Junior college

A junior college is a post-secondary educational institution designed to prepare students for either skilled trades or for additional education at another college with more advanced academic material. Students typically attend junior colleges for 1–3 years.

By country

India

In India, most states provide schooling through 12th grade. Telangana, Maharashtra, Odisha, Assam, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, however, have a system of junior colleges where, after taking the 10th grade board exams (see SSLC, SSC), students have to apply to junior colleges to complete their 11th and 12th grades. Junior colleges are also referred to as Pre-University Colleges (PUC). Junior colleges are frequently co-located with degree colleges.

Japan

In Japan, junior colleges (短期大学) typically provide 2-year courses of study but may also provide a 3-year course of study. Students who complete the course of study at a junior college are entitled to an associate degree.

Singapore

In Singapore, a Junior College (JC) is equivalent to a sixth form college in the United Kingdom. After the GCE 'O' level examinations in Secondary 4 or 5, students may apply for admission to either a JC or a polytechnic. The two years spent in a JC culminate in a GCE 'A' level certificate which is the most common qualification used for university admission.

In the past, secondary schools offered both 'O' and 'A' Levels and students in classes studying for the 'A' Levels were known as the "Pre-University" class. During the 1980s and 1990s, the government began the process of transferring all 'A' Level courses to centralised JCs. At present, students finish their 'O' Levels at a secondary school and may choose to take the 'A' Levels at a JC or as a private candidate.

South Korea

In South Korea, junior colleges (전문대학) typically provide 2-year courses of study but may also provide a 3-year course of study if permitted by presidential decree.[1] Students who complete the course of study at a junior college are entitled to an associate degree.[2] Junior colleges are also permitted, subject to presidential decree, to offer "advanced major courses" for their students that will lead to a bachelor's degree.[3] Junior colleges in South Korea include Yeungjin College and Jeonbuk Science College.

United States

In the United States, a junior college is a two-year post-secondary school whose main purpose is to provide academic, vocational and professional education. The highest certificate offered by such schools is usually an Associate degree, although junior college students may continue their education at a four-year university or college, transferring some or all of the credit earned at the junior college toward the degree requirements of the four-year school.[4]

The term "junior college" historically referred to all non-bachelor's degree granting post-secondary schools. However, over the last few decades, many public junior colleges, which typically aim to serve a local community, have replaced "junior" with "community" in their names. Thus, most self-identified junior colleges in the United States today are private institutions, although only a small percentage of all two-year institutions are private.[5]

Private junior colleges in the United States reached their peak numbers in the 1940s, and have been declining ever since.[5] In the course of the 20th century, many public and private junior colleges evolved into four-year colleges, in some cases passing through an intermediary period as a four-year junior college; institutions that followed this trajectory include Westminster College of Salt Lake City and Shimer College.

Cultural connotations

Junior colleges in the United States have long had to contend with a reputation for low academic standards. The concept can be traced back 100 years to the original public junior college, Joliet Junior College, which was established in a high school as the equivalent of thirteenth and fourteenth grades, to prepare qualified students for the final two years of college.[6] To some extent, this is inherent in the junior college mission of providing practical education to students who for various reasons fall outside the typical profile of a four-year college student (for example, someone who has graduated from high school and spent several years working in a relatively unskilled job). Over the years, such colleges developed a reputation as schools of last resort.[7] According to federal statistics, 42% of public community college freshmen take remedial courses.[8] This does not necessarily affect their future transfer prospects: a junior college graduate with good grades can generally transfer to a four-year school and go on to obtain a full bachelor's degree. There is a growing movement of students who are attending junior colleges to save significant sums of money in the first two years of a four-year education.[9]

Athletics

Certain junior colleges also serve as incubators for college athletes, particularly in basketball and football; in sports parlance, they are often referred to as "Jucos".[10] A talented player who would not meet the academic standards of a major college program may be able to play for two years in junior college, establishing an academic record in the process, and then transfer to a major college.[10] This process has occasionally resulted in scandals, often involving the academics of the student athletes.[10]

Military junior college

In the United States, a military junior college is a military-style junior college that allows cadets to become commissioned officers in the armed forces reserve in two years, instead of the usual four. The students must go on to complete a bachelor's degree before serving as regular officers on active duty.

There are currently four military junior colleges:

See also

References

  1. ^ Higher Education Act, KLRI translation, current through 2013-08-13, Article 48.
  2. ^ Higher Education Act, KLRI translation, current through 2013-08-13, Article 50.
  3. ^ Higher Education Act, KLRI translation, current through 2013-08-13, Article 50-2.
  4. ^ Arthur M. Cohen, and Florence B. Brawer. The American Community College (1st ed. 1982; new edition 2013) Excerpts; Comprehensive survey
  5. ^ a b Williams, Dana Nicole. ED327222 1989-12-00 The Survival of Private Junior Colleges. ERIC Digest
  6. ^ John Merrow, Community Colleges: Dream Catchers, The New York Times, April 22, 2007.
  7. ^ Beth Frerking, Community Colleges: For Achievers, a New Destination, The New York Times, April 22, 2007.
  8. ^ John Merrow, Community Colleges: A Harsh Reality, The New York Times, April 22, 2007.
  9. ^ John Merrow, Community Colleges: The Smart Transfer, The New York Times, April 22, 2007.
  10. ^ a b c Robert Andrew Powell, Community College: Tennis in a Parking Lot, The New York Times, April 22, 2007

External links

Boise State University

Boise State University (BSU) is a public research university in Boise, Idaho. Founded in 1932 by the Episcopal Church, it became an independent junior college in 1934, and has been awarding baccalaureate and master's degrees since 1965.

