Jungmädelbund

The Jungmädelbund (German for "Young Girls' League") was the section of the Hitler Youth for girls between the ages of 10 and 14.

It was called the Jungmädelbund in German, and commonly abbreviated in period and contemporary historical writings as JM. Since this was a girls' organization, it fell under the League of German Girls (BDM), which was led by the BDM-Reichsreferentin (National Speaker of the BDM), who reported to the overall head of the Hitler Youth, Baldur von Schirach (who was later succeeded by Artur Axmann).

Jungmädelbund
Bundesarchiv Bild 133-130, Worms, Jungmädelbund, Werbung
AbbreviationJM
TypeFemale youth organization
Legal statusDefunct, illegal
Region served
Nazi Germany
Parent organization
League of German Girls
AffiliationsHitler Youth

Background

After the Gleichschaltung in 1933, the League of German Girls became the only girls' organization in the Third Reich. All other groups, including church groups and scouting organizations, were either absorbed into the Hitler Youth or banned. In 1936, the First Hitler Youth Law made membership compulsory for all girls aged 10 or older. The same law also made membership in the male Hitler Youth compulsory for all boys above the age of 10.

New members had to register for their service between March 1st and March 10th of every year. Registration was held at a local League of German Girls administrative office. Girls had to have completed fourth grade and meet the following requirements:

  • be of racial/ethnic German heritage
  • be a German citizen
  • be free of hereditary diseases

If a girl met those requirements, she was assigned to a Jungmädel group based on the geographical location she lived at. In order to become a full member, she had to now attend preparatory service which consisted of her participation of one Jungmädel meeting, one sports afternoon which was to include a test of her courage, and a lecture about the tasks of the Jungmädel.

After she fulfilled these requirements, a ceremony was held to introduce new members into the rank of the Jungmädel on April 20th, Hitler's birthday. During the ceremony, new members were sworn in, presented with a membership certificate, and personally welcomed by their group leaders.

In order to become a "full" member, however, each girl had to pass the Jungmädel Challenge (Jungmädelprobe), which consisted of participation in a one-day trip with the group, and a number of sports requirements. Girls had six months to meet all the requirements of the Jungmädel Challenge and, on October 2nd of each year, those who passed became full members in another ceremony in which they were officially presented with the right to wear the black neckerchief and brown leather knot.

A girl was then a full member of the Jungmädel and remained in the group until the age of 14, at which point she transferred into the League of German Girls (also known as the BDM, or Bund Deutscher Mädel).

Sources

  • Chris Crawford. "Bund Deutscher Maedel: A Historical Research Site". Retrieved 2008-01-17.

External links

Comparative ranks of Nazi Germany

The comparative ranks of Nazi Germany contrasts the ranks of the German Wehrmacht to a number of national-socialist organisations in Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945 in a synoptic table. Nazi organisations used a hierarchal structure, according to the so-called Führerprinzip (leader principle), and were oriented in line with the rank order system of the Wehrmacht.

German Air Sports Association

The German Air Sports Association (Deutscher Luftsportverband, or DLV e. V.) was an organisation set up by the Nazi Party in March 1933 to establish a uniform basis for the training of military pilots. Its chairman was Hermann Göring and its vice-chairman Ernst Röhm.

German Youth in Slovakia

The German Youth in Slovakia (German: Deutsche Jugend in der Slowakei, abbreviated D.J.) was a youth organization in the Second World War Slovak Republic. The organization functioned as the youth wing of the German Party. DJ was modelled after the Hitler Youth in the German Reich. The leader (Landesleiter) of DJ was F. Klug.DJ functioned as a 'bridge' between the Hitler Youth and the Slovak Hlinka Youth. During the parade in Bratislava celebrating the January 18, 1939 inaugural session of the new Diet of the Slovak Land, DJ members in brown shirts joined march.DJ grew quickly and organized youngsters all across the country in places where ethnic German populations lived. The organization conducted active propaganda campaigns, and conducted training activities in National Socialist doctrine in areas where there were no German schools. In January 1939 DJ claimed to have around 12,000 members, by 1940 the number of claimed members had increased to 17,400. By 1941 DJ claimed to have around 18,000 members organized in some 150 local groups. The local DJ groups were organized into three Banne (Battalions). The membership of DJ consisted of youth aged 10 to 18 years old; boys aged 10 to 14 years were grouped into Deutsches Jungvolk (like the Deutsches Jungvolk in the Reich), boys aged 14 to 18 in Deutsche Jugend, girls aged 10 to 14 in Jungmädelbund (like the Jungmädelbund in the Reich) and girls aged 15 to 14 in Bund Deutscher Mädel (like the BDM in the Reich).DJ used a uniform almost identical to the ones used by the Hitler Youth in the Reich, except that the emblem of the organization included a swastika on a shield.DJ members were recruited for military service in the war against Poland in September 1939. Through decree no. 311 issued December 21, 1939, the Slovak government recognized FS and DJ as paramilitary organizations operating within the frame of the German Party. As the Second World War progressed, many of the DJ members went on to serve in the German Waffen-SS.In the midst of the 1944 Slovak National Uprising, the Slovak National Council declared DJ dissolved in one of its first acts of legislation.

