics of jovian white ovals from formation to merger". Icarus. 162 (1): 74–93. Bibcode:2003Icar..162...74Y. doi:10.1016/S0019-1035(02)00060-X.
  118. ^ Weintraub, Rachel A. (September 26, 2005). "How One Night in a Field Changed Astronomy". NASA. Retrieved February 18, 2007.
  119. ^ Garcia, Leonard N. "The Jovian Decametric Radio Emission". NASA. Retrieved February 18, 2007.
  120. ^ Klein, M.J.; Gulkis, S.; Bolton, S.J. (1996). "Jupiter's Synchrotron Radiation: Observed Variations Before, During and After the Impacts of Comet SL9". NASA. Retrieved February 18, 2007.
  121. ^ NASA – Pioneer 10 Mission Profile Archived November 6, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. NASA. Retrieved on December 22, 2011.
  122. ^ NASA – Glenn Research Center. NASA. Retrieved on December 22, 2011.
  123. ^ Fortescue, Peter W.; Stark, John and Swinerd, Graham Spacecraft systems engineering, 3rd ed., John Wiley and Sons, 2003, ISBN 0-470-85102-3 p. 150.
  124. ^ Hirata, Chris. "Delta-V in the Solar System". California Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on July 15, 2006. Retrieved November 28, 2006.
  125. ^ Wong, Al (May 28, 1998). "Galileo FAQ: Navigation". NASA. Retrieved November 28, 2006.
  126. ^ a b c Chan, K.; Paredes, E.S.; Ryne, M.S. (2004). "Ulysses Attitude and Orbit Operations: 13+ Years of International Cooperation". Space OPS 2004 Conference. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. doi:10.2514/6.2004-650-447.
  127. ^ Lasher, Lawrence (August 1, 2006). "Pioneer Project Home Page". NASA Space Projects Division. Archived from the original on January 1, 2006. Retrieved November 28, 2006.
  128. ^ "Jupiter". NASA/JPL. January 14, 2003. Retrieved November 28, 2006.
  129. ^ Hansen, C.J.; Bolton, S.J.; Matson, D.L.; Spilker, L.J.; Lebreton, J.-P. (2004). "The Cassini–Huygens flyby of Jupiter". Icarus. 172 (1): 1–8. Bibcode:2004Icar..172....1H. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.06.018.
  130. ^ "Mission Update: At Closest Approach, a Fresh View of Jupiter". Archived from the original on April 29, 2007. Retrieved July 27, 2007.
  131. ^ "Pluto-Bound New Horizons Provides New Look at Jupiter System". Retrieved July 27, 2007.
  132. ^ "New Horizons targets Jupiter kick". BBC News. January 19, 2007. Retrieved January 20, 2007.
  133. ^ Alexander, Amir (September 27, 2006). "New Horizons Snaps First Picture of Jupiter". The Planetary Society. Archived from the original on February 21, 2007. Retrieved December 19, 2006.
  134. ^ a b McConnell, Shannon (April 14, 2003). "Galileo: Journey to Jupiter". NASA/JPL. Retrieved November 28, 2006.
  135. ^ Magalhães, Julio (December 10, 1996). "Galileo Probe Mission Events". NASA Space Projects Division. Archived from the original on January 2, 2007. Retrieved February 2, 2007.
  136. ^ Goodeill, Anthony (March 31, 2008). "New Frontiers – Missions – Juno". NASA. Archived from the original on February 3, 2007. Retrieved January 2, 2007.
  137. ^ Firth, Niall (September 5, 2016). "NASA's Juno probe snaps first images of Jupiter's north pole". New Scientist. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
  138. ^ Amos, Jonathan (May 2, 2012). "Esa selects 1bn-euro Juice probe to Jupiter". BBC News Online. Retrieved May 2, 2012.
  139. ^ Wall, Mike (March 5, 2014). "NASA Eyes Ambitious Mission to Jupiter's Icy Moon Europa by 2025". Space.com. Retrieved September 23, 2015.
  140. ^ Berger, Brian (February 7, 2005). "White House scales back space plans". MSNBC. Retrieved January 2, 2007.
  141. ^ "Laplace: A mission to Europa & Jupiter system". European Space Agency. Retrieved January 23, 2009.
  142. ^ New approach for L-class mission candidates, ESA, April 19, 2011
  143. ^ Sheppard, Scott S. "The Giant Planet Satellite and Moon Page". Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at Carnegie Institution for Science. Archived from the original on June 7, 2009. Retrieved December 19, 2014.
  144. ^ Musotto, S.; Varadi, F.; Moore, W.B.; Schubert, G. (2002). "Numerical simulations of the orbits of the Galilean satellites". Icarus. 159 (2): 500–504. Bibcode:2002Icar..159..500M. doi:10.1006/icar.2002.6939.
  145. ^ Jewitt, D.C.; Sheppard, S.; Porco, C. (2004). Bagenal, F.; Dowling, T.; McKinnon, W, eds. Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites and Magnetosphere (PDF). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-81808-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 26, 2009.