Boise State offers more than 100 graduate programs, including the MBA and MAcc programs in the College of Business and Economics; Masters and PhD programs in the Colleges of Engineering, Arts & Sciences, and Education; and the MPA program in the School of Public Service. Boise State has invested in the future over the past decade, including spending over $300 million since 2003 on academic, residential, and athletics facilities across campus.The university's intercollegiate athletic teams, the Broncos, have participated in NCAA Division I since 1978; the football program moved up to FBS in 1996.

College basketball

College basketball today is governed by collegiate athletic bodies including the United States's National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA), the United States Collegiate Athletic Association (USCAA), the National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA), and the National Christian College Athletic Association (NCCAA). Governing bodies in Canada include U Sports and the Canadian Collegiate Athletic Association (CCAA). Each of these various organizations are subdivided into from one to three divisions based on the number and level of scholarships that may be provided to the athletes.

Each organization has different conferences to divide up the teams into groups. Teams are selected into these conferences depending on the location of the schools. These conferences are put in due to the regional play of the teams and to have a structural schedule for each to team to play for the upcoming year. During conference play the teams are ranked not only through the entire NCAA, but the conference as well in which they have tournament play leading into the NCAA tournament.

Glendale Community College (California)

Glendale Community College (GCC) is a community college in Glendale, California.

Jacksonville University

Jacksonville University (JU) is a private university in Jacksonville, Florida, United States. The school was founded in 1934 as a two-year college and was known as Jacksonville Junior College until September 5, 1956, when it shifted focus to building four-year university degree programs and later graduated its first four-year degree candidates as Jacksonville University in June 1959. It is a member of the Independent Colleges and Universities of Florida and is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB). JU's student body currently represents more than 40 U.S. states and approximately 45 countries around the world. As a Division I university, it is home to 19 sports teams, known as the JU Dolphins, as well as intramural sports and clubs. Among the top majors declared by JU students are aviation management, biology, nursing, business and marine science.

Kennesaw State University

Kennesaw State University (KSU) is a public university in the U.S. state of Georgia with two primary campuses, one in Kennesaw and the other in Marietta. KSU also holds classes at the Cobb Galleria Centre, Dalton State College, and in Paulding County (Dallas). Present enrollment is over 35,000 students, making it the third-largest university within Georgia and one of the top 50 largest universities in the United States.KSU is part of the University System of Georgia. The university has a multitude of academic programs in business, education, engineering, nursing, physical sciences, information technology, criminal justice, and sports management. Both the Kennesaw and Marietta campuses are located in suburban areas on a combined 581 acres (235 ha) of land.Since 2005, Kennesaw State's athletic teams (except football) have been a NCAA Division I member of the Atlantic Sun Conference. The football team is a FCS member of the Big South Conference.

List of colleges and universities in Virginia

This is a list of colleges and universities in the U.S. state of Virginia. The oldest college or university in Virginia is The College of William and Mary, founded in 1693. In 2010, the Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine became the newest. The largest institution is Liberty University, with over 110,000 students. The smallest is the graduate-only Institute for the Psychological Sciences.

The State Council of Higher Education for Virginia defines four categories of degree-granting institutions of postsecondary education: public institutions, established private institutions in good standing with a nationally recognized accrediting organization, private and out-of-state institutions requiring certification and institutions exempt from state oversight for religious reasons. Also exempt from certification are vocational institutions supervised by other state agencies, and institutions supervised by the federal government. All public institutions and most traditional private institutions are accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges (SACSCOC). Other state-certified private non-religious institutions are accredited by a national organization, though a few do not have any accreditation. Some small religious institutions do not have accreditation.

List of universities in Japan

The following is a comprehensive list of universities in Japan, categorized by prefecture.

The list contains only universities or colleges, either four-year or two-year, that still exist today and are classified as "schools" according to Article 1 of the School Education Law. (See Daigakkō for universities that are not considered "schools".) Also, each university or college is listed in the prefecture in which its headquarters is located, not the location of their satellite campuses, etc. or that of some of its departments or divisions. For the list of universities that existed in the past or merged into another school, see List of historical universities in Japan.

♀ indicates a women's college.

A list of top ranked universities is available in the final section.

Los Angeles City College

Los Angeles City College (LACC) is a public community college in East Hollywood, Los Angeles. A part of the Los Angeles Community College District, it is located on Vermont Avenue south of Santa Monica Boulevard on the former campus of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).

Malcolm X College

Malcolm X College, one of the City Colleges of Chicago, is a two-year college located on the West Side of Chicago, Illinois. It was founded as Crane Junior College in 1911 and was the first of the City Colleges. From 1934 to 1969, it was called Theodore Herzl Junior College, and located in the North Lawndale neighborhood on Chicago's West Side. In 1969, the school was renamed in honor of civil rights advocate and orator Malcolm X.