Index of World War II articles (J)

J Malan Heslop

J. Aird Nesbitt

J. Allen Frear Jr.

J. B. Stoner

J. Braid

J. C. Gilbert

J. Caleb Boggs

J. Carson Mark

J. D. Salinger

J. D. Tippit

J. Douglas Blackwood

J. F. Lehmann

J. Fraser McLuskey

J. Henry Birtles

J. Howard Miller

J. J. Nickson

J. James Exon

J. Lawton Collins

J. Minos Simon

J. P. Donleavy

J. R. Wasson

J. Rayburn Bertrand

J. Robert Elliott

J. Roger Pichette

J. Roy Rowland

J. Salwyn Schapiro

J. T. Rutherford

J.R. Bhonsle

Jędrusie

Jānis Lipke

Jūrō Gotō

Józef Światło

Józef Arkusz

Józef Bartosik

Józef Batory

Józef Chaciński

Józef Chyliński

Józef Cukier

Józef Cyrankiewicz

Józef Franczak

Józef Garliński

Józef Gasienica

Józef Grzesiak

Józef Korbas

Józef Marcinkiewicz

Józef Noji

Józef Olszyna-Wilczyński

Józef Pukowiec

Józef Rzepka

Józef Siemieński

Józef Stefan Godlewski

Józef Szajna

Józef Szczepański

Józef Unrug

Józef Zwonarz

Józefa Kantor

József Eisenhoffer

József Vitéz Heszlényi

József Vértesy

Jørgen Kieler

Jørstad River bridge sabotage

Jaap Boot

Jaap Meijer

Jaap Penraat

Jabit III (B-29)

Jacek Jędruch

Jack Aeby

Jack Agazarian

Jack Anderson

Jack Baldwin (RAF officer)

Jack Beddington

Jack Beresford

Jack Black (Viz)

Jack Breaux

Jack Broome

Jack Buck

Jack C. Montgomery

Jack Churchill

Jack Coggins

Jack Daniels (politician)

Jack Davis (cartoonist)

Jack de Manio

Jack Edwards (Hong Kong)

Jack Fairman

Jack Fearey

Jack Foreman Mantle

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Jack Hargreaves

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Jack Hayward

Jack Hinton

Jack J. Catton

Jack J. Pendleton

Jack Kirby

Jack Klugman

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Jack L. Anson

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Jack L. Treadwell

Jack Lemmon

Jack Lummus

Jack M. Campbell

Jack Mandelbaum

Jack Mason Gougar

Jack Miller, USMC

Jack Miller

Jack Oatey

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Jack P.F. Gremillion

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Jack Palance

Jack Portland

Jack Reynolds (footballer born 1881)

Jack Ridley

Jack Ruby

Jack Soo

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Jack T. Chick

Jack Tramiel

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Jack Valenti

Jack van der Geest

Jack W. Mathis

Jack W. Robbins

Jack Warden

Jack Webb

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Jack Williams (Medal of Honor)

Jack Wong Sue

Jackboot Mutiny

Jackdaws

Jackie Coogan

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Jacklyn H. Lucas

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Jardin Turc

Jarosław Dąbrowski

Jaroslav Jiřík

Jaroslav Krejčí

Jarvis Cocker

Jascha Horenstein

Jasenovac concentration camp

Jasenovac i Gradiška Stara

Jasmin (Paris Métro)

Jason Robards

Jasper Maskelyne

Jassy–Kishinev Offensive (August 1944)

Jasta 11

Jaurès (Paris Métro)

Javel - André Citroën (Paris Métro)

Javad Hakimli

Jawaharlal Nehru

Jay-Jay Okocha

Jay Hebert

Jay Humphry

Jay Pierrepont Moffat

Jay T. Robbins

Jay U. Gunter

Jay Williams (author)

Jay Zeamer Jr.

JB-2 Launch Site (USA)

