Jumu'ah

Jumu'ah (Arabic: صلاة الجمعة‎, ṣalāt al-jumu‘ah), also known as Friday Prayer or Congregational Prayer, is a prayer (ṣalāt) that Muslims hold every Friday, just after noon instead of the Zuhr prayer. Muslims pray ordinarily five times each day according to the sun's sky path regardless of time zones.[1]

UTM-friday
Jumu'ah at a university in Malaysia

Meaning

ṣalāt al-jum‘ah, in some areas transliterated as salaat-ul-Jumu'ah (the Friday prayer), is a religious obligation which takes the place of the daily afternoon prayer (Zuhr prayer, Arabic: ṣalāt aẓ-ẓuhr) on Friday. It is one of the most exalted Islamic rituals and one of its confirmed obligatory acts.[2]

Etymology

The name al-Jumu'ah is derived from the verb ijta'ama which means the gathering together of people. "[3]

Name variations

Region/country Language Main
Arab world Arabic صلاة الجمعة (Ṣalāh al-Jumu'ah)
Iran, Afghanistan Persian نماز جمعه (Namaz Jumah)
North India, East India, Pakistan Urdu نماز جمعہ (Namaz e Jumma)
Bangladesh, West Bengal, North-east India Bengali জুম'আ, জুম্মা (Jum'aa, jumma)
Turkey Turkish Cuma namazı
Azerbaijan Azeri Cümə namazı
Balkans Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian Džuma-namaz
Balkans Albanian language Namazi i Xhumasë
Poland Polish Dżummuah
Spain, Latin America Spanish Yumu'ah
Somalia, Djibouti Somali Salaadda Jimce
Southeast Asia Bahasa Indonesia, Bahasa Melayu Salat jumat, Solat jumaat
Java Basa Jawa Jemuwahan
Uzbekistan Uzbek Juma namozi, Жума намози
Southern Russia Russian Джума-намаз
Iraqi Kurdistan Sorani نوێژی ھەینی
Central Anatolia Kurmanji Nimiya Îniyê, نمیا ئینیێ
Northwest China Uyghur, Chinese جۈمە نامىزى, 主麻

Obligation

There is consensus among all the Muslims regarding the Friday prayer (salat al-jumu’ah) being wajib in accordance with the aboved quoted Qur'anic verse,as well as the many traditions narrated both by Shi’i and Sunni sources. According to the majority of Sunni schools and some Shiite jurists, Friday prayer is a religious obligation,[4] but their differences were based on to whether its obligation is conditional to the presence of the ruler or his deputy in it or if it is wajib unconditionally. The Hanafis and the Imamis state: The presence of the ruler or his deputy is necessary; the Friday prayer is not obligatory if neither of them is present. The Imamis require the ruler to be just (‘adil); otherwise his presence is equal to his absence. To the Hanafis, his presence is sufficient even if he is not just. The Shafi’is, Malikis and Hanbalis attach no significance to the presence of the ruler. "[5]

  • Moreover, it has been stated that Jumu'ah is not obligatory for the following groups of people: Old men, children, women, slaves(who where present until islam banned it), travellers, the sick, blind and disabled, as well as those who are outside the limit of two farsakhs.[6]

In the Quran

It is mentioned in the Quran:

O ye who believe! When the call is proclaimed to prayer on Friday (the Day of Assembly, yawm al-jumu'ah), hasten earnestly to the Remembrance of Allah, and leave off business (and traffic): That is best for you if ye but knew!
And when the Prayer is finished, then may ye disperse through the land, and seek of the Bounty of Allah: and celebrate the Praises of Allah often (and without stint): that ye may prosper.

— Qur'an, sura 62 (Al-Jumua), āyāt 9-10[7]

In Sunnah

From hadith:

Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "On every Friday the angels take their stand at every gate of the mosques to write the names of the people chronologically (i.e. according to the time of their arrival for the Friday prayer) and when the Imam sits (on the pulpit) they fold up their scrolls and get ready to listen to the sermon."

Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj an-Naysaburi relates that the Islamic prophet Muhammad used to read Surah 87 (Al-Ala) and Surah 88, (Al-Ghashiya), in Eid Prayers and also in Friday prayers. If one of the festivals fell on a Friday, Muhammad would have made sure to read these two Surahs in the prayers.

Muhammad is quoted as saying “The best day the sun rises over is Friday; on it Allah created Adam. On it, he was made to enter paradise, on it he was expelled from it, and the Last Hour will take place on no other day than Friday.”[ Ahmad and At-At-Tirmithi].

Aws ibn Aws, narrated that Muhammad said: “Whoever performs Ghusl on Friday and causes (his wife) to do ghusl, then goes early to the mosque and attends from the beginning of the Khutbah and draws near to the Imam and listens to him attentively, Allah will give him the full reward of fasting all the days of a year and observing night-vigil on each of its nights for every step that he took towards the mosque.”[Ibn Khuzaymah, Ahmad].

In Sunni Islam

Fatih Mosque-Prishtinë
Jumu'ah prayer in Pristina

The Jumu'ah prayer is half the Zuhr (dhuhr) prayer, for convenience, preceded by a khutbah (a sermon as a technical replacement of the two reduced rakaʿāt of the ordinary Zuhr (dhuhr) prayer), and followed by a congregational prayer, led by the imām. In most cases the khaṭīb also serves as the imam. Attendance is strictly incumbent upon all adult males who are legal residents of the locality.[9] The muezzin (muʾadhdhin) makes the call to prayer, called the adhan, usually 15–20 minutes prior to the start of Jum'ah. When the khaṭīb takes his place on the minbar, a second adhan is made. The khaṭīb is supposed to deliver two sermons, stopping and sitting briefly between them. In practice, the first sermon is longer and contains most of the content. The second sermon is very brief and concludes with a dua, after which the muezzin calls the iqāmah. This signals the start of the main two rak'at prayer of Jumu'ah.

In Shia Islam

Friday prayer (Tehran, 2016) 01
Friday prayer (Tehran, 2016), Ayatollah Jannati as the Imam of Friday prayer

In Shia Islam, Salat al-Jumuah is Wajib Takhyiri (at the time of Occultation),[10][11] which means that we have an option to offer Jumuah prayers, if its necessary conditions are fulfilled, or to offer Zuhr prayers. Hence, if Salat al-Jumuah is offered then it is not necessary to offer Zuhr prayer. It is also recommended by Shiite Scholars to attend Jumu'ah as it will become Wajib after the appearance of Imam al-Mahdi and Jesus Christ (Isa). [12] Shiite(Imamite) attach high significance to the presence of a just ruler or his representative or Faqih and In the absence of a just Ruler or his representative and a just faqih, there exists an option between performing either the Friday or the zuhr prayer, although preference lies with the performance of Friday prayer. "[5]

In the History of Islam

According to the history of Islam and the report from Abdullah bn 'Abbas narrated from the Prophet saying that: the permission to perform the Friday prayer was given by Allah before hijrah, but the people were unable to congregate and perform it. The Prophet wrote a note to Mus'ab b. Umair, who represented the Prophet in Madinah to pray to raka'at in congregation on Friday (that is, Jumu'ah). Then, after the migration of the Prophet to Medina, the Jumu'ah was held by him.[13]

For Shiites, historically, their clergy discouraged Shiites from attending Friday prayers.[14][15] According to them, communal Friday prayers with a sermon were wrong and had lapsed (along with several other religious practices) until the return of their 12th Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi.[15] However, among others, Shiite modernist Muhammad ibn Muhammad Mahdi al-Khalisi (1890-1963) demanded that Shiites should more carefully observe Friday prayers in a step to bridge the gap with Sunnis.[16] Later, the practice of communal Friday prayers was developed, and became standard there-afterwards, by Ruhollah Khomeini in Iran and later by Mohammad Mohammad Sadeq al-Sadr in Iraq. They justified the practice under the newly promoted Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists doctrine. When al-Sadr installed Friday prayer imams in Shia-majority areas—a practice not traditional in Iraqi Shiism and considered "revolutionary, if not heretical"[15]—it put him at odds with the Shia religious establishment in Najaf.[17] Under both Khomeini and al-Sadr, political sermons would be heard.[15]

