The jungle cat (Felis chaus), also called reed cat and swamp cat, is a medium-sized cat native to the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia and southern China. It inhabits foremost wetlands like swamps, littoral and riparian areas with dense vegetation. It is listed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List, and is mainly threatened by destruction of wetlands, trapping and poisoning.
The jungle cat has a uniformly sandy, reddish-brown or grey fur without spots; melanistic and albino individuals are also known. It is solitary in nature, except during the mating season and mother-kitten families. Adults maintain territories by urine spraying and scent marking. Its preferred prey is small mammals and birds. It hunts by stalking its prey, followed by a sprint or a leap; the ears help in pinpointing the location of prey. Both sexes become sexually mature by the time they are one year old; females enter oestrus from January to March. Mating behaviour is similar to that in the domestic cat: the male pursues the female in oestrus, seizes her by the nape of her neck and mounts her. Gestation lasts nearly two months. Births take place between December and June, though this might vary geographically. Kittens begin to catch their own prey at around six months and leave the mother after eight or nine months.
The species was first described by Johann Anton Güldenstädt in 1776 based on a specimen caught in a Caucasian wetland. Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber gave the jungle cat its present binomial name and is therefore generally considered as binomial authority. Three subspecies are recognised at present.
|Indian jungle cat|
|Distribution of jungle cat|
Results of an mtDNA analysis of 55 jungle cats from various biogeographic zones in India indicate a high genetic variation and a relatively low differentiation between populations. It appears that the central Indian F. c. kutas population separates the Thar F. c. prateri populations from the rest and also the south Indian F. c. kelaarti populations from the north Indian F. c. affinis ones. The central Indian populations are genetically closer to the southern than to the northern populations.
The Baltic-German naturalist Johann Anton Güldenstädt was the first scientist who caught a jungle cat near the Terek River at the southern frontier of the Russian empire, a region that he explored in 1768–1775 on behalf of Catherine II of Russia. He described this specimen in 1776 under the name "Chaus".
In 1778, Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber used chaus as the species name and is therefore considered the binomial authority. Paul Matschie in 1912 and Joel Asaph Allen in 1920 challenged the validity of Güldenstädt's nomenclature, arguing that the name Felis auriculis apice nigro barbatis was not a binomen and therefore improper, and that "chaus" was used as a common name rather than as part of the scientific name.
In the 1820s, Eduard Rüppell collected a female jungle cat near Lake Manzala in the Nile Delta. Thomas Hardwicke’s collection of illustrations of Indian wildlife comprises the first drawing of an Indian jungle cat, named the "allied cat" (Felis affinis) by John Edward Gray in 1830. Two years later, Johann Friedrich von Brandt proposed a new species under the name Felis rüppelii, recognising the distinctness of the Egyptian jungle cat. The same year, a stuffed cat was presented at a meeting of the Asiatic Society of Bengal that had been caught in the jungles of Midnapore in West Bengal, India. J. T. Pearson, who donated the specimen, proposed the name Felis kutas, noting that it differed in colouration from Felis chaus. Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire described a jungle cat from the area of Dehra Dun in northern India in 1844 under the name Felis jacquemontii in memory of Victor Jacquemont.
In 1836, Brian Houghton Hodgson proclaimed the red-eared cat commonly found in Nepal to be a lynx and therefore named it Lynchus erythrotus; Edward Frederick Kelaart described the first jungle cat skin from Sri Lanka in 1852 and stressed upon its close resemblance to Hodgson's red cat. William Thomas Blanford pointed out the lynx-like appearance of cat skins and skulls from the plains around Yarkant County and Kashgar when he described Felis shawiana in 1876.
Nikolai Severtzov proposed the generic name Catolynx in 1858, followed by Leopold Fitzinger's suggestion to call it Chaus catolynx in 1869. In 1898, William Edward de Winton proposed to subordinate the specimens from the Caucasus, Persia and Turkestan to Felis chaus typica, and regrouped the lighter built specimens from the Indian subcontinent to F. c. affinis. He renamed the Egyptian jungle cat as F. c. nilotica because Felis rüppelii was already applied to a different cat. A skin collected near Jericho in 1864 led him to describe a new subspecies, F. c. furax, as this skin was smaller than other Egyptian jungle cat skins. A few years later, Alfred Nehring also described a jungle cat skin collected in Palestine, which he named Lynx chrysomelanotis. Reginald Innes Pocock reviewed the nomenclature of felids in 1917 and classified the jungle cat group as part of the genus Felis. In the 1930s, Pocock reviewed the jungle cat skins and skulls from British India and adjacent countries. Based mainly on differences in fur length and colour he subordinated the zoological specimens from Turkestan to Balochistan to F. c. chaus, the Himalayan ones to F. c. affinis, the ones from Cutch to Bengal under F. c. kutas, and the tawnier ones from Burma under F. c. fulvidina. He newly described six larger skins from Sind as F. c. prateri, and skins with shorter coats from Sri Lanka and southern India as F. c. kelaarti.