Je suis partout

Jean-Étienne-Marie Portalis

Jean-Étienne Valluy

Jean-Antoine Chaptal

Jean-Antoine de Mesmes

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot

Jean-Baptiste-Louis Gresset

Jean-Baptiste Berlier

Jean-Baptiste Biot

Jean-Baptiste Claude Eugène Guillaume

Jean-Baptiste Colbert

Jean-Baptiste Corneille

Jean-Baptiste de La Curne de Sainte-Palaye

Jean-Baptiste Dubos

Jean-Baptiste Dumas

Jean-Baptiste Dureau de la Malle

Jean-Baptiste Gail

Jean-Baptiste Henri Lacordaire

Jean-Baptiste Isabey

Jean-Baptiste Janssens

Jean-Baptiste Labat

Jean-Baptiste Lafond

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck

Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvrai

Jean-Baptiste Mimiague

Jean-Baptiste Rousseau

Jean-Baptiste Say

Jean-Baptiste Vivien de Châteaubrun

Jean-Bernard Raimond

Jean-Charles de Borda

Jean-Charles Trouabal

Jean-Christophe Grangé

Jean-Christophe Thomas

Jean-Christophe Thouvenel

Jean-Christophe Yoccoz

Jean-Claude Bras

Jean-Claude Killy

Jean-Claude Lemoult

Jean-Claude Osman

Jean-Claude Pressac

Jean-Claude Suaudeau

Jean-Daniel Dätwyler

Jean-Denis Bredin

Jean-Dominique Bauby

Jean-François Beltramini

Jean-François Bizot

Jean-François Champollion

Jean-François de La Harpe

Jean-François Deniau

Jean-François Ducis

Jean-François Leriget de La Faye

Jean-François Lyotard

Jean-François Marmontel

Jean-Félix Adolphe Gambart

Jean-Gabriel Castel

Jean-Gaspard Deburau

Jean-Guy Gauthier

Jean-Henri Gourgaud

Jean-Hugues Ateba

Jean-Jacques Ampère

Jean-Jacques Eydelie

Jean-Jacques Goldman

Jean-Jacques Lefranc, marquis de Pompignan

Jean-Jacques Pierre

Jean-Jacques Renouard de Villayer

Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber

Jean-Joseph Benjamin-Constant

Jean-Joseph Carriès

Jean-Joseph Languet de Gergy

Jean-Lambert Tallien

Jean-Louis-Paul-François, 5th duc de Noailles

Jean-Louis Barrault

Jean-Louis Garcia

Jean-Louis Guez de Balzac

Jean-Louis Koszul

Jean-Louis Laya

Jean-Louis Tixier-Vignancour

Jean-Loup Dabadie

Jean-Luc Godard

Jean-Luc Sassus

Jean-Marc Chanelet

Jean-Marc Nattier

Jean-Marc Pilorget

Jean-Marcel Jeanneney

Jean-Marie Charles Abrial

Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois

Jean-Marie Hullot

Jean-Marie Lehn

Jean-Marie Lustiger

Jean-Marie Rouart

Jean-Martial Kipré

Jean-Martin Charcot

Jean-Michel Badiane

Jean-Michel Ferri

Jean-Michel Larqué

Jean-Nicolas Pache

Jean-Noël Huck

Jean-Noël Jeanneney

Jean-Paul Bertrand-Demanes

Jean-Paul Rostagni

Jean-Paul Sartre

Jean-Philippe Fleurian

Jean-Pierre-André Amar

Jean-Pierre Abel-Rémusat

Jean-Pierre Adams

Jean-Pierre Aumont

Jean-Pierre Azéma

Jean-Pierre Barda

Jean-Pierre Changeux

Jean-Pierre Cortot

Jean-Pierre Dantan

Jean-Pierre Dogliani

Jean-Pierre Jabouille

Jean-Pierre Kahane

Jean-Pierre Léaud

Jean-Pierre Ponnelle

Jean-Pierre Sauvage

Jean-Pierre Serre

Jean-Pierre Simb

Jean-Pierre Stock

Jean-Pierre Timbaud

Jean-Pierre Tokoto

Jean-Pierre Vernant

Jean-Pierre Wimille

Jean-Rodolphe Perronet

Jean-Roland Malet

Jean-Sifrein Maury

Jean-Yves Girard

Jean-Yves Le Gallou

Jean-Yves Mvoto

Jean Aicard

Jean Améry

Jean Antoine Injalbert

Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres

Jean Baptiste Antoine Auget de Montyon

Jean Baptiste Emile Vidal

Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre

Jean Baptiste Massillon

Jean Bayard

Jean Benner-Fries

Jean Bernard (physician)

Jean Borotra

Jean Bourgain

Jean Casimir-Perier

Jean Cau (rower)

Jean Cavaillès

Jean Cayrol

Jean Ces

Jean Chalgrin

Jean Chapelain

Jean Chardin

Jean Charles Flipart

Jean Cocteau

Jean Coleman (officer)

Jean Collas

Jean d'Estrées

Jean d'Ormesson

Jean Daniélou

Jean Darcet

Jean de Beaumont

Jean de Broglie

Jean de Brunhoff

Jean de Dieu-Raymond de Cucé de Boisgelin

Jean de La Bruyère

Jean de La Fontaine

Jean de Laborde

Jean de Lattre de Tassigny

Jean de Montigny

Jean de Suarez d'Aulan

Jean Decoux

Jean Delarge

Jean Deloffre

Jean Delumeau

Jean Djorkaeff

Jean Dondelinger

Jean Dutourd

Jean Etcheberry

Jean Françaix

Jean François Boissonade de Fontarabie

Jean François de Saint-Lambert

Jean Gabin

Jean Galbert de Campistron

Jean Gaston Darboux

Jean Gilles (Soldier)

Jean Giraud

Jean Gounot

Jean Graton

Jean Grelaud

Jean Gutweninger

Jean Hérold-Paquis

Jean Ichbiah

Jean Jacques Flipart

Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès

Jean Jérome

Jean le Rond d'Alembert

Jean Leclant

Jean Leguay

Jean Louis Émile Boudier

Jean Louis Burnouf

Jean Luchaire

Jean Luciano

Jean Lécuyer

Jean Martin

Jean Mistler

Jean Moulin

Jean Ousset

Jean Piat

Jean Pierre-Bloch

Jean Pierre Cherid

Jean Pierre Flourens

Jean Prouvé

Jean Prévost

Jean Racine

Jean Renaud de Segrais

Jean Richepin

Jean Rostand

Jean Rémy

Jean Schlumberger (jewelry designer)

Jean Servais

Jean Sirmond

Jean Suret-Canale

Jean Sylvain Bailly

Jean Tatlock

Jean Tiberi

Jean Vaysse

Jean Victoire Audouin

Jean Victor Allard

Jean Welter

Jean Wicki

Jean Ybarnegaray

Jean, duc de Decazes

Jean, Grand Duke of Luxembourg

Jeanette Wohl

Jeanne Balibar

Jeanne Coroller-Danio

Jeanne Delvair

Jeanne Hébuterne

Jeanne Loriod

Jeanne Moreau

Jeanne Paquin

Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston

JEATH War Museum

Jedwabne pogrom

Jeff Cooper (colonel)

Jeff Davis Woodson

Jefferson in Paris

Jefferson J. DeBlanc

Jeffrey Hamm

Jeffrey Herf

Jeffrey Hunter

Jehan Alain

Jenkin Robert Oswald Thompson

Jennifer Azzi

Jenny-Wanda Barkmann

Jens Christian Hauge

Jens Hundseid

Jens Müller

Jerome War Relocation Center

Jerrold R. Zacharias

Jerry (WWII)

Jerry Atkinson

Jerry Coleman

Jerry D. Page

Jerry Rosholt

Jerry Wexler

Jerrycan

Jerzy Braun

Jerzy Einhorn

Jerzy Ficowski

Jerzy Jan Lerski

Jerzy Kirchmayer

Jerzy Niezbrzycki

Jerzy Różycki

Jerzy Skolimowski (rowing)

Jerzy Szacki

Jerzy Ustupski

Jerzy Wołkowicki

Jerzy Wojnar

Jerzy Zagórski

Jerzy Zborowski

Jess Hill

Jesse Addison Udall

Jesse Helms

Jesse Holman Jones

Jesse Monroe Knowles

Jesse R. Drowley

Jesse R. Pitts

Jesse Rutherford Jr.