Attendance rates

The communal prayers have higher compliance of worshipers, as compared to the non-communal ritual prayers. In Turkey for example, the ritual prayers are performed regularly by 44% of the whole adult population, whereas Friday prayers were regularly attended by 56% (25% responded that they sometimes attended and 19% that they didn't).[18] According to the book Everything You Know About God Is Wrong: The Disinformation Guide to Religion, surveys conducted by Iran's Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, less than 1.4% of Iranians attend Friday prayers.[19]

Conditions

An accurate Jumu'ah was said to fulfill certain conditions, including the follows :

  • Friday prayer must be prayed in congregational.
  • There must be at least 5 (better 7) persons including the Imam.
  • According to some Shiite law Only one Friday prayer may be prayed in a radius of 3 miles 720 yards. If two prayers are held within this distance, the later will be null and void.
  • There must be two sermons delivered by the Imam before the prayer and attentively listened to by at least 4 (or 6) persons".[20]

Format

Khutbah Jumu'ah

  • Khutbah(jumu'ah) is refers to as a talk or sermon delivered in mosques before the Friday prayer.[21] The sermon consists of two distinct parts and between the two parts of the sermon the Khatib(speaker) must sits down for a short time of rest.[22]
  • Among the rules that had been stated for khutbah jumu'ah one is that there should not be an undue interval or irrelevant action intervening between the sermon and the prayer. "[23] It should preferably be in Arabic, especially the Qur'anic passage which has to be recited in the sermon. Otherwise, it should be given in the language understood by the majority of the faithful who are there. But in this case the preacher should first recite in Arabic Qurʾānic verses and formulas praising God and Muhammad. "[24]
  • According to the majority of Shiite and Sunni doctrine, the contents of Friday sermon(Khutbah) must contain the following: "[25]
  1. The praise and glorification of Allah.
  2. Invocation of blessings on Muhammad and his Progeny
  3. Enjoining the participants Taqwa,admonition and exhorations.
  4. Reciting short surah from Quran
  • Also, in addition to the aboved said issues, the followings were advice to be address in the second sermon :
  1. What will be useful for all Muslims in this world and hereafter.
  2. The important events allover the world in-favor or dis-favor of Muslims.
  3. special attention should be paid to issues in the Muslim world.
  4. Political and economical aspect of the society and worldwide."[26] "[27]
  • Among the manner of Jumu'ah is that the attendants must listen attentively to the sermon and avoid any action that might distract their attentions."[26]

Jumu'ah prayer

  • Jumu'ah prayer consists of two rak'ats prayer just like morning(fajr)prayer,offer immediately after Khutbah(sermon).And it is a replacement of Zuhr prayer.[12]
  • According to Shiite doctrine it is advisable(Sunnat) to recite Surah al-Jumu’ah in the first rak'at and Surah al-Munafiqun in the second rak'at, after Surah al-Hamd.[20]

Qunut

  • According to shiite doctrine,two qunut(raising one hands for supplication during salat)n is specially recommended during salatul Jumu'ah. The first Qunut offers in the 1st rak’at before ruku’ and the second one offer in the 2nd rak’at after rising from ruku’.[20]

Significance in tradition

There are many hadiths(traditions) reported on the significance of Jumu'ah. among whom are quoted below:

  • The Prophet has been reported saying:"The Jumu'ah is the pilgrimage (Hajj) of the poor". "[28]
  • The Prophet also said:"Whoever misses three Jumu'ah, being indifferent to them, Allah seals his heart".[29]
  • It has been related from Ahmad that the Prophet said: “A worshipper who washes fully on Friday then comes to Salatul Jumuޏah in the early time, then listens to the Imam's speeches and does not do anything wrong, Allah will grant this worshipper the reward of one year of fasting and prayer.[30]
  • Furthermore, Prophet Muhammed was quoted saying : “Any Muslim who dies during the day or night of Friday will be protected by Allah from the trial of the grave.” [At-Tirmithi and Ahmad].
  • Also, hadith related by Al-Bukhari,quoted the Prophet saying that: "In the day of friday, there exists an hour that if a worshipper asks from Allah, anything he wishes in this hour, Allah will grant it and does not reject it,as long as he or she did not wishing for bad".