In 2005, the authors of Mammal Species of the World recognized 10 subspecies as valid taxa. Since 2017, the Cat Specialist Group considers only three subspecies as valid. Geographical variation of the jungle cat is not yet well understood and needs to be examined. The following table is based on the classification of the species provided in Mammal Species of the World. It also shows the synonyms used in the revision of the Cat Classification Task Force:
|F. c. chaus Schreber, 1777||
||Caucasus, Turkestan, Iran, Baluchistan and Yarkand, Chinese Turkestan, Palestine, southern Syria, Iraq, Egypt; northern Afghanistan and south of the Amu Darya River; along the right tributaries of the Amu Darya River, in the lower courses of the Vakhsh River ranging eastwards to the Gissar Valley and slightly beyond Dushanbe.|
|F. c. affinis Gray, 1830||
||South Asia: Himalayan region ranging from Kashmir and Nepal to Sikkim, Bengal westwards to Kutch and Yunnan, southern India and Sri Lanka|
|F. c. fulvidina Thomas, 1929||Southeast Asia: ranging from Myanmar and Thailand to Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam|
The jungle cat is a medium-sized, long-legged cat, and the largest of the extant Felis species. The head-and-body length is typically between 59 and 76 cm (23 and 30 in). This cat stands nearly 36 cm (14 in) at shoulder and weighs 2–16 kg (4.4–35.3 lb). Its body size decreases from west (Israel) to east (India); this was attributed to greater competition from small cats in the east; body size shows a similar decrease from the northern latitudes toward the tropics. Sexually dimorphic, females tend to be smaller and lighter than males. The face is long and narrow, with a white muzzle. The large, pointed ears, 4.5–8 cm (1.8–3.1 in) in length and reddish brown on the back, are set close together; a small tuft of black hairs, nearly 15 mm (0.59 in) long, emerges from the tip of both ears. The eyes have yellow irides and elliptical pupils; white lines can be seen around the eye. Dark lines run from the corner of the eyes down the sides of the nose and a dark patch marks the nose. The skull is fairly broad in the region of the zygomatic arch; hence the head of this cat appears relatively rounder.
The coat, sandy, reddish brown or grey, is uniformly coloured and lacks spots; melanistic and albino individuals have been reported from the Indian subcontinent. White cats observed in the coastline tracts of the southern Western Ghats lacked the red eyes typical of true albinos. A 2014 suggested that their colouration could be attributed to inbreeding. Kittens are striped and spotted, and adults may retain some of the markings. Dark-tipped hairs cover the body, giving the cat a speckled appearance. The belly is generally lighter than the rest of the body and the throat is pale. The fur is denser on the back compared to the underparts. Two moults can be observed in a year; the coat is rougher and lighter in summer than in winter. The insides of the forelegs show four to five rings; faint markings may be seen on the outside. The black-tipped tail, 21 to 36 cm (8.3 to 14.2 in) long, is marked by two to three dark rings on the last third of the length. The pawprints measure about 5 cm × 6 cm (2.0 in × 2.4 in); the cat can cover 29 to 32 cm (11 to 13 in) in one step. There is a distinct spinal crest. Because of its long legs, short tail and tuft on the ears, the jungle cat resembles a small lynx. The caracal and the African wildcat have a plain coat as the jungle cat's. The jungle cat is larger and slenderer in comparison to domestic cats.
The distribution of jungle cat is largely oriental; it occurs in the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, central and Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka and in southern China. It is the most common small wild cat in India. Thought to be absent south of the Isthmus of Kra in the Malayan peninsula, the possibility of its occurrence was reported from a highly fragmented forest in the Malaysian state of Selangor in 2010.