  146. ^ Nesvorný, D.; Alvarellos, J.L.A.; Dones, L.; Levison, H.F. (2003). "Orbital and Collisional Evolution of the Irregular Satellites". The Astronomical Journal. 126 (1): 398–429. Bibcode:2003AJ....126..398N. doi:10.1086/375461.
  147. ^ Showman, A. P.; Malhotra, R. (1999). "The Galilean Satellites". Science. 286 (5437): 77–84. doi:10.1126/science.286.5437.77. PMID 10506564.
  148. ^ Showalter, M.A.; Burns, J.A.; Cuzzi, J.N.; Pollack, J.B. (1987). "Jupiter's ring system: New results on structure and particle properties". Icarus. 69 (3): 458–98. Bibcode:1987Icar...69..458S. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(87)90018-2.
  149. ^ a b Burns, J. A.; Showalter, M.R.; Hamilton, D.P.; et al. (1999). "The Formation of Jupiter's Faint Rings". Science. 284 (5417): 1146–50. Bibcode:1999Sci...284.1146B. doi:10.1126/science.284.5417.1146. PMID 10325220.
  150. ^ Fieseler, P.D.; Adams, O.W.; Vandermey, N.; et al. (2004). "The Galileo Star Scanner Observations at Amalthea". Icarus. 169 (2): 390–401. Bibcode:2004Icar..169..390F. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.01.012.
  151. ^ Kerr, Richard A. (2004). "Did Jupiter and Saturn Team Up to Pummel the Inner Solar System?". Science. 306 (5702): 1676. doi:10.1126/science.306.5702.1676a. PMID 15576586. Retrieved August 28, 2007.
  152. ^ "List Of Jupiter Trojans". IAU Minor Planet Center. Retrieved October 24, 2010.
  153. ^ Quinn, T.; Tremaine, S.; Duncan, M. (1990). "Planetary perturbations and the origins of short-period comets". Astrophysical Journal, Part 1. 355: 667–679. Bibcode:1990ApJ...355..667Q. doi:10.1086/168800.
  154. ^ Rafi Letzter (July 18, 2016). "Forget what you heard: Jupiter does not orbit the sun". Tech Insider. Retrieved July 30, 2016.
  155. ^ Dennis Overbye (July 24, 2009). "Hubble Takes Snapshot of Jupiter's 'Black Eye'". The New York Times. Retrieved July 25, 2009.
  156. ^ Lovett, Richard A. (December 15, 2006). "Stardust's Comet Clues Reveal Early Solar System". National Geographic News. Retrieved January 8, 2007.
  157. ^ Nakamura, T.; Kurahashi, H. (1998). "Collisional Probability of Periodic Comets with the Terrestrial Planets: An Invalid Case of Analytic Formulation". Astronomical Journal. 115 (2): 848–854. Bibcode:1998AJ....115..848N. doi:10.1086/300206. Retrieved August 28, 2007.
  158. ^ Horner, J.; Jones, B.W. (2008). "Jupiter – friend or foe? I: the asteroids". International Journal of Astrobiology. 7 (3–4): 251–261. arXiv:0806.2795. Bibcode:2008IJAsB...7..251H. doi:10.1017/S1473550408004187.
  159. ^ Overbyte, Dennis (July 25, 2009). "Jupiter: Our Comic Protector?". The New York Times. Retrieved July 27, 2009.
  160. ^ Tabe, Isshi; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Jimbo, Michiwo (February 1997). "Discovery of a Possible Impact SPOT on Jupiter Recorded in 1690". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 49: L1–L5. Bibcode:1997PASJ...49L...1T. doi:10.1093/pasj/49.1.l1.
  161. ^ a b Franck Marchis (September 10, 2012). "Another fireball on Jupiter?". Cosmic Diary blog. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
  162. ^ Baalke, Ron. "Comet Shoemaker-Levy Collision with Jupiter". NASA. Retrieved January 2, 2007.
  163. ^ Britt, Robert R. (August 23, 2004). "Remnants of 1994 Comet Impact Leave Puzzle at Jupiter". Space.com. Retrieved February 20, 2007.
  164. ^ "Amateur astronomer discovers Jupiter collision". ABC News. July 21, 2009. Retrieved July 21, 2009.
  165. ^ Salway, Mike (July 19, 2009). "Breaking News: Possible Impact on Jupiter, Captured by Anthony Wesley". IceInSpace. Retrieved July 19, 2009.
  166. ^ Grossman, Lisa (July 20, 2009). "Jupiter sports new 'bruise' from impact". New Scientist.
  167. ^ Bakich, Michael (June 4, 2010). "Another impact on Jupiter". Astronomy. Retrieved June 4, 2010.
  168. ^ Beatty, Kelly (August 22, 2010). "Another Flash on Jupiter!". Sky & Telescope. Sky Publishing. Retrieved August 23, 2010. Masayuki Tachikawa was observing ... 18:22 Universal Time on the 20th ... Kazuo Aoki posted an image ... Ishimaru of Toyama prefecture observed the event
  169. ^ Hall, George (September 2012). "George's Astrophotography". Retrieved September 17, 2012. 10 Sept. 2012 11:35 UT .. observed by Dan Petersen
  170. ^ Malik, SPACE.com, Tariq. "Jupiter Struck by an Asteroid or a Comet [Video]". Scientific American. Retrieved March 30, 2016.