[30]

  • Similarly, it is narrated that the Prophet said : "Friday has 12 hours, one of which is hour where dua are granted for Muslim believers. This hour is thought to be in the after noon, after Asr prayer".[31]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Dar ul Haqq Islamic Institute - Masjed At Taqwaa". Reno Mosque. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
  2. ^ Fahd Salem Bahammam. The Muslim’s Prayer. Modern Guide. Archived from the original on 1 May 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  3. ^ "Hussain, Musharraf." The five pillars of Islam: Laying the foundations of divine love and service to humanity. Kube Publishing Ltd,Oct 10, 2012
  4. ^ "Hashemi, Kamran." Religious legal traditions, international human rights law and Muslim states.vol.7.Brill, 2008
  5. ^ a b "Maghniyyah, M. J." The Five Schools of Islamic Law: Al-hanafi. Al-hanbali, Al-ja'fari, Al-maliki, Al-shafi'i. Anssariyan, 1995
  6. ^ "Al-Tusi, M. H."A concise description of Islamic law and legal opinions.". 2008
  7. ^ Quran 62:9–10
  8. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 2:13:51
  9. ^ Margoliouth, G. (2003). "Sabbath (Muhammadan)". In Hastings, James. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. 20. Selbie, John A., contrib. Kessinger Publishing. pp. 893–894. ISBN 978-0-7661-3698-4. Retrieved 17 March 2009.
  10. ^ Salah Jum'ah article.tebyan.net Retrieved 24 June 2018
  11. ^ Namaz (Prayer) Jum'a farsi.khamenei.ir Retrieved 24 June 2018
  12. ^ a b "Sayyid Ali Al Husaini Seestani."Islamic Laws English Version of Taudhihul Masae'l.Createspace Independent, 2014
  13. ^ Rafat, Amari (2004). Islam: In Light of History. Religion Research Institute.
  14. ^ Gilles Kepel (2004). The War for Muslim Minds: Islam and the West (illustrated ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 226. ISBN 9780674015753.
  15. ^ a b c d Jonathan Steele (12 Jan 2008). Defeat: Why They Lost Iraq. I.B.Tauris. p. 96. ISBN 9780857712004.
  16. ^ Brunner, Rainer; Ende, Werner, eds. (1 Jan 2001). The Twelver Shia in Modern Times: Religious Culture and Political History (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 178. ISBN 9789004118034.
  17. ^ Joel Rayburn (1 Aug 2014). Iraq after America: Strongmen, Sectarians, Resistance. Hoover Institution Press. p. 173. ISBN 9780817916947.
  18. ^ "Religion, Secularism and the Veil in Daily Life" (PDF). KONDA Research and Consultancy. 8 September 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 November 2010.
  19. ^ Russ Kick; Nasrin Alavi (1 Jun 2007). Kick, Russ, ed. Everything You Know About God Is Wrong: The Disinformation Guide to Religion. Reformation Hymns: Islam, Iran, and Blogs: Red Wheel Weiser. ISBN 9781934708378. Yet according to surveys by Iran's own Ministry of Culture and Guidance, fewer than 1.4 percent of the population actually bothers to attend Friday prayers.
  20. ^ a b c Akhtar Rizvi, Sayyid Saeed (1989). Elements of Islamic Studies. Bilal Muslim Mission of Tanzania.
  21. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-09-19. Retrieved 2018-02-03.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  22. ^ ʻAlī Nadvī, Abulḥasan (2006). The Musalman. the University of Michigan.
  23. ^ "Muhammad Abdul-Rauf." Islam Creed and Worship. Islamic Center, 2008
  24. ^ "Chanfi Ahmed" West African ʿulamāʾ and Salafism in Mecca and Medina. Journal of Religion in Africa 47.2 , 2018. Reference. 2018
  25. ^ "Sabiq As-Sayyid" "FIQH us-SUNNAH". Indianapolis: American Trust Publishers, 1992.
  26. ^ a b "Ayatullah Shahid Murtadha Mutahhari"Salatul Jumuah in the Thoughts and Words of Ayatullah Shahid Murtadha Mutahhari . Al-Fath Al-Mubin Publications.
  27. ^ "Ilyas Ba-Yunus, Kassim Kone" Muslims in the United States. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006.
  28. ^ "Shomali, Mohammad Ali and William Skudlarek, eds." Monks and Muslims: Monastic Spirituality in Dialogue with Islam. Liturgical Press, 2012.
  29. ^ Rayshahri, M. Muhammadi (2008). Scale of Wisdom: A Compendium of Shi'a Hadith: Bilingual Edition. ICAS Press.
  30. ^ a b "Sheikh Ramzy."The Complete Guide to Islamic Prayer(Salāh). 2012
  31. ^ "SW Al-Qahtani."Fortress of the Muslim: Invocations from the Qur'an and Sunnah. Dakwah Corner Bookstore 2009