A habitat generalist, the jungle cat inhabits places with adequate water and dense vegetation, such as swamps, wetlands, littoral and riparian areas, grasslands and shrub. It is common in agricultural lands, such as fields of bean and sugarcane, across its range, and has often been sighted near human settlements. As reeds and tall grasses are typical of its habitat, it is known as "reed cat" or "swamp cat". It can thrive even in areas of sparse vegetation, but does not adapt well to cold climates and is rare in areas where snowfall is common. Historical records indicate that it occurs up to elevations of 2,310 m (7,580 ft) in the Himalayas. It shuns rainforests and woodlands.
In Turkey, it has been recorded in wetlands near Manavgat, in the Akyatan Lagoon on the southern coast and near Lake Eğirdir. In the Palestinian territories, it was recorded in the Nablus, Jerusalem, Ramallah and Jericho Governorates in the West Bank during surveys carried out between 2012 and 2016. In Iran, it inhabits a variety of habitat types from plains and agriculture lands to mountains ranging from 45 to 4,178 m (148 to 13,707 ft) altitudes in at least 23 of 31 provinces of Iran.
The jungle cat is typically diurnal and hunts throughout the day. Its activity tends to decrease during the hot noon hours. It rests in burrows, grass thickets and scrubs. It often sunbathes on winter days. Jungle cats have been estimated to walk 3–6 kilometres (1.9–3.7 mi) at night, although this likely varies depending on the availability of prey. The behaviour of the jungle cat has not been extensively studied. Solitary in nature, it does not associate with conspecifics, except in the mating season. The only prominent interaction is the mother-kitten bond. Territories are maintained by urine spraying and scent marking; some males have been observed rubbing their cheeks on objects to mark them.
Bears, crocodiles, golden jackals, leopards and snakes are the main predators of the jungle cat. The golden jackal, particularly, can be a major competitor to the cat. When it encounters a threat, the jungle cat will vocalise before engaging in attack, producing sounds like small roars – a behavior uncommon for the other members of Felis. The meow of the jungle cat is also somewhat lower than that of a typical domestic cat. The jungle cat can host parasites such as Haemaphysalis ticks and Heterophyes trematode species.
Primarily a carnivore, the jungle cat prefers small mammals such as gerbils, hares and rodents. It also hunts birds, fish, frogs, insects and small snakes. Its prey typically weighs less than 1 kg (2.2 lb), and occasionally includes mammals as large as young gazelles. The jungle cat is unusual in that it is partially omnivorous: it eats fruits, especially in winter. In a study carried out in Sariska Tiger Reserve, rodents were found to comprise as much as 95% of its diet.
The jungle cat hunts by stalking its prey, followed by a sprint or a leap; the sharp ears help in pinpointing the location of prey. It uses different techniques to secure prey. The cat has been observed searching for musk rats in their holes. Like the caracal, the jungle cat can perform one or two high leaps into the air to grab birds. It is an efficient climber as well. The jungle cat has been clocked at 32 km/h (20 mph). It is an efficient swimmer, and can swim up to 1.5 km (0.93 mi) in water and plunge into water to catch fish.
Both sexes become sexually mature by the time they are one year old. Females enter oestrus lasting for about five days, from January to March. In males, spermatogenesis occurs mainly in February and March. In southern Turkmenistan, mating occurs from January to early February. The mating season is marked by noisy fights among males for dominance. Mating behaviour is similar to that in the domestic cat: the male pursues the female in oestrus, seizes her by the nape of her neck and mounts her. Vocalisations and flehmen are prominent during courtship. After a successful copulation, the female gives out a loud cry and reacts with aversion towards her partner. The pair then separate.
Gestation lasts nearly two months. Births take place between December and June, though this might vary geographically. Before parturition, the mother prepares a den of grass in an abandoned animal burrow, hollow tree or reed bed. Litters comprise one to five kittens, typically two to three kittens. Females can raise two litters in a year. Kittens weigh between 43 and 55 g (1.5 and 1.9 oz) at birth, tending to be much smaller in the wild than in captivity. Initially blind and helpless, they open their eyes at 10 to 13 days of age and are fully weaned by around three months. Males usually do not participate in the raising of kittens; however, in captivity, males appear to be very protective of their offspring. Kittens begin to catch their own prey at around six months and leave the mother after eight or nine months. The lifespan of the jungle cat in captivity is 15 to 20 years; this is possibly higher than that in the wild.