Malcolm X College works with healthcare and industry partners to provide students with career-oriented education in the healthcare field. The school's main corporate partner is Rush University Medical Center, which helps the school write curriculum, teach, and place students in jobs. The school also has 18 other healthcare and industry partners, including Walgreens and GE Healthcare.

Miami Dade College

Miami Dade College (Miami Dade or MDC) is a public college in Miami, Florida with eight campuses and twenty-one outreach centers located throughout Miami-Dade County. Founded in 1959, Miami Dade is the largest college in the Florida College System with over 165,000 students and the second-largest college or university in the United States. Miami Dade College's main campus, the Wolfson Campus, is in Downtown Miami.

Midwestern State University

Midwestern State University is a public liberal arts college in Wichita Falls, Texas. In 2015, it had over 6,000 students. Midwestern is one of four independent public universities in Texas unaffiliated with a state public university system. It is the state's only public liberal arts college.

National Junior College Athletic Association

The National Junior College Athletic Association (NJCAA), founded in 1938, is an association of community college and junior college athletic departments throughout the United States. It is divided into divisions and regions. The current NJCAA holds 24 separate regions across 24 states.

North Greenville University

North Greenville University is private Baptist university in Tigerville, South Carolina. It is associated with the South Carolina Baptist Convention and the Southern Baptist Convention and accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. The institution awards bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees.

San Jacinto College

San Jacinto College is a community college in the Greater Houston area in the U.S. state of Texas.

Established in 1961, San Jacinto College originally consisted of the independent school districts (ISD) of Channelview, Deer Park, Galena Park, La Porte, and Pasadena. The college now also serves Sheldon, and portions of Clear Creek ISD and Humble ISD. San Jacinto College headquarters are located in Pasadena, Texas.

Santa Monica College

Santa Monica College (SMC) is a public, two-year, community college in Santa Monica, California, United States. Founded as a junior college in 1929, SMC enrolls over 30,000 students in more than 90 fields of study. Although initially serving primarily pre-college, high school students, the College quickly expanded its enrollment to educate college-age students and non-traditional students with the primary intention to transfer to a four-year university. It is one of the few schools which has high transfer rates to 4-year universities such as UCs or CSUs. Today, two-thirds of students at Santa Monica College are enrolled part-time. With over 2,000 employees, SMC is a major employer in the Greater Los Angeles Area and has a significant impact in the region's economy.

Occupying the entire Santa Monica Community College District, SMC is the only public institution of higher education in Santa Monica. The main campus, located on Pico Boulevard, is the college's largest location. The College operates five satellite campuses across Santa Monica.

SMC is the leader in California's 113 community college system in transfers to the University of California system. Since 1929, SMC has provided job training, educational opportunities and cultural enrichment through its radio station KCRW (89.9 FM), the Broad Stage at the SMC Performing Arts Center and lifelong learning through distinctive programs such as its Emeritus College for older adults.

St. Joseph's Central School and Junior College, Mundakayam

St. Joseph's Central School & Junior College is a mixed school governed by the Malankara Catholic Diocese of Thiruvalla in Mundakayam, India. The school offers plus2 Science and Commerce courses. St. Joseph's Central School was established in 1981 and was upgraded to senior secondary level in 1997, and takes its students from Mundakayam and the surrounding area. Each year about 100 students join the school.

Tyler Junior College

Tyler Junior College is a two-year community college in Tyler, Texas, United States. TJC is one of the largest community colleges in Texas, with an enrollment of more than 12,000 credit students each year with an additional 20,000 continuing education enrollments annually. Its West Campus includes continuing education and workforce training programs. The College also operates satellite centers in Jacksonville and Lindale. TJC offers Associate in Arts, Associate in Applied Science and Associate of Arts in Teaching degrees, as well as tech prep and certificate programs.

University of Arkansas at Little Rock

The University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UA Little Rock, formerly UALR) is a metropolitan public research university located in Little Rock, Arkansas, United States. Established as Little Rock Junior College by the Little Rock School District in 1927, the institution became a private four-year university under the name Little Rock University in 1957. It returned to public status in 1969 when it merged with the University of Arkansas System under its present name.

Located on 250 acres, the UALR campus encompasses more than 56 buildings, including the Center for Nanotechnology Integrative Sciences, the Emerging Analytics Center, and the Sequoyah Research Center, and the Ottenheimer Library Additionally, UALR houses special learning facilities that include a learning resource center, art galleries, KUAR public radio station, University Television, cyber café, speech and hearing clinic, and a campus-wide wireless network.

University of North Carolina at Asheville

The University of North Carolina Asheville (UNCA) is a co-educational, four year, public liberal arts university. The university is also known as UNC Asheville. Located in Asheville, Buncombe County, in the U.S. state of North Carolina, UNC Asheville is the only designated liberal arts institution in the University of North Carolina system. UNC Asheville is member of the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges. In 2016, The Princeton Review ranked the university number one in its listing of "Best Schools for Making an Impact".

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