External links

2010 Darra Adam Khel mosque bombing

The 2010 Darra Adam Khel mosque bombing occurred on 5 November 2010, when at least 66 people, including children, were killed by a suicide bomb attack in a mosque in the town of Darra Adam Khel, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. 80 others were wounded as worshippers offered Jumu'ah, the congregational Friday prayers. The mosque, which belonged to the predominate Sunni denomination, was frequented by tribal elders; according to sources, the bomber may have been targeting a local politician who was known for speaking out against the Taliban. The attack was the deadliest after the September 2010 Quetta bombing in Balochistan, which targeted a procession of Shi'a Muslims.

Just a few hours after the attack, three grenades were thrown at another mosque in Peshawar; the blasts killed 5 and wounded 24.

Al-Ghashiyah

Sūrat al-Ghāshiyah (Arabic: الغاشية‎, “The Overwhelming”, “The Pall”) is the 88th chapter (surah) of the Qur'an with 26 verses (ayat).

The sura's topics are Paradise, Hell and the miracle of creation of all things by God (allāh).

This Surah describes the faces of the believers on the day of judgement. According to hadith, Muhammed used to recite these words on the day of Jumu'ah after surah Al-Jumua (Sura 62).

Al-Hadid

Surah al-Ḥadīd (English: Iron; Arabic: سورة الحديد‎) is the 57th chapter of the Quran with 29 verses. The chapter takes its name from that word which appears in the 25th verse. This is an Al-Musabbihat surah because it begins with the glorification of Allah.

In his tafsir (exegesis) , Ma’ariful-Qur’an, Muhammad Shafi Deobandi wrote: “It is recorded in Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi and Nasa’i that Sayyidna ‘Irbad Ibn Sariyah (may Allah be pleased with him) said that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) used to recite Al-Musabbihat before he went to sleep and said: ‘In them there is a verse that is more meritorious than a thousand verses’.

“The collective name of the series Al-Musabbihat refers to the following five Surahs: (1) Al-Hadid; (2) Al-Hashr; (3) As-Saff; (4) Al-Jumu’ah; and (5) At-Taghabun.

“Having cited this Hadith, Ibn Kathir says that the best verse referred to in Surah Al-Hadid is verse (3). (He is the First and the Last, and the Manifest and the Hidden, and He is All-knowing about everything . . . 57:3).