Major threats to the jungle cat include habitat loss such as the destruction of wetlands, dam construction, environmental pollution, industrialisation and urbanisation. Illegal hunting is a threat in Turkey and Iran. Its rarity in Southeast Asia is possibly due to high levels of hunting. Since the 1960s, populations of the Caucasian jungle cat living along the Caspian Sea and in the Caucasus range states have been rapidly declining. Only small populations persist today. There has been no record in the Astrakhan Nature Reserve in the Volga Delta since the 1980s. It is rare in the Middle East. In Jordan, it is highly affected by the expansion of agricultural areas around the river beds of Yarmouk and Jordan rivers, where farmers hunted and poisoned jungle cats in retaliation for attacking poultry. It is also considered rare and threatened in Afghanistan. India exported jungle cat skins in large numbers, until this trade was banned in 1979; some illegal trade, however, continues in the country, as well as in Egypt and Afghanistan.
In the 1970s, Southeast Asian jungle cats still used to be the most common wild cats near villages in certain parts of northern Thailand and occurred in many protected areas of the country. However, since the early 1990s, jungle cats are rarely encountered and have suffered drastic declines due to hunting and habitat destruction. Today, their official status in the country is critically endangered. In Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, jungle cats have been subject to extensive hunting. Skins are occasionally recorded in border markets, and live individuals, possibly taken from Myanmar or Cambodia, occasionally turn up in the Khao Khieo and Chiang Mai zoos of Thailand.
The jungle cat is listed under CITES Appendix II. Hunting is prohibited in Bangladesh, China, India, Israel, Myanmar, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Thailand and Turkey. But it does not receive legal protection outside protected areas in Bhutan, Georgia, Laos, Lebanon, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Vietnam.
Cats in ancient Egypt were represented in social and religious practices of Ancient Egypt for more than 30 centuries. Several Ancient Egyptian deities were depicted and sculptured with cat-like heads such as Mafdet, Bastet and Sekhmet, representing justice, fertility and power.
The deity Mut was also depicted as a cat and in the company of a cat.Cats were praised for killing venomous snakes and protecting the Pharaoh since at least the First Dynasty of Egypt. Skeletal remains of cats were found among funerary goods dating to the 12th Dynasty. The protective function of cats is indicated in the Book of the Dead, where a cat represents Ra and the benefits of the sun for life on Earth. Cat-shaped decorations used during the New Kingdom of Egypt indicate that the cat cult became more popular in daily life. Cats were depicted in association with the name of Bastet.Cat cemeteries at the archaeological sites Speos Artemidos, Bubastis and Saqqara were used for several centuries. They contained vast numbers of cat mummies and cat statues that are exhibited in museum collections worldwide.
Among the mummified animals excavated in Gizeh, the African wildcat (Felis lybica) is the most common cat followed by the jungle cat (Felis chaus).
In view of the huge number of cat mummies found in Egypt, the cat cult was certainly important for the country's economy, as it required breeding of cats and a trading network for the supply of food, oils and resins for embalming them.Chausie
The Chausie () is a domestic breed of cat that was developed by breeding a few individuals from the non-domestic species jungle cat (Felis chaus) to a far greater number of domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus). The Chausie was first recognized as a domestic breed by The International Cat Association (TICA) in 1995. Within the domestic breeds, the Chausie is categorized as a non-domestic hybrid source breed. Because Chausies are mostly descended from domestic cats, by about the fourth generation they are fully fertile and completely domestic in temperament.Felid hybrid
A felid hybrid is any of a number of hybrid between various species of the cat family, Felidae. This article deals with hybrids between the species of the subfamily Felinae (feline hybrids). For hybrids between two species of the genus Panthera (lions, tigers, jaguars, and leopards), see Panthera hybrid. There are no known hybrids between Neofelis (the clouded leopard) and other genera. By contrast, many genera of Felinae are interfertile with each other, though few hybridize under natural conditions, and not all combinations are likely to be viable (e.g. between the tiny rusty-spotted cat and the leopard-sized cougar).Felis
Felis is a genus of small and medium-sized cat species native to most of Africa and south of 60° latitude in Europe and Asia to Indochina.The genus includes the domestic cat. The smallest Felis species is the black-footed cat with a head and body length from 38 to 42 cm (15 to 17 in). The largest is the jungle cat with a head and body length from 62 to 76 cm (24 to 30 in).Felis species inhabit a wide range of different habitats, from swampland to desert, and generally hunt small rodents, birds and other small animals, depending on their local environment. The worldwide introduction of the domestic cat also made it common to urban landscapes around the globe.Genetic studies indicate that Felis, Otocolobus and Prionailurus diverged from a Eurasian progenitor about 6.2 million years ago, and that Felis species split off 3.04 to 0.99 million years ago.Felis chaus affinis
Felis chaus affinis is a jungle cat subspecies.