Further reading

External links

Comet

A comet is an icy, small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing. This produces a visible atmosphere or coma, and sometimes also a tail. These phenomena are due to the effects of solar radiation and the solar wind acting upon the nucleus of the comet. Comet nuclei range from a few hundred metres to tens of kilometres across and are composed of loose collections of ice, dust, and small rocky particles. The coma may be up to 15 times the Earth's diameter, while the tail may stretch one astronomical unit. If sufficiently bright, a comet may be seen from the Earth without the aid of a telescope and may subtend an arc of 30° (60 Moons) across the sky. Comets have been observed and recorded since ancient times by many cultures.

Comets usually have highly eccentric elliptical orbits, and they have a wide range of orbital periods, ranging from several years to potentially several millions of years. Short-period comets originate in the Kuiper belt or its associated scattered disc, which lie beyond the orbit of Neptune. Long-period comets are thought to originate in the Oort cloud, a spherical cloud of icy bodies extending from outside the Kuiper belt to halfway to the nearest star. Long-period comets are set in motion towards the Sun from the Oort cloud by gravitational perturbations caused by passing stars and the galactic tide. Hyperbolic comets may pass once through the inner Solar System before being flung to interstellar space. The appearance of a comet is called an apparition.

Comets are distinguished from asteroids by the presence of an extended, gravitationally unbound atmosphere surrounding their central nucleus. This atmosphere has parts termed the coma (the central part immediately surrounding the nucleus) and the tail (a typically linear section consisting of dust or gas blown out from the coma by the Sun's light pressure or outstreaming solar wind plasma). However, extinct comets that have passed close to the Sun many times have lost nearly all of their volatile ices and dust and may come to resemble small asteroids. Asteroids are thought to have a different origin from comets, having formed inside the orbit of Jupiter rather than in the outer Solar System. The discovery of main-belt comets and active centaur minor planets has blurred the distinction between asteroids and comets. In the early 21st century, the discovery of some minor bodies with long-period comet orbits, but characteristics of inner solar system asteroids, were called Manx comets. They are still classified as comets, such as C/2014 S3 (PANSTARRS). 27 Manx comets were found from 2013 to 2017.As of July 2018 there are 6,339 known comets, a number that is steadily increasing as they are discovered. However, this represents only a tiny fraction of the total potential comet population, as the reservoir of comet-like bodies in the outer Solar System (in the Oort cloud) is estimated to be one trillion. Roughly one comet per year is visible to the naked eye, though many of those are faint and unspectacular. Particularly bright examples are called "great comets". Comets have been visited by unmanned probes such as the European Space Agency's Rosetta, which became the first ever to land a robotic spacecraft on a comet, and NASA's Deep Impact, which blasted a crater on Comet Tempel 1 to study its interior.

Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9

Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 (formally designated D/1993 F2) was a comet that broke apart in July 1992 and collided with Jupiter in July 1994, providing the first direct observation of an extraterrestrial collision of Solar System objects. This generated a large amount of coverage in the popular media, and the comet was closely observed by astronomers worldwide. The collision provided new information about Jupiter and highlighted its possible role in reducing space debris in the inner Solar System.

The comet was discovered by astronomers Carolyn and Eugene M. Shoemaker and David Levy in 1993. Shoemaker–Levy 9 had been captured by Jupiter and was orbiting the planet at the time. It was located on the night of March 24 in a photograph taken with the 46 cm (18 in) Schmidt telescope at the Palomar Observatory in California. It was the first comet observed to be orbiting a planet, and had probably been captured by Jupiter around 20–30 years earlier.

Calculations showed that its unusual fragmented form was due to a previous closer approach to Jupiter in July 1992. At that time, the orbit of Shoemaker–Levy 9 passed within Jupiter's Roche limit, and Jupiter's tidal forces had acted to pull apart the comet. The comet was later observed as a series of fragments ranging up to 2 km (1.2 mi) in diameter. These fragments collided with Jupiter's southern hemisphere between July 16 and 22, 1994 at a speed of approximately 60 km/s (37 mi/s) (Jupiter's escape velocity) or 216,000 km/h (134,000 mph). The prominent scars from the impacts were more easily visible than the Great Red Spot and persisted for many months.

Europa (moon)

Europa ( (listen) yoor-OH-pə) (Jupiter II) is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet of all the 79 known moons of Jupiter. It is also the sixth-largest moon in the Solar System. Europa was discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei and was named after Europa, the Phoenician mother of King Minos of Crete and lover of Zeus (the Greek equivalent of the Roman god Jupiter).

Slightly smaller than Earth's Moon, Europa is primarily made of silicate rock and has a water-ice crust and probably an iron–nickel core. It has a very thin atmosphere composed primarily of oxygen. Its surface is striated by cracks and streaks, but craters are relatively few. In addition to Earth-bound telescope observations, Europa has been examined by a succession of space probe flybys, the first occurring in the early 1970s.