Jessie Vasey

Jesús A. Villamor

Jesus Baza Duenas

Jeune Europe

Jewish Amsterdam

Jewish Brigade

Jewish Children's Home in Oslo

Jewish Combat Organization

Jewish deportees from Norway during World War II

Jewish Military Union

Jewish partisans

Jewish Police (Holocaust)

Jewish resistance during the Holocaust

Jews outside Europe under Nazi occupation

Jezdimir Dangić

JF-17 Thunder

Ji Hongchang

Ji Shengde

Jiří Raška

Jiang Dingwen

Jiang Guangnai

Jianggezhuang

Jiangqiao Campaign

Jiffs

Jigme Wangchuk

Jilin Self-Defence Army

Jim Brideweser

Jim Butterfield (football)

Jim Clark (sheriff)

Jim Crowley

Jim Dunnigan

Jim Fridley

Jim Garrison

Jim Hensley

Jim Humphreys

Jim Lawrence (football player)

Jim Leavelle

Jim Mooney (football player)

Jim Morrison

Jim Moscrip

Jim Park (footballer)

Jim Siedow

Jim Thompson (designer)

Jim Wallwork

Jim Wright

Jimmie W. Monteith

Jimmy Algerino

Jimmy Dell

Jimmy Doolittle

Jimmy Douglas (American soccer player)

Jimmy Edwards

Jimmy Fitzmorris

Jimmy Hughes (footballer)

Jimmy Juan

Jimmy Launders

Jimmy Modeste

Jimmy Mullen (footballer born 1923)

Jimmy T. Murakami

Jimmy Patterson

Jin-Roh

Jinan Incident

Jinan Military Region

Jing Shan-Zhongxiang Campaign

Jinggangshan Mountains

Jinichi Kusaka

Jinzaburō Masaki

Jirō Minami

Jirō Shiizaki

Jirō Tamon

Jisaburō Ozawa

JM cloche

Jüdischer Kulturbund

Jürgen Graf

Jürgen Rieger

Jürgen Stroop

Jüri Uluots

Jo Grimond

Jo Gullett

Jo Iimura

Jo Spier

Jože Javoršek

Joachim Albrecht Eggeling

Joachim Brendel

Joachim Fest

Joachim Helbig

Joachim Hoffmann

Joachim Kirschner

Joachim Lemelsen

Joachim Müncheberg

Joachim Mrugowsky

Joachim Murat

Joachim Peiper

Joachim Rønneberg

Joachim Schepke

Joachim von Ribbentrop

Joan-Eleanor system

Joan Bartlett

Joan Hughes

Joan of Paris

Joanna Cruickshank

Jocelyn Angloma

Jocelyn Gourvennec

Jocelyn Simon, Baron Simon of Glaisdale

Jocelyn Woollcombe

Jock column

Jock Colville

Jock Lewes

Joe's Bridge

Joe Abbey

Joe Baker-Cresswell

Joe Benoit

Joe C. Specker

Joe D. Smith Jr.

Joe David Brown

Joe DiMaggio

Joe E. Mann

Joe Ekins

Joe Flanigan

Joe Foss

Joe Gray Taylor

Joe Greene (Ontario politician)

Joe Hayashi

Joe Henry Cooper

Joe Hunt (tennis)

Joe Kendrick Sr.

Joe Kieyoomia

Joe Louis

Joe M. Jackson

Joe M. Nishimoto

Joe Maniaci

Joe McCorquodale

Joe Mercer

Joe P. Martinez

Joe Perry (American football)

Joe Purcell

Joe R. Hastings

Joe Redington

Joe Rosenthal

Joe Routt

Joe Schlesinger

Joe Shell

Joe Sinnott

Joe Sostilio

Joe Stydahar

Joe Turner (ice hockey)

Joe W. Kelly

Joe Waggonner

Joel Brand

Joel Camargo

Joel Hayward

Joel Teitelbaum

Johan Benders

Johan Bernhard Hjort

Johan Borgen

Johan Carp

Johan Hendrik Weidner

Johan Hin

Johan Nygaardsvold

Johan Petro

Johan Richthoff

Johann Christian Claudius Devaranne

Johann Gruber

Johann Heynlin

Johann Kremer

Johann Maier

Johann Rattenhuber

Johann Rickmers

Johann von Leers

Johann von Ravenstein

Johann Wilhelm Trollmann

Johanna Kirchner

Johanna Langefeld

Johanna Wolf

Johannes Bölter

Johannes Blaskowitz

Johannes Bobrowski

Johannes de Grocheio

Johannes Dieckmann

Johannes Drost

Johannes Flintrop

Johannes Frießner

Johannes Gandil (athlete)

Johannes Hentschel

Johannes Kleiman

Johannes Kunze

Johannes Lohs

Johannes Maas

Johannes Mayer

Johannes Plendl

Johannes Popitz

Johannes Stark

Johannes Steinhoff

Johannes Terwogt

Johannes van Dijk

Johannes Wiese

Johin

John A. English

John A. Gronouski

John A. Kent

John A. Nerud

John A. Volpe

John Addison

John Agar

John Aiken (RAF officer)

John Alan Quinton

John Albert O’Toole

John Aldam Aizlewood

John Alexander French

John Alexander Sinclair

John Amery

John Anderson Barstow

John Andrew Pearson (Royal Navy officer)

John Arbuthnott, 16th Viscount of Arbuthnott

John Archibald Wheeler

John Arnold Austin

John Arthur Jarvis

John Arthur Love

John Aspinwall Roosevelt

John Augustine Collins

John B. Kelly Sr.