“Among the five Surahs, the first three namely Al-Hadid, Al-Hashr and As-Saff commence with the past perfect tense ‘sabbaha’ (purity has been proclaimed) whilst the last two, namely Al-Jumu’ah and At-Taghabun commence with the imperfect tense ‘yusabbihu’ (purity is proclaimed). This implies that the purity of Allah should be declared at all times, the past, the present and the future.[Mazhari]”

Al-Jumua

Sūrat al-Jumu`ah (Arabic: سورة الجمعة‎, "Friday") is the 62nd chapter (sura) of the Quran with 11 verses. The chapter is named al-jumu`ah ("Friday") because it is the day of assembly, when the community abandons trade, transactions and other diversions in favor of assembling to seek the all-encompassing truth and most beneficent and seek the "bounty of God" exclusively (Verse 9). This sura is an Al-Musabbihat sura because it begins with the glorification of Allah.

Al Jum'ah Mosque

Al Jum'ah Mosque (Arabic: مسجد الجمعة‎), also known as Bani Salim Mosque, Al-Wadi Mosque, Al-Ghubaib Mosque, or 'Atikah Mosque, is a mosque in Medina, Saudi Arabia. It is said by the locals to be where the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his companions did a Jumu'ah prayer for the first time during their route of hijrah (migration) from Mecca to Medina.

Ghusl

Ghusl (Arabic: غسل‎ Ġusl , IPA: [ˈɣʊsl]) is an Arabic term referring to the full-body ritual purification mandatory before the performance of various rituals and prayers, for any adult Muslim after having sexual intercourse, ejaculation or completion of the menstrual cycle, although wudu or just sleep, without either, are the lesser stages of purity that is acceptable.The washing is also recommended but not required (i.e. it is mustahabb) before Jumu'ah and Eid prayers, before entering the ihram in preparation for Hajj, after having lost consciousness and after formally converting. Shia Muslims also perform the ablution before Namaz-e-tawbah (Prayer of Repentance).

Ghusl is often translated as "full ablution", as opposed to the "partial ablution" of wudu وضوء that Muslims perform after lesser impurities such as urination, defecation, breaking wind, deep sleep, and light bleeding.

It is a ritual bath.

Haḍra

Haḍra (Arabic: حضرة‎) is a collective supererogatory ritual performed by Sufi orders. It is often held on Thursday evenings after the night prayer, on Fridays after jumu'ah prayer or on Sunday evenings, and can also celebrated on special Islamic festivals and at rites of passage. It may be held at home, in a mosque. The term in Arabic literally means "presence".

The hadra features various forms of dhikr (remembrance), including sermons, collective study, recitation of Qur'an and other texts (especially devotional texts particular to the Sufi order (tariqa) in question, called hizb and wird), religious poetic chanting, centering on praise and supplication to God, religious exhortations, praise of the Prophet and requests for intercession (inshad dini or madih - the latter term referring literally to "praise") and rhythmic invocations of God using one or more divine names, especially Allah, Hayy, Qayyum or simply Hu ("He"), as well as the testimony of faith and tawhid, la ilaha illa Allah (there is no god but Allah).

Rhythmic recitation of names and chanting of religious poetry are frequently performed together. In conservative Sufi orders no instruments are used, or the daf (frame drum) only; other orders employ a range of instrumentation. The collective Sufi ritual is practiced under this name primarily in the Arab world but also in some non-Arab Muslim countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia. In Turkish Sufism the Hadra is often referred to as the Devran and is a feature of the Khalwati, Shadhili, Qadiri and Rifa'i orders throughout Turkey and the Balkans.

More information concerning this is widely detailed in Abdelkebir Al Kattani's book (Nujum al Muhtadin - نجوم المهتدين في دلائل الاجتماع للذكر على طريقة المشايخ المتأخرين برفع الأرجل من الأرض والاهتزاز شوقا لرب العالمين)

Jama masjid

A jama masjid (Persian: جَامع مَسجد‎), also known as a congregational mosque or Friday mosque, is a type of mosque which is the main mosque of a certain area that hosts the special Friday noon prayers known as jumu'ah. They also host the Eid prayers in situations when there is no musalla or eidgah available or nearby to host the prayers.