Europa has the smoothest surface of any known solid object in the Solar System. The apparent youth and smoothness of the surface have led to the hypothesis that a water ocean exists beneath it, which could conceivably harbour extraterrestrial life. The predominant model suggests that heat from tidal flexing causes the ocean to remain liquid and drives ice movement similar to plate tectonics, absorbing chemicals from the surface into the ocean below. Sea salt from a subsurface ocean may be coating some geological features on Europa, suggesting that the ocean is interacting with the sea floor. This may be important in determining whether Europa could be habitable. In addition, the Hubble Space Telescope detected water vapor plumes similar to those observed on Saturn's moon Enceladus, which are thought to be caused by erupting cryogeysers. In May 2018, astronomers provided supporting evidence of water plume activity on Europa, based on an updated critical analysis of data obtained from the Galileo space probe, which orbited Jupiter from 1995 to 2003. Such plume activity could help researchers in a search for life from the subsurface Europan ocean without having to land on the moon.The Galileo mission, launched in 1989, provides the bulk of current data on Europa. No spacecraft has yet landed on Europa, although there have been several proposed exploration missions. The European Space Agency's Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE) is a mission to Ganymede that is due to launch in 2022, and will include two flybys of Europa. NASA's planned Europa Clipper will be launched in the mid-2020s.

Ganymede (moon)

Ganymede (Jupiter III) is the largest and most massive moon of Jupiter and in the Solar System. The ninth largest object in the Solar System, it is the largest without a substantial atmosphere. It has a diameter of 5,268 km (3,273 mi) and is 8% larger than the planet Mercury, although only 45% as massive. Possessing a metallic core, it has the lowest moment of inertia factor of any solid body in the Solar System and is the only moon known to have a magnetic field. Outward from Jupiter, it is the seventh satellite and the third of the Galilean moons, the first group of objects discovered orbiting another planet. Ganymede orbits Jupiter in roughly seven days and is in a 1:2:4 orbital resonance with the moons Europa and Io, respectively.

Ganymede is composed of approximately equal amounts of silicate rock and water ice. It is a fully differentiated body with an iron-rich, liquid core, and an internal ocean that may contain more water than all of Earth's oceans combined. Its surface is composed of two main types of terrain. Dark regions, saturated with impact craters and dated to four billion years ago, cover about a third of the satellite. Lighter regions, crosscut by extensive grooves and ridges and only slightly less ancient, cover the remainder. The cause of the light terrain's disrupted geology is not fully known, but was likely the result of tectonic activity due to tidal heating.Ganymede's magnetic field is probably created by convection within its liquid iron core. The meager magnetic field is buried within Jupiter's much larger magnetic field and would show only as a local perturbation of the field lines. The satellite has a thin oxygen atmosphere that includes O, O2, and possibly O3 (ozone). Atomic hydrogen is a minor atmospheric constituent. Whether the satellite has an ionosphere associated with its atmosphere is unresolved.Ganymede's discovery is credited to Galileo Galilei, who was the first to observe it on January 7, 1610.

The satellite's name was soon suggested by astronomer Simon Marius, after the mythological Ganymede, cupbearer of the Greek gods, kidnapped by Zeus for the purpose. Beginning with Pioneer 10, several spacecraft have explored Ganymede. The Voyager probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, refined measurements of its size, while Galileo discovered its underground ocean and magnetic field. The next planned mission to the Jovian system is the European Space Agency's Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE), due to launch in 2022. After flybys of all three icy Galilean moons, the probe is planned to enter orbit around Ganymede.

Io (moon)

Io (Jupiter I) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter. It is the fourth-largest moon, has the highest density of all the moons, and has the least amount of water of any known astronomical object in the Solar System. It was discovered in 1610 and was named after the mythological character Io, a priestess of Hera who became one of Zeus' lovers.

With over 400 active volcanoes, Io is the most geologically active object in the Solar System. This extreme geologic activity is the result of tidal heating from friction generated within Io's interior as it is pulled between Jupiter and the other Galilean satellites—Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. Several volcanoes produce plumes of sulfur and sulfur dioxide that climb as high as 500 km (300 mi) above the surface. Io's surface is also dotted with more than 100 mountains that have been uplifted by extensive compression at the base of Io's silicate crust. Some of these peaks are taller than Mount Everest. Unlike most satellites in the outer Solar System, which are mostly composed of water ice, Io is primarily composed of silicate rock surrounding a molten iron or iron-sulfide core. Most of Io's surface is composed of extensive plains coated with sulfur and sulfur-dioxide frost.

Io's volcanism is responsible for many of its unique features. Its volcanic plumes and lava flows produce large surface changes and paint the surface in various subtle shades of yellow, red, white, black, and green, largely due to allotropes and compounds of sulfur. Numerous extensive lava flows, several more than 500 km (300 mi) in length, also mark the surface. The materials produced by this volcanism make up Io's thin, patchy atmosphere and Jupiter's extensive magnetosphere. Io's volcanic ejecta also produce a large plasma torus around Jupiter.