It was described by British zoologist John Edward Gray in 1830 based on an illustration by Thomas Hardwicke.Felis chaus chaus
Felis chaus chaus is the nominate subspecies of the jungle cat.The Baltic-German naturalist Johann Anton Güldenstädt was the first scientist who observed a jungle cat in the southern frontier of the Russian empire during his travels in 1768–1775 undertaken on behalf of Catherine II of Russia. He described the cat in 1776 under the name "chaus".Felis chaus fulvidina
Felis chaus fulvidina is a jungle cat subspecies.
The mammal collector of the Natural History Museum Oldfield Thomas described the first jungle cat from Indochina in 1928.It occurs mainly in deciduous forests rich in dipterocarp trees.
Since the early 1990s, jungle cats have been rarely encountered in Thailand, and have suffered drastic declines due to hunting and habitat destruction. Today, their official status in the country is critically endangered. In Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, jungle cats have been subject to extensive hunting. Skins are occasionally recorded in border markets, and live individuals, possibly taken from Myanmar or Cambodia, occasionally turn up in the Khao Khieo and Chiang Mai zoos of Thailand.Highlander cat
The Highlander (also known as the Highlander Shorthair, and originally as the Highland Lynx), is an experimental breed of cat. The unique appearance of the Highlander comes from the deliberate cross between the Desert Lynx and the Jungle Curl breeds, also recently developed. The latter of these has some non-domestic ancestry from two Asian small cat species, the leopard cat and jungle cat, making the Highlander nominally a feline hybrid, though its foundation stock is mostly domestic cat.Jungle Cat (film)
Jungle Cat is a 1960 American documentary film written and directed by James Algar. The documentary chronicles the life of a female spotted jaguar in the South American jungle. The film was released on August 10, 1960, by Buena Vista Distribution.Jungle Cat World
Jungle Cat World, originally named "Orono Exotic Cat World," is a wildlife park that was established in 1983 by Wolfram and Christa Klose. The park is still owned and operated by the Klose family. It is located in Orono, Ontario, Canada, approximately 45 minutes east of Toronto off of Highway 35/115. Jungle Cat World is open year round and has many other mammals and birds aside from its cats. The reptiles, amphibians, and invertebrates at the zoo are used for educational wildlife programs but are not on public display.
Jungle Cat World was initially just a tourist attraction to show exotic animals, primarily for recreation rather than education. Over the years, the park has taken a much more active role in educating visitors. Every day, a zookeeper leads an educational feeding tour around the wildlife park, during which the large cats, wolves, and primates are fed. The Wildlife Safari Outreach Program brings the Jungle Cat World's staff and animals to institutions, events, and television shows. As the Wildlife Educator provides information and conservation facts at these functions, the Animal Coordinator handles and displays the animals to the audience. Jungle Cat World's Night Safari is a guided tour around the wildlife park at night. This allows the public an opportunity to observe some of the activities of the nocturnal animals. "Behind the Scenes" is a private forty-five-minute program with an Animal Coordinator. It offers hands on experience and a photo opportunity with three of the animals at the zoo. Jungle Cat World also has a bed and breakfast lodge, hosts birthday parties, and is home to a residential summer camp.
The park has been accredited by the Canadian Association of Zoos and Aquariums (CAZA) since 1989 and is a member of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA). Jungle Cat World is also supported by the Endangered Species Fund of Canada.Animals have escaped from the zoo in the past. In 2011 a wolf escaped and was shot by a local resident. There was also a report from some neighbors that 2 arctic wolves had escaped sometime in the past, and had also been shot. There was never any official report of that incident, so it is more of an urban legend.Kakoijana reserved forest
Kakoijana reserved forest is located near Abhayapuri in Bongaigaon district of Assam. The forest is famous for golden langur. The forest is 17.24 km2.The forest consist of around 60 endangered Golden langurs as well as scheduled I endangered species. People and non-governmental organisations are pressing hard to convert it into an wildlife sanctuary. Golden langurs are listed in the category of "rare species" in the Red Data Book of International Union for Conservation of Nature. It is home to rarest & highly endangered species like Binturong, Jungle Fowl, Pangolin, Hornbill, Leopard, Porcupine, Python, Lesser Adjutant, Stork, Flying Squirrel, Monitor Lizard, Barking Deer, Mongoose, Civets, Jungle Cat, Wild Cat.