John Bagot Glubb

John Barbour (poet)

John Barron (actor)

John Basilone

John Baskeyfield

John Bassett

John Beeley

John Beresford (polo player)

John Berger

John Bernard Croak

John Bernard Mackey

John Birch (missionary)

John Birmingham

John Boles (sport shooter)

John Boyd-Carpenter, Baron Boyd-Carpenter

John Bradburne

John Bradley (Iwo Jima)

John Bray (athlete)

John Bridge

John Brown (spy)

John Brown Hamilton

John Brunt

John Bunch

John C. Arrowsmith

John C. Browne (physicist)

John C. Butler-class destroyer escort

John C. England

John C. H. Lee

John C. Metzler Sr.

John C. Meyer

John C. Morgan

John C. Sjogren

John C. Squires

John C. Waldron

John C. West

John C. Whitehead

John C. Woods

John Cade

John Cecil Currie

John Chafee

John Charles Campbell

John Charles Fenton

John Charles Oakes Marriott

John Christmas Møller

John Ciardi

John Clarence Butler

John Cobb (motorist)

John Codd

John Connally

John Connolly (rugby)

John Courtis

John Cregan (athlete)

John Crichton, 5th Earl Erne

John Cridlan Barrett

John Crocker

John Cross Jr

John Cruickshank

John Cullen Murphy

John Cunningham (RAF officer)

John Curtin

John D. Bulkeley

John D. Hawk

John D. Kelly (World War II soldier)

John D. Lavelle

John D. MacDonald

John D. Magrath

John D. New

John Dale Ryan

John David Provoo

John David Vanderhoof

John David Wingfield

John Davies (businessman)

John de Courcy, 35th Baron Kingsale

John de Innes

John Demjanjuk

John Derbyshire (swimmer)

John Dering Nettleton

John Desmond

John Dill

John Dingell

John Drayton Baker

John Duncan Sr.

John Dutton Frost

John E. Butts

John E. Dahlquist

John E. Hull

John Edmondson, 2nd Baron Sandford

John Edwin Ashley Williams

John Ehrlichman

John Eisenhower

John Eldridge Jr.

John Elliott (British boxer)

John Exley

John F. "Jack" Hasey

John F. Gerry

John F. Kennedy

John F. Thorson

John Faunthorpe

John Flanagan (athlete)

John Ford

John Francis McLaren

John Frederick Andrews Higgins

John Frost (pilot)

John Fullerton Evetts

John G. Crommelin

John G. W. Husted Jr.

John Gardner (thriller writer)

John Geiger

John George Kemeny

John George Walters Clark

John Gillespie Magee Jr.

John Glenn

John Godley, 3rd Baron Kilbracken

John Godwin RNVR

John Gofman

John Gorman (politician)

John Gottowt

John Gregory Crace

John Gretton, 1st Baron Gretton

John Gudenus

John Gurdon

John H. D. Cunningham

John H. Griffith

John H. Hammond

John H. Hubbard

John H. Lang

John H. Leims

John H. Manley

John H. Michaelis

John H. Secondari

John H. Sides

John H. Stickell

John Hamilton (archbishop)

John Hamilton (artist)

John Hamilton Wedgwood

John Hannah (VC)

John Hansl

John Harding, 1st Baron Harding of Petherton

John Hare, 1st Viscount Blakenham

John Harlan Willis

John Harvey-Jones

John Hawkesworth (British Army officer)

John Hawkesworth (producer)

John Hay Whitney

John Henebry

John Henry Anstice

John Henry Balch

John Henry Lake

John Henry Towers

John Hollar

John Hollington Grayburn

John Holt (educator)

John Hope (meteorologist)

John Howard (American actor)

John Howard (British Army officer)

John Howard Griffin

John Hurst Edmondson

John J. Creedon

John J. Gilligan

John J. Hennessey

John J. McVeigh

John J. Parker

John J. Pinder Jr.

John J. Tominac

John James Powers

John Jansson

John Jarman

John Jestyn Llewellin, 1st Baron Llewellin

John Johnston (Royal Household)

John Joseph Doherty

John Joseph Gilligan Jr.

John Joseph Parle

John K. Cannon

John K. Gerhart

John K. Lawson

John K. Singlaub

John K. Snyder

John K. Waters

John Keefer Mahony

John Kenley

John Kennedy (rowing)

John Kenneth Macalister

John Kimbrough

John Kitzmiller

John Knatchbull, 7th Baron Brabourne

John L. DeWitt

John L. Hall Jr.

John L. Jerstad

John L. McLucas

John L. Throckmorton

John Lanham

John Lavarack

John Le Mesurier

John Leach (Royal Navy officer)

John Lemoinne

John Leon Williamson

John Leonard Wilson

John Lesinski Jr.

John Lesley

John List

John Lucian Smith

John Lukacs

John Lymington

John M. Janzen

John M. Robsion Jr.