Io played a significant role in the development of astronomy in the 17th and 18th centuries. It was discovered in January 1610 by Galileo Galilei, along with the other Galilean satellites. This discovery furthered the adoption of the Copernican model of the Solar System, the development of Kepler's laws of motion, and the first measurement of the speed of light. From Earth, Io remained just a point of light until the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when it became possible to resolve its large-scale surface features, such as the dark red polar and bright equatorial regions. In 1979, the two Voyager spacecraft revealed Io to be a geologically active world, with numerous volcanic features, large mountains, and a young surface with no obvious impact craters. The Galileo spacecraft performed several close flybys in the 1990s and early 2000s, obtaining data about Io's interior structure and surface composition. These spacecraft also revealed the relationship between Io and Jupiter's magnetosphere and the existence of a belt of high-energy radiation centered on Io's orbit. Io receives about 3,600 rem (36 Sv) of ionizing radiation per day.Further observations have been made by Cassini–Huygens in 2000, New Horizons in 2007, and Juno in 2017 and 2018, as well as from Earth-based telescopes and the Hubble Space Telescope.

Juno (spacecraft)

Juno is a NASA space probe orbiting the planet Jupiter. It was built by Lockheed Martin and is operated by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on August 5, 2011 (UTC), as part of the New Frontiers program, and entered a polar orbit of Jupiter on July 5, 2016 (UTC; July 4 U.S. time), to begin a scientific investigation of the planet. After completing its mission, Juno will be intentionally deorbited into Jupiter's atmosphere.Juno's mission is to measure Jupiter's composition, gravity field, magnetic field, and polar magnetosphere. It will also search for clues about how the planet formed, including whether it has a rocky core, the amount of water present within the deep atmosphere, mass distribution, and its deep winds, which can reach speeds up to 618 kilometers per hour (384 mph).Juno is the second spacecraft to orbit Jupiter, after the nuclear powered Galileo orbiter, which orbited from 1995 to 2003. Unlike all earlier spacecraft sent to the outer planets, Juno is powered by solar arrays, commonly used by satellites orbiting Earth and working in the inner Solar System, whereas radioisotope thermoelectric generators are commonly used for missions to the outer Solar System and beyond. For Juno, however, the three largest solar array wings ever deployed on a planetary probe play an integral role in stabilizing the spacecraft as well as generating power.

Jupiter, Florida

Jupiter is the northernmost town in Palm Beach County, Florida, United States. According to a 2017 Census Bureau estimate, the town had a population of 64,976. It is 87 miles north of Miami, and the northernmost community in the Miami metropolitan area, home to 6,012,331 people in a 2015 Census Bureau estimate. Jupiter was rated as the 12th Best Beach Town in America by WalletHub in 2018, and as the 9th Happiest Seaside Town in America by Coastal Living in 2012.

Jupiter (mythology)

Jupiter (from Latin: Iūpiter [ˈjuːpɪtɛr] or Iuppiter [ˈjʊppɪtɛr], from Proto-Italic *djous "day, sky" + *patēr "father", thus "sky father"), also known as Jove (gen. Iovis [ˈjɔwɪs]), was the god of the sky and thunder and king of the gods in Ancient Roman religion and mythology. Jupiter was the chief deity of Roman state religion throughout the Republican and Imperial eras, until Christianity became the dominant religion of the Empire. In Roman mythology, he negotiates with Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome, to establish principles of Roman religion such as offering, or sacrifice.

Jupiter is usually thought to have originated as an aerial god. His identifying implement is the thunderbolt and his primary sacred animal is the eagle, which held precedence over other birds in the taking of auspices and became one of the most common symbols of the Roman army (see Aquila). The two emblems were often combined to represent the god in the form of an eagle holding in its claws a thunderbolt, frequently seen on Greek and Roman coins. As the sky-god, he was a divine witness to oaths, the sacred trust on which justice and good government depend. Many of his functions were focused on the Capitoline Hill, where the citadel was located. In the Capitoline Triad, he was the central guardian of the state with Juno and Minerva. His sacred tree was the oak.

The Romans regarded Jupiter as the equivalent of the Greek Zeus, and in Latin literature and Roman art, the myths and iconography of Zeus are adapted under the name Iuppiter. In the Greek-influenced tradition, Jupiter was the brother of Neptune and Pluto, the Roman equivalents of Poseidon and Hades respectively. Each presided over one of the three realms of the universe: sky, the waters, and the underworld. The Italic Diespiter was also a sky god who manifested himself in the daylight, usually identified with Jupiter. Tinia is usually regarded as his Etruscan counterpart.

Jupiter Ascending

Jupiter Ascending is a 2015 space opera film written, produced and directed by The Wachowskis. Starring Channing Tatum, Mila Kunis, Sean Bean, and Eddie Redmayne, the film is centered on Jupiter Jones (Kunis), an ordinary cleaning woman, and Caine Wise (Tatum), an interplanetary warrior who informs Jones that her destiny extends beyond Earth. Supporting cast member Douglas Booth has described the film's fictional universe as a cross between The Matrix and Star Wars, while Kunis identified indulgence and consumerism as its underlying themes.The film was co-produced by Grant Hill, making Jupiter Ascending his seventh collaboration with the Wachowskis as producer or executive producer. Several more longstanding Wachowski collaborators since the creation of The Matrix films have contributed to the picture, including production designer Hugh Bateup, visual effects supervisor Dan Glass, visual effects designer John Gaeta, supervising sound editor Dane Davis and costume designer Kym Barrett. Other notable past collaborators include Speed Racer composer Michael Giacchino, Cloud Atlas director of photography John Toll along with its editor Alexander Berner and hair and make-up designer Jeremy Woodhead, who worked on both.