Jumu'atul-Wida

Jumu'atul-Widaa' (Arabic: جمعة الوداع‎ meaning Friday of farewell, also called al-Jumu'ah al-Yateemah Arabic: الجمعة اليتيمة‎ or the orphaned Friday Urdu: الوداع جمعہ‬ Al-Widaa Juma) is the last Friday in the month of Ramadan before Eid-ul-Fitr.

Mir Asadollah Madani

Mir Asadollah Madani Dehkharghani (Persian: میر اسدالله مدنی دهخوارقانی‎, was born 1914 in Azarshahr, East Azerbaijan — died 1981 in Tabriz, East Azerbaijan) was an Iranian politician, Shia cleric, second imam Jumu'ah for Tabriz and Representative of the Supreme Leader in East Azerbaijan less than one year in the period activity Muslim People's Republic Party in Tabriz. Also Madani was the member of the first term Assembly of Experts from the Hamadan Province electorate. He was Assassinated by People's Mujahedin of Iran, when praying in Tabriz in Mihrab (praying place) after Mohammad-Ali Ghazi-Tabatabaei, so he had known as "the second martyr of Mihrab".

Moslem Malakouti

Grand Ayatollah Moslem Malakouti (Persian: مسلم ملکوتی‎, was born 1923 in Sarab, East Azerbaijan — died 2014 in Tehran) was an Iranian Shiite cleric, Marja and third imam Jumu'ah for Tabriz. His son Ali Malakouti is member of the Assembly of Experts.

Mudhaffar Mosque

The Mudhaffar Mosque (Arabic: جامع ومدرسة المظفر‎) is located in the center of the old part of the city of Taiz, Yemen. Built in the thirteenth century, the mosque is part of the oldest functioning public bath (hammam) in Yemen. It is one of the two beautiful mosques in Yemen. It is one of the largest mosques of the old city and many of the residents attend the Friday prayers (Jumu'ah) there. The Mosque was also known as the Madrassa (Islamic school) that educated many Islamic scholars.

Nasi minyak

Nasi minyak (Palembang Malay for "oily rice") is a Sumatran dish of cooked rice with minyak samin (ghee) and spices. This rice dish is commonly associated with Palembang city, the capital of South Sumatra province. However, it is also common in neighboring Jambi as far north to Medan in North Sumatra. In a glimpse, nasi minyak looks and tastes slightly like nasi kebuli, this is because both rice dishes are influenced by Indian and Middle Eastern cuisines, as evidence in the use of ghee and certain spices. Bumbu spice mixture being used including cardamom, anise, clove, caraway, cinnamon, onion, garlic and curry powder.In Palembang, nasi minyak is a celebrative traditional dish usually served for special events and celebrations. Certain mosque in Palembang served free nasi minyak after Jumu'ah Friday mass prayer, every last friday of the month.

Sabbath (disambiguation)

Sabbath is a regular (usually weekly) time of rest, worship or special activity, observed by several religions and traditions.

Sabbath may also refer to:

Biblical Sabbath

Shabbat, the Sabbath in Judaism

Sabbath in Christianity

Jumu'ah, sometimes referred to as the Muslim Sabbath

Salah

Salah ("prayer", ‏صلاة‎; pl. ‏صلوات‎ ṣalawāt; also salat), Sembahyang (Javanese: ꦱꦼꦩ꧀ꦧꦲꦾꦁ}), or Namāz (Persian: نَماز‎) in some languages, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim . It is a physical, mental, and spiritual act of worship that is observed five times every day at prescribed times. When they do this, they must face Mecca. In this ritual, the worshiper starts standing, bows, prostrates themself, and concludes while sitting on the ground. During each posture, the worshiper recites or reads certain verses, phrases and prayers. The word salah is commonly translated as "prayer" or "communication to Allah". Muslims use the words "dua" or "supplication" when referring to the common definition of prayers which is "reverent petitions made to God".