John M. Spalding

John MacLeod (Ross and Cromarty MP)

John Macquarrie

John Macy

John Magee (missionary)

John Manchester Allen

John Marshall Harlan II

John Masters

John McGiver

John McKay (football coach)

John McKilligan

John McLean (athlete)

John McNally (American football)

John Michael Bermingham

John Mihalowski

John Miller (rower)

John Miller Martin

John Mills

John Misha Petkevich

John Moffat (pilot)

John Moore-Brabazon, 1st Baron Brabazon of Tara

John Morrow Godfrey

John Murray (soldier)

John N. Mitchell

John N. Reese Jr.

John Nash (artist)

John Neil Randle

John Northcott

John O'Neil (rugby player)

John O'Neill (VC)

John O'Shea (director)

John Okada

John Ormsby Evelyn Vandeleur

John P. Cromwell

John P. Davies

John P. Fardy

John P. Lucas

John P. Washington

John Patrick (rugby player)

John Patrick Kenneally

John Paul Hammerschmidt

John Paul Stevens

John Pelham Mann

John Pendlebury

John Pennington Harman

John Peyton, Baron Peyton of Yeovil

John Phillips (actor)

John Prebble

John Prendergast (soldier)

John Profumo

John R. Alison

John R. Crews

John R. Deane Jr.

John R. Dunning

John R. Foley

John R. Fox

John R. Hodge

John R. Towle

John Rabe

John Randolph (actor)

John Rarick

John Rathbone (Bodmin)

John Rawls

John Raymond Broadbent (Quartermaster)

John Raymond Broadbent (Major General)

John Raymond Rice

John Reith, 1st Baron Reith

John Renshaw Starr

John Richard Hyde

John Rigas

John Rimmer

John Robert Osborn

John Rockefeller Prentice

John Roderick (correspondent)

John Russell (actor)

John Russell, 13th Duke of Bedford

John Ruthven (artist)

John S. Blue

John S. McCain Jr.

John S. McCain Sr.

John S. Service

John S. Wilder

John Salmond

John Severin

John Sidney Garrett

John Smith (Conservative politician)

John Spellman (wrestler)

John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer

John Stacey

John Steele (paratrooper)

John Stuart Mould

John Swainson

John Sweet (actor)

John Sydney Lethbridge

John Symes

John T. "Tommy" Blackburn

John T. Corley

John T. Eversole

John Tate

John Thach

John Thivy

John Thomas Davies

John Thompson McKellar Anderson

John Tiltman

John Toland (author)

John Tovey, 1st Baron Tovey

John Tower

John Tremayne Babington

John Trevor Godfrey

John Tyler Morgan

John V. Power

John Vassall

John Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort

John Vincent (sailor)

John von Neumann

John W. Bonner

John W. Dutko

John W. Meagher

John W. Minick

John W. O'Daniel

John W. Peterson

John W. Rankin

John W. Vogt Jr.

John Waldegrave

John Wallace Linton

John Warburton Paul

John Ward (airman)

John Warner

John Warrender, 2nd Baron Bruntisfield

John Wayne Airport

John Weir Foote

John Wells (20th-century British politician)

John Wheeler-Bennett

John Whyte-Melville-Skeffington, 13th Viscount Massereene

John Widgery, Baron Widgery

John William Best

John William Finn

John William Haas

John William Harper

John William Vessey Jr.

John Wilson, 2nd Baron Moran

John Winthrop Hackett Junior

John Wooldridge

John Wyndham

John Yates (bishop)

John Zacherle

John, Dauphin of France (1398-1417)

Johnnie David Hutchins

Johnnie Johnson (RAF officer)

Johnny Beazley

Johnny Carson

Johnny Checketts

Johnny Grant (radio personality)

Johnny Höglin

Johnny Johnson (British Army officer)

Johnny Mølby

Johnny Murray

Johnny Orr

Johnny Ramensky

Johnny Reder

Johnny Rigney

Johnny Schmitz

Johnny Vaught

Johnny Weissmuller

Joice NanKivell Loch

Jon Baker

Jon Elster

Jon Istad

Jon Latimer

Jon Whitcomb

Jona von Ustinov

Jonah Edward Kelley

Jonas H. Ingram

Jonas Lie (government minister)

Jonas Slier

Jonastal

Jonathan Assous

Jonathan Biabiany

Jonathan Higgins

Jonathan Joseph-Augustin

Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV

Jonathan O. Seaman

Jonathan Tokplé

Jonathan Winters

Jonni Myyrä

Jonny Nilsson

Joop Westerweel

Jordan Nikolov Orce

Jorge Alonso Treviño

Jorge Burruchaga

Jorge Semprún

Jorge Tibiriçá Piratininga

Jorge Ubico

Jorma Sarvanto

Jose Calugas

Jose F. Valdez

Jose M. Cabanillas

Jose M. Lopez

Josef Čapek

Josef Balabán

Josef Blösche

Josef Bühler

Josef Bürckel

Josef Bremm

Josef Eder

Josef Feistmantl

Josef František

Josef Grohé

Josef Haas

Josef Harpe

Josef Jacobs

Josef Jakobs

Josef Kammhuber

Josef Kramer

Josef Krips

Josef Matoušek

Josef Mengele

Josef Nassy

Josef Oberhauser (war criminal)

Josef Pfitzner

Josef Plieseis

Josef Priller

Josef Rosensaft

Josef Schneider (rower)

Josef Schwammberger

Josef Terboven

Josef Thorak

Josef Wagner (Gauleiter)