The film received generally negative reception upon release, with most criticism focused on incoherence in the screenplay, the characterization and an over-reliance on special effects. Some critics praised the visuals, originality, world-building and Giacchino's musical score. However, the film received positive response from a niche of female science fiction fans who appreciated the film's campiness and deviation from typical gender stereotypes in a genre that is traditionally male-centered.

Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer

The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) is an interplanetary spacecraft in development by the European Space Agency (ESA) with Airbus Defence and Space as the main contractor. The mission is being developed to visit the Jovian system and is focused on studying three of Jupiter's Galilean moons: Ganymede, Callisto, and Europa (excluding the more volcanically active Io) all of which are thought to have significant bodies of liquid water beneath their surfaces, making them potentially habitable environments. The spacecraft is set for launch in June 2022 and would reach Jupiter in October 2029 after five gravity assists and 88 months of travel. By 2033 the spacecraft should enter orbit around Ganymede for its close up science mission and becoming the first spacecraft to orbit a moon other than the moon of Earth. The selection of this mission for the L1 launch slot of ESA's Cosmic Vision science programme was announced on 2 May 2012. Its period of operations will overlap with NASA's Europa Clipper mission, also launching in 2022.

Jupiter mass

Jupiter mass, also called Jovian mass, is the unit of mass equal to the total mass of the planet Jupiter. This value may refer to the mass of the planet alone, or the mass of the entire Jovian system to include the moons of Jupiter. Jupiter is by far the most massive planet in the Solar System. It is approximately 2.5 times more massive than all of the other planets in the Solar System combined.Jupiter mass is a common unit of mass in astronomy that is used to indicate the masses of other similarly-sized objects, including the outer planets and extrasolar planets. It may also be used to describe the masses of brown dwarfs, as this unit provides a convenient scale for comparison.

Jupiter trojan

The Jupiter trojans, commonly called Trojan asteroids or simply Trojans, are a large group of asteroids that share the planet Jupiter's orbit around the Sun. Relative to Jupiter, each Trojan librates around one of Jupiter's two stable Lagrange points: L4, lying 60° ahead of the planet in its orbit, and L5, 60° behind. Jupiter trojans are distributed in two elongated, curved regions around these Lagrangian points with an average semi-major axis of about 5.2 AU.The first Jupiter trojan discovered, 588 Achilles, was spotted in 1906 by German astronomer Max Wolf. A total of 7,040 Jupiter trojans have been found as of October 2018. By convention, they are each named from Greek mythology after a figure of the Trojan War, hence the name "Trojan". The total number of Jupiter trojans larger than 1 km in diameter is believed to be about 1 million, approximately equal to the number of asteroids larger than 1 km in the asteroid belt. Like main-belt asteroids, Jupiter trojans form families.Jupiter trojans are dark bodies with reddish, featureless spectra. No firm evidence of the presence of water, or any other specific compound on their surface has been obtained, but it is thought that they are coated in tholins, organic polymers formed by the Sun's radiation. The Jupiter trojans' densities (as measured by studying binaries or rotational lightcurves) vary from 0.8 to 2.5 g·cm−3. Jupiter trojans are thought to have been captured into their orbits during the early stages of the Solar System's formation or slightly later, during the migration of giant planets.The term "Trojan Asteroid" specifically refers to the asteroids co-orbital with Jupiter, but the general term "trojan" is sometimes more generally applied to other small Solar System bodies with similar relationships to larger bodies: for example, there are both Mars trojans and Neptune trojans, as well as a recently-discovered Earth trojan. The term "Trojan asteroid" is normally understood to specifically mean the Jupiter trojans because the first Trojans were discovered near Jupiter's orbit and Jupiter currently has by far the most known Trojans.

Lost in Space

Lost in Space is an American science fiction television series, created and produced by Irwin Allen, which originally aired between 1965 and 1968. The series is loosely based on the 1812 novel The Swiss Family Robinson, and on a comic book published by Gold Key Comics titled The Space Family Robinson. The series follows the adventures of the Robinsons, a pioneering family of space colonists who struggle to survive in the depths of space. The show ran for 83 episodes over three seasons, the first year of which was filmed in black and white.