Salah is preceded by ritual ablution. Salah consists of the repetition of a unit called a rakʿah (pl. rakaʿāt) consisting of prescribed actions and words. The number of obligatory (fard) rakaʿāt varies from two to four according to the time of day or other circumstances (such as Friday congregational worship, which has two rakats). Prayer is obligatory for all Muslims except those who are prepubescent, are menstruating, or are experiencing bleeding in the 40 days after childbirth. Every movement in the salah is accompanied by the takbir except the standing between the ruku and sujud, and the ending which has a derivation of the Muslim greeting As-salamu alaykum.

Seyed Esmaeil Mousavi Zanjani

Ayatollah Seyed Esmaeil Mousavi Zanjani (Persian: سیداسماعیل موسوی زنجانی‎, was born 1928 — died 2002) is an Iranian Shiite cleric and politician. He is a member of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Assembly of Experts from the Zanjan Province electorate. He was imam Jumu'ah for Zanjan and Representative of the Supreme Leader in Zanjan Province in the period after Iranian Revolution until his death.

Seyed Mehdi Ghoreishi

Hujjat al-Islam Seyed Mehdi Ghoreishi (Persian: سید مهدی قریشی‎, is an Iranian Shiite cleric, Representative of the Supreme Leader in West Azerbaijan and Imam Jumu'ah prayer of Urmia. he is son of the Ali Akbar Ghoreishi member of Assembly of Experts. Seyid Mehdi Ghoreishi is second representative of the Supreme Leader and imam Jumu'ah prayer after Iranian Revolution.

Women's Mosque of America

The Women's Mosque of America is a women's mosque based in Los Angeles, California. Opened in 2015, it is located in a multifaith cultural center in the Pico-Union district. It is the first female-only mosque in the United States.The Women's Mosque opened its doors on January 30, 2015. At the inaugural Jumu'ah, the khutbah was delivered by Edina Lekovic. The mosque holds a women-only Jumu'ah once a month and hosts co-ed educational programs. Women are not required to wear hijabs at the mosque.The mosque's co-presidents are attorney Sana Muttalib and filmmaker M. Hasna Maznavi. The board of directors has six members and includes Lekovic, filmmaker Nia Malika Dixon, Zaiba Omar, Mahin Ibrahim, and Logan Siler.

Zuhr prayer

The Zuhr prayer (Arabic: صلاة الظهر‎, ṣalāt aẓ-ẓuhr IPA: [sˤalaːt aðˤðˤuhr], "noon prayer"; also transliterated Duhr, Dhuhr or Duhur) is the prayer after midday (but before the time for the Asr prayer.) It has been said that the name Dhuhr was given to this prayer because it falls halfway between two daily prayers, those being Fajr (or Fajer) which denotes the beginning of dawn and Isha, the first instant of complete darkness. Performed daily by practicing Muslims, it is the second of the five daily prayers (salat, known to be one of the most important pillars.) The Islamic day begins at Fajr which is the first prayer. The five daily prayers collectively are one of the Five Pillars of Islam in Sunni Islam, and one of the ten Practices of the Religion (فروع الدين furūʿ ad-dīn) according to Shia Islam. The Holy Qur'an has reiterated its importance, "Attend constantly to prayers and to the middle prayer and stand up truly obedient to Allah". It is reduced to two rakaʿāt when traveling.

In both of the sects, four rakaʿāt are mandatory (Fard) and are prayed silently. However, in Sunni Islam, four rakaʿāt prior to the Fard raka'ah and two rakaʿāt following the Fard raka'ah are recommended; these are nawafil which are nonobligatory.On Friday the Zuhr prayer is replaced by Jumu'ah, it is obligatory for Muslim men who are above the age of puberty to pray in congregation either in the mosque of the city they live in or with a group of Muslims. Women, however, are recommended but not obligated to pray in a congregation on Friday prayer. The Zuhr prayer, on Friday, is led by a sermon given by the leader of the mosque with a purpose to educate, bond, guide, and improve the quality of the community as well as propagate Islam.

It is known as ‘the middle prayer’ (ṣalāt al-wusṭā)

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