Josef Wilhelm

Josef Wirmer

Josef Wurmheller

Josef Zwernemann

Joseph-Alfred Foulon

Joseph-Nicolas Delisle

Joseph A. Farinholt

Joseph Albert Walker

Joseph Alexandre Laboulbène

Joseph Alzin

Joseph André

Joseph Autran

Joseph Babinski

Joseph Bangust

Joseph Bau

Joseph Bech

Joseph Berchtold

Joseph Beyrle

Joseph Bodner

Joseph Burlazzi

Joseph Burnett

Joseph C. McConnell

Joseph Caillaux

Joseph Carlebach

Joseph Chénier

Joseph Crockett

Joseph d'Haussonville

Joseph Darnand

Joseph De Combe

Joseph de Goislard de Monsabert

Joseph Dodge

Joseph E. Muller

Joseph E. Schaefer

Joseph Edward Connolly

Joseph Epstein (French Resistance leader)

Joseph F. Biroc

Joseph F. Merrell

Joseph F. Smith (politician)

Joseph Fourier University

Joseph Fourier

Joseph François Michaud

Joseph Gainard

Joseph Gilbert Hamilton

Joseph Goebbels

Joseph Gregory

Joseph Grew

Joseph H. Harper

Joseph Harcourt Tombs

Joseph Heller

Joseph Henry Silk

Joseph Hughes (GC)

Joseph J. Clark

Joseph J. McCarthy

Joseph J. Nazzaro

Joseph J. Sadowski

Joseph Joffre

Joseph Jules Beecken

Joseph Justus Scaliger

Joseph Kessel

Joseph Kofi Adda

Joseph Lakanal

Joseph Leo Doob

Joseph Liebgott

Joseph Louis François Bertrand

Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac

Joseph Louis Lagrange

Joseph M. Gaydos

Joseph M. Reeves

Joseph McCarthy

Joseph Müller (Catholic lawyer)

Joseph Müller (priest)

Joseph Olivier (rugby union)

Joseph P. Kennedy Jr.

Joseph Paul Franklin

Joseph Pletinckx

Joseph R. Holzapple

Joseph R. Julian

Joseph Retinger

Joseph Riddle Jr.

Joseph Rochefort

Joseph Rosenstock

Joseph Rotblat

Joseph Rovan

Joseph S. Clark

Joseph Salas

Joseph Sarnoski

Joseph Schacht

Joseph Stalin

Joseph Stilwell

Joseph Stone, Baron Stone

Joseph T. Dawson

Joseph T. McNarney

Joseph T. O'Callahan

Joseph Taussig

Joseph Ujlaki

Joseph W. Barr

Joseph W. Dailey

Joseph W. Finch Jr.

Joseph W. Kennedy

Joseph W. Ozbourn

Joseph Wapner

Joseph Warren Stilwell Jr.

Joseph Watt

Joseph Weldon Bailey Jr.

Josephine Baker

Joshua Logan

Josiah E. DuBois Jr.

Josiah McCracken

Josiah Stamp, 1st Baron Stamp

Josias Hartmann

Josias, Hereditary Prince of Waldeck and Pyrmont

Josip Broz Tito

Josip Kraš

José-Karl Pierre-Fanfan

José Álvarez de Bohórquez

José Cabrero Arnal

José Cobos

José Dolhem

José María de Heredia

José Mouzinho

José Nasazzi

José Navarro Morenes

José Naya

José P. Laurel

José Touré

José Vidal (footballer)

Jourdain (Paris Métro)

Journal des débats

Journal of Historical Review

Journey for Margaret

Jovan Plamenac

Jovanka Broz

Joy Bright Hancock

Joyce Lebra

Joyce Lussu

Jozef Gabčík

Jozef Matlak

Jozef Tiso

Jozef Turanec

Joël Bats

Ján Golian

János Garay (fencer)

János Wenk

Juan Antonio Ríos

Juan César Cordero Dávila

Juan Gilberto Funes

Juan José Calandria

Juan José de Amézaga

Juan Martín Hernández

Juan Modesto

Juan Pablo Sorín

Juan Pujol (alias Garbo)

Juana Bormann

Jud Simons

Judah Messer Leon (1166)

Judah P. Benjamin

Judenfrei

Judenplatz Holocaust Memorial

Judenrat

Judges' Trial

Judgment at Nuremberg

Judith Auer

Judith Kerr

Jugendbund

Juho Kusti Paasikivi

Jules Armand Dufaure

Jules Bocandé

Jules Bonvalet

Jules Cambon

Jules De Bisschop

Jules de Clérambault

Jules Dewaquez

Jules Dumont

Jules Ferry

Jules Granier

Jules Guesde

Jules James

Jules Janin

Jules Joffrin (Paris Métro)

Jules Lemaître

Jules Michelet

Jules Olitski

Jules Sandeau

Jules Simon

Jules Sylvain Zeller

Jules Vallès

Jules Verne

Jules Vuillemin

Julia Catherine Stimson

Julia Child

Julia Rozenberg

Julian Amery, Baron Amery of Lustleigh

Julian C. Smith

Julian Faber

Julian Kulski

Julian Scherner

Julie Depardieu

Julie Dreyfus

Julie Manet

Julie Vlasto

Julie Wolfthorn

Julien Arias

Julien Baudet

Julien de Lallande Poydras

Julien François

Julien Green

Julien Havet

Julien Saubade

Juliet Berto

Juliette Binoche

Julije Makanec

Julio Chiaramonte

Julio Cortázar

Julio César Cáceres

Julio Dely Valdés

Julio Hernán Rossi

Julio Olarticoechea

Julius Buckler

Julius D. Canns

Julius Dorpmüller

Julius Frey

Julius Fučík

Julius Hirsch

Julius Körner

Julius Keyl

Julius Klinger

Julius Leber

Julius Lippert (politician)

Julius Ochs Adler

Julius Paltiel

Julius Ringel

Julius Schaub

Julius Schreck

Julius Schulte-Frohlinde

Julius Streicher

Julius W. Becton Jr.