Moons of Jupiter

There are 79 known moons of Jupiter. This gives Jupiter the largest number of moons with reasonably stable orbits of any planet in the Solar System. The most massive of the moons are the four Galilean moons, which were independently discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei and Simon Marius and were the first objects found to orbit a body that was neither Earth nor the Sun. From the end of the 19th century, dozens of much smaller Jovian moons have been discovered and have received the names of lovers or daughters of the Roman god Jupiter or his Greek equivalent Zeus. The Galilean moons are by far the largest and most massive objects to orbit Jupiter, with the remaining 75 known moons and the rings together comprising just 0.003% of the total orbiting mass.Of Jupiter's moons, eight are regular satellites with prograde and nearly circular orbits that are not greatly inclined with respect to Jupiter's equatorial plane. The Galilean satellites are nearly spherical in shape due to their planetary mass, and so would be considered at least dwarf planets if they were in direct orbit around the Sun. The other four regular satellites are much smaller and closer to Jupiter; these serve as sources of the dust that makes up Jupiter's rings. The remainder of Jupiter's moons are irregular satellites whose prograde and retrograde orbits are much farther from Jupiter and have high inclinations and eccentricities. These moons were probably captured by Jupiter from solar orbits. Twenty-seven of the irregular satellites have not yet been officially named.

PGM-19 Jupiter

The PGM-19 Jupiter was the first nuclear tipped, medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) of the United States Air Force (USAF). It was a liquid-propellant rocket using RP-1 fuel and LOX oxidizer, with a single Rocketdyne LR70-NA (model S-3D) rocket engine producing 667 kN of thrust. It was armed with the 1.44 megaton W49 nuclear warhead. The prime contractor was the Chrysler Corporation.

The Jupiter was originally designed by the US Army, which was looking for a highly accurate missile designed to strike high-value targets like bridges, railway yards, troop concentrations and the like. The Navy also expressed an interest in the design as an SLBM, but left the collaboration to work on their Polaris. Jupiter retained the short, squat shape intended to fit in naval submarines.

The U.S. Army set accuracy goals so high that some expressed skepticism they could be met, but the Redstone team successfully designed a system with a circular error probable (CEP) of 0.5 miles (0.80 km), substantially more accurate than similar designs like the US Air Force's Thor. A presidential report suggested this made it the most valuable missile then being developed. This led to continual inter-service fighting between the Army and Air Force, and ultimately to Charles Erwin Wilson's decision to give the Jupiter missiles to the U.S. Air Force.

The Air Force were never greatly interested in supporting Jupiter; they saw no need for its accuracy in their battle plans and had their own Thor with longer range. Production went ahead and the nuclear tipped missiles were deployed in both Italy and Turkey in 1961 due to NATO's Cold War deterrence against the Soviet Union. All were then later removed by the United States as part of a secret agreement (The Secret Deal) with the Soviet Union during the Cuban Missile Crisis. They were considered to be outdated. It was also used as the basis for a satellite launcher known as Juno II, but had a short and unsuccessful career in this role. It is unclear as to what happened to the missiles in Italy, but they too were removed at some point.

Planet

A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.The term planet is ancient, with ties to history, astrology, science, mythology, and religion. Five planets in the Solar System are visible to the naked eye. These were regarded by many early cultures as divine, or as emissaries of deities. As scientific knowledge advanced, human perception of the planets changed, incorporating a number of disparate objects. In 2006, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) officially adopted a resolution defining planets within the Solar System. This definition is controversial because it excludes many objects of planetary mass based on where or what they orbit. Although eight of the planetary bodies discovered before 1950 remain "planets" under the modern definition, some celestial bodies, such as Ceres, Pallas, Juno and Vesta (each an object in the solar asteroid belt), and Pluto (the first trans-Neptunian object discovered), that were once considered planets by the scientific community, are no longer viewed as such.

The planets were thought by Ptolemy to orbit Earth in deferent and epicycle motions. Although the idea that the planets orbited the Sun had been suggested many times, it was not until the 17th century that this view was supported by evidence from the first telescopic astronomical observations, performed by Galileo Galilei. About the same time, by careful analysis of pre-telescopic observational data collected by Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler found the planets' orbits were elliptical rather than circular. As observational tools improved, astronomers saw that, like Earth, each of the planets rotated around an axis tilted with respect to its orbital pole, and some shared such features as ice caps and seasons. Since the dawn of the Space Age, close observation by space probes has found that Earth and the other planets share characteristics such as volcanism, hurricanes, tectonics, and even hydrology.

Planets are generally divided into two main types: large low-density giant planets, and smaller rocky terrestrials. There are eight planets in the Solar System. In order of increasing distance from the Sun, they are the four terrestrials, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, then the four giant planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Six of the planets are orbited by one or more natural satellites.

Several thousands of planets around other stars ("extrasolar planets" or "exoplanets") have been discovered in the Milky Way. As of 1 February 2019, 3,976 known extrasolar planets in 2,971 planetary systems (including 653 multiple planetary systems), ranging in size from just above the size of the Moon to gas giants about twice as large as Jupiter have been discovered, out of which more than 100 planets are the same size as Earth, nine of which are at the same relative distance from their star as Earth from the Sun, i.e. in the circumstellar habitable zone. On December 20, 2011, the Kepler Space Telescope team reported the discovery of the first Earth-sized extrasolar planets, Kepler-20e and Kepler-20f, orbiting a Sun-like star, Kepler-20. A 2012 study, analyzing gravitational microlensing data, estimates an average of at least 1.6 bound planets for every star in the Milky Way.