Many research work has been done on primates here.List of Calvin and Hobbes books
Bill Watterson wrote a total of nineteen official Calvin and Hobbes books have been published in the United States by Andrews McMeel Publishing; the first, entitled simply Calvin and Hobbes, was released in April 1987, and the most recent, Exploring Calvin and Hobbes: An Exhibition Catalogue, was released in February 2015.
A twentieth official Calvin and Hobbes book, a children's textbook by the title of Teaching with Calvin and Hobbes, was published under license in 1993 by Playground Publishing in Fargo, North Dakota.
Before the release of The Complete Calvin and Hobbes in 2005, the complete set of newspaper strips were collected in the following eight books:
The Essential Calvin and Hobbes, 1988
The Authoritative Calvin and Hobbes, 1990
The Indispensable Calvin and Hobbes, 1992
Attack of the Deranged Mutant Killer Monster Snow Goons, 1992
The Days Are Just Packed, 1993
Homicidal Psycho Jungle Cat, 1994
There's Treasure Everywhere, 1996
It's a Magical World, 1996List of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries of Gujarat, India
The Gujarat state of western India has four National Parks and twenty-three wildlife sancturies which are managed by the Forest Department of the Government of Gujarat.Lynx
A lynx (; plural lynx or lynxes) is any of the four species (Canada lynx, Iberian lynx, Eurasian lynx, bobcat) within the medium-sized wild cat genus Lynx. The name lynx originated in Middle English via Latin from the Greek word λύγξ, derived from the Indo-European root leuk- ('light, brightness') in reference to the luminescence of its reflective eyes.Two other cats that are sometimes called lynxes, the caracal (desert lynx) and the jungle cat (jungle lynx), are not members of the genus Lynx.Purfleet Road, Aveley
Purfleet Road, Aveley is a 4 hectare geological Site of Special Scientific Interest in Aveley in Essex.The site was exposed as a result of excavations for building the A13 road in 1997. It dates to the interglacial period, MIS7, around 200,000 years ago. The site has yielded mollusc insect and mammal fossils, including the first jungle cat discovered in Britain. It is described by Natural England as a "site of national importance for the study of Quaternary environments and climates".There is access to the site from Purfleet Road, but no geology is visible as the excavations have been filled in.Safari Zoo Camp
Safari Zoo Camp is a residential summer camp program that allows children, teenagers and adults to work with animals at Jungle Cat World, a zoological park that is accredited by the Canadian Association of Zoos and Aquariums.Senchal Wildlife Sanctuary
Senchal Wildlife Sanctuary was set up in 1915 in the Darjeeling District of West Bengal, India. It is one of the oldest wildlife sanctuaries of India. It covers an area of 38.6 km2 (14.9 sq mi). The elevation ranges from 1,500 to 2,600 m (4,900 to 8,500 ft).
High-altitude animals such as barking deer, wild pig, himalayan black bear, leopard, jungle cat, common rhesus monkey, Assam macaque, Himalayan flying squirrel, etc. are found in their natural habitats. The sanctuary is also rich in bird life. The two Senchal lakes supply drinking water to the town of Darjeeling.True-Life Adventures
True-Life Adventures series is a collection of fourteen full length and short subject documentary films produced by Walt Disney Productions roughly between the years 1948 and 1960. The series won eight Academy Awards for the studio including three Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature awards for The Living Desert, The Vanishing Prairie and White Wilderness, and five Best Two Reel Live Action Short awards for Seal Island, In Beaver Valley, Nature's Half Acre, Water Birds, and Bear Country. It inspired a daily panel comic strip that was distributed from 1955 to 1971 and drawn by George Wheeler. Several of the films were adapted in comic book format as one shots in the Dell Comics Four Color series. The films were among the earliest production experience for Roy E. Disney. Also this film series was the launching pad for Disney's new distributor, Buena Vista International. TV episodes are from Disney's anthology TV series.
In 2007, Disney established a new nature film label called Disneynature.
Extant Carnivora species