Juliusz Bursche

Juliusz Rómmel

Juliusz Zulauf

July 20 plot

July Column

Jun Ushiroku

June Days Uprising

Jungle Carbine

Jungle Division

Jungle Queen (serial)

Jungmädelbund

Junichi Sasai

Junio Valerio Borghese

Junior J. Spurrier

Junior Juniper

Junior Van Noy

Junker (SS rank)

Junkers A 35

Junkers EF 009

Junkers EF 132

Junkers EF 61

Junkers G.38

Junkers J.I

Junkers Ju 160

Junkers Ju 187

Junkers Ju 188

Junkers Ju 252

Junkers Ju 287

Junkers Ju 288

Junkers Ju 290

Junkers Ju 322

Junkers Ju 352

Junkers Ju 388

Junkers Ju 390

Junkers Ju 488

Junkers Ju 52

Junkers Ju 86

Junkers Ju 87

Junkers Ju 88

Junkers Ju 89

Junkers Ju 90

Junkers W 34

Juno Beach Centre

Juno Beach

Junrokurō Matsuura

Junyō Maru

Juozas Lukša

Jura Soyfer

Jure Francetić

Jurek Becker

Jussieu (Paris Métro)

Jussieu Campus

Just Fontaine

Just Like That

Justas Paleckis

Justice M. Chambers

Justinien de Clary

Justus Scrafford

Jutta Rüdiger

Jérôme Éyana

Jérôme Alonzo

Jérôme Carcopino

Jérôme Lalande

Jérôme Leroy (footballer)

Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve

Jérôme Rothen

Jérémy Clément

Jérémy Toulalan

Jäger Report

League of German Girls

The League of German Girls or Band of German Maidens (German: Bund Deutscher Mädel, abbreviated as BDM) was the girls' wing of the Nazi Party youth movement, the Hitler Youth. It was the only legal female youth organization in Nazi Germany.

At first, the League consisted of two sections: the Jungmädelbund ("Young Girls' League") for girls aged 10 to 14, and the League proper for girls aged 14 to 18. In 1938, a third section was introduced, the BDM-Werk Glaube und Schönheit ("Faith and Beauty Society"), which was voluntary and open to girls between the ages of 17 and 21.

With the surrender of Nazi Germany in 1945, the organization de facto ceased to exist. On 10 October 1945, it was outlawed by the Allied Control Council along with other Nazi Party organizations. Under Section 86 of the German Criminal Code, the Hitler Youth is an "unconstitutional organization" and the distribution or public use of its symbols, except for educational or research purposes, is not permitted.

Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party (NSDAP) controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process. The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich (German Reich) until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich (Greater German Reich) from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is also known as the Third Reich (Drittes Reich), meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire (800–1806) and the German Empire (1871–1918). The Nazi regime ended after the Allies defeated Germany in May 1945, ending World War II in Europe.

Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg, on 30 January 1933. The NSDAP then began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934 and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the offices and powers of the Chancellery and Presidency. A national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer (leader) of Germany. All power was centralised in Hitler's person and his word became the highest law. The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy. Using deficit spending, the regime undertook extensive public works, including the construction of Autobahnen (motorways). The return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity.

Racism, especially antisemitism, was a central ideological feature of the regime. The Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the master race, the purest branch of the Aryan race. Discrimination and persecution against Jews and Romani people began in earnest after the seizure of power. The first concentration camps were established in March 1933. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, and liberals, socialists, and communists were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. Christian churches and citizens that opposed Hitler's rule were oppressed, and many leaders imprisoned. Education focused on racial biology, population policy, and fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed. Recreation and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, and the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased Germany on the international stage. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, and Hitler's hypnotic oratory to influence public opinion. The government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others.

The Nazi regime dominated neighbours through military threats in the years leading up to war. Nazi Germany made increasingly aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if these were not met. It seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the USSR, and invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, launching World War II in Europe. By early 1941, Germany controlled much of Europe. Reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas and a German administration was established in the remainder of Poland. Germany exploited the raw materials and labour of both its occupied territories and its allies. In the Holocaust, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, or shot.

While the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was initially successful, the Soviet resurgence and entry of the United States into the war meant the Wehrmacht (German armed forces) lost the initiative on the Eastern Front in 1943 and by late 1944 had been pushed back to the pre-1939 border. Large-scale aerial bombing of Germany escalated in 1944 and the Axis powers were driven back in Eastern and Southern Europe. After the Allied invasion of France, Germany was conquered by the Soviet Union from the east and the other Allies from the west, and capitulated in May 1945. Hitler's refusal to admit defeat led to massive destruction of German infrastructure and additional war-related deaths in the closing months of the war. The victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.

Volksgemeinschaft

Volksgemeinschaft (German pronunciation: [ˈfɔlksɡəˌmaɪnʃaft]) is a German expression which means "people's community". This expression originally became popular during World War I as Germans rallied in support of the war, and it appealed to the idea of breaking down elitism and uniting people across class divides to achieve a national purpose. Although the term was not originally used in a racial sense, since the 1920s it began to be used by people with extreme nationalist views and was adopted by the Nazis to promote their racial theories.

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