Around one in five Sun-like stars is thought to have an Earth-sized planet in its habitable zone.

Solar System

The Solar System is the gravitationally bound planetary system of the Sun and the objects that orbit it, either directly or indirectly. Of the objects that orbit the Sun directly, the largest are the eight planets, with the remainder being smaller objects, such as the five dwarf planets and small Solar System bodies. Of the objects that orbit the Sun indirectly—the moons—two are larger than the smallest planet, Mercury.The Solar System formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar molecular cloud. The vast majority of the system's mass is in the Sun, with the majority of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, are terrestrial planets, being primarily composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets are giant planets, being substantially more massive than the terrestrials. The two largest, Jupiter and Saturn, are gas giants, being composed mainly of hydrogen and helium; the two outermost planets, Uranus and Neptune, are ice giants, being composed mostly of substances with relatively high melting points compared with hydrogen and helium, called volatiles, such as water, ammonia and methane. All eight planets have almost circular orbits that lie within a nearly flat disc called the ecliptic.

The Solar System also contains smaller objects. The asteroid belt, which lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, mostly contains objects composed, like the terrestrial planets, of rock and metal. Beyond Neptune's orbit lie the Kuiper belt and scattered disc, which are populations of trans-Neptunian objects composed mostly of ices, and beyond them a newly discovered population of sednoids. Within these populations are several dozen to possibly tens of thousands of objects large enough that they have been rounded by their own gravity. Such objects are categorized as dwarf planets. Identified dwarf planets include the asteroid Ceres and the trans-Neptunian objects Pluto and Eris. In addition to these two regions, various other small-body populations, including comets, centaurs and interplanetary dust clouds, freely travel between regions. Six of the planets, at least four of the dwarf planets, and many of the smaller bodies are orbited by natural satellites, usually termed "moons" after the Moon. Each of the outer planets is encircled by planetary rings of dust and other small objects.

The solar wind, a stream of charged particles flowing outwards from the Sun, creates a bubble-like region in the interstellar medium known as the heliosphere. The heliopause is the point at which pressure from the solar wind is equal to the opposing pressure of the interstellar medium; it extends out to the edge of the scattered disc. The Oort cloud, which is thought to be the source for long-period comets, may also exist at a distance roughly a thousand times further than the heliosphere. The Solar System is located in the Orion Arm, 26,000 light-years from the center of the Milky Way galaxy.

Voyager 1

Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977. Part of the Voyager program to study the outer Solar System, Voyager 1 was launched 16 days after its twin, Voyager 2. Having operated for 41 years, 5 months and 14 days as of February 19, 2019, the spacecraft still communicates with the Deep Space Network to receive routine commands and to transmit data to Earth. At a distance of 145.11 astronomical units (2.1708×1010 km; 1.3489×1010 mi) (21.708 billion kilometers; 13.489 billion miles) from Earth as of February 16, 2019, it is the most distant human-made object from Earth.The probe's objectives included flybys of Jupiter, Saturn, and Saturn's largest moon, Titan. While the spacecraft's course could have been altered to include a Pluto encounter by forgoing the Titan flyby, exploration of the moon, which was known to have a substantial atmosphere, took priority. Voyager 1 studied the weather, magnetic fields, and rings of the two planets and was the first probe to provide detailed images of their moons.

After completing its primary mission with the flyby of Saturn on November 12, 1980, Voyager 1 became the third of five artificial objects to achieve the escape velocity required to leave the Solar System. On August 25, 2012, Voyager 1 became the first spacecraft to cross the heliopause and enter the interstellar medium.In a further testament to the robustness of Voyager 1, the Voyager team completed a successful test of the spacecraft's trajectory correction maneuver (TCM) thrusters in late 2017 (the first time these thrusters were fired since 1980), a project enabling the mission to be extended by two to three years.Voyager 1's extended mission is expected to continue until about 2025 when its radioisotope thermoelectric generators will no longer supply enough electric power to operate its scientific instruments.

Voyager 2

Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets. Part of the Voyager program, it was launched 16 days before its twin, Voyager 1, on a trajectory that took longer to reach Jupiter and Saturn but enabled further encounters with Uranus and Neptune. It is the only spacecraft to have visited either of these two ice giant planets.

Its primary mission ended with the exploration of the Neptunian system on October 2, 1989, after having visited the Uranian system in 1986, the Saturnian system in 1981, and the Jovian system in 1979. Voyager 2 is now in its extended mission to study the outer reaches of the Solar System and has been operating for 41 years, 5 months and 30 days as of 19 February 2019. It remains in contact through the NASA Deep Space Network.At a distance of 119 AU (1.78×1010 km) (about 16.5 light-hours) from the Sun as of late 2018, moving at a velocity of 15.341 km/s (55,230 km/h) relative to the Sun, Voyager 2 is the fourth of five spacecraft to achieve the escape velocity that will allow them to leave the Solar System. The probe left the heliosphere for interstellar space on November 5, 2018, becoming the second artificial object to do so, and has begun to provide the first direct measurements of the density and temperature of the interstellar plasma.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.