July 31

July 31 is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 153 days remaining until the end of the year.

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References

  1. ^ Glantz, David M. (2010). Barbarossa Derailed: The Battle for Smolensk 10 July – 10 September 1941. Solihull, England: Helion & Company. p. 576. ISBN 1-906033-72-2.
  2. ^ "Obituary: Donald George Malarkey". The Daily Astorian. October 3, 2017. Retrieved 2017-10-07.
  3. ^ "Emilia Fox: A long line of theatrical Emila used to be a childminder in her spare time before taking up acting ancestors..." The Genealogist. 20 September 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
  4. ^ "All About Mohammad Rafi!". Culturalindia.net. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  5. ^ "Sumo wrestlers pay tribute to Chiyonofuji". Japan Times. 1 August 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016.
  6. ^ "Sumo icon Chiyonofuji dies at 61". 31 July 2016 – via Japan Times Online.
  7. ^ "Professor Emeritus Seymour Papert, pioneer of constructionist learning, dies at 88". MIT News. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. August 1, 2016. Retrieved 2016-08-03.
  8. ^ "Bristol sailor and entrepreneur Tony Bullimore dies aged 79". BBC News. 2018-07-31.

External links

Bill Rieflin

William Frederick "Bill" Rieflin (born September 29, 1960) is an American musician.

Rieflin came to prominence in the 1990s for his work mainly as a drummer with many notable groups (particularly in the industrial rock and industrial metal scenes) including Ministry, the Revolting Cocks, Lard, KMFDM, Pigface, Swans, Chris Connelly, and Nine Inch Nails. He worked regularly with R.E.M. following the retirement of Bill Berry in 1997. He is currently a member of King Crimson.

Bumblebee (film)

Bumblebee is a 2018 American science fiction action film centered on the Transformers character of the same name. It the sixth live-action film based on the franchise and is a reboot of the prior film series. Directed by Travis Knight and written by Christina Hodson, the film stars Hailee Steinfeld, John Cena, Jorge Lendeborg Jr., John Ortiz, Jason Drucker, and Pamela Adlon, with Dylan O'Brien, Angela Bassett, Justin Theroux, and Peter Cullen in voice roles. It is the first live-action Transformers film not to be directed by Michael Bay, though he still produced, and Travis Knight's first live-action film. Principal photography on the film began on July 31, 2017, in Los Angeles and San Francisco, California.

Bumblebee premiered in Berlin on December 3, 2018, was theatrically released in the United States on December 21, 2018, and has grossed over $459 million worldwide. The film received positive reviews from critics, who praised the action and Steinfeld's performance, as well as the 1980s setting and sense of nostalgia, with many calling it the best installment of the Transformers franchise.

Carly Rae Jepsen

Carly Rae Jepsen (born November 21, 1985) is a Canadian singer, songwriter, and actress.

Born and raised in Mission, British Columbia, Jepsen performed several lead roles in her high school's musical productions and pursued musical theatre at the Canadian College of Performing Arts. After completing her studies, she relocated to Vancouver and later competed on the fifth season of Canadian Idol in 2007, placing third. In 2008, Jepsen released her folk-influenced debut studio album Tug of War in Canada.

Jepsen's breakthrough came in 2012, when her single "Call Me Maybe" was boosted to significant mainstream popularity; the song became the best-selling single of that year, reaching number one in eighteen countries worldwide. As a result, she was signed to a joint worldwide record deal with Schoolboy Records and Interscope Records. Jepsen's second studio album Kiss was released later that year. The record marked a greater shift into mainstream pop music and saw fair commercial success, reaching the top ten in Canada and the United States. In 2013, Jepsen made her Broadway stage debut as the titular character in Cinderella. In 2015, Jepsen released her third studio album Emotion. It is noted for its influence from 1980s music as well as blending dance-pop and synth-pop with indie sensibilities. While less commercially successful than Kiss, it saw the success of its lead single "I Really Like You" and received critical acclaim. In 2016, Jepsen performed in the television special Grease: Live, and lent her voice to the animated film Ballerina.

Jepsen has received multiple accolades, including three Juno Awards, a Billboard Music Award, and an Allan Slaight Award, in addition to various nominations for Grammy Awards, Primetime Emmy Awards, MTV Video Music Awards, Polaris Music Prize and People's Choice Awards. As of May 2015, Jepsen has sold over 20 million records worldwide.

Eric Dane

Eric Dane (born Eric T. Melvin, November 9, 1972) is an American actor. After appearing in television roles throughout the 2000s with his recurring role as Jason Dean in Charmed being the most well known, he became best known for playing Dr. Mark Sloan on the medical drama television series Grey's Anatomy, as well as films, co-starring in Marley & Me (2008), Valentine's Day (2010), and Burlesque (2010). He starred as Captain Tom Chandler in the apocalyptic drama The Last Ship.

Gucci Mane

Radric Delantic Davis (born February 12, 1980), known professionally as Gucci Mane, is an American rapper. He helped pioneer the hip hop subgenre of trap music alongside fellow Atlanta-based rappers T.I. and Young Jeezy. In 2005, Gucci Mane debuted with Trap House, followed by his second and third albums, Hard to Kill and Trap-A-Thon in 2006. His fourth album, Back to the Trap House, was released in 2007.

Following a string of critically and commercially successful mixtape releases in 2009, Gucci Mane released his sixth studio album, The State vs. Radric Davis, his first gold-certified album. Following time spent in prison between 2014 and 2016, he re-emerged with several new retail projects, including Everybody Looking (2016), which was released to critical praise. His 2016 collaboration with Rae Sremmurd, titled "Black Beatles", provided Gucci Mane with his first number-one single on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart. His latest album, Evil Genius, was released on December 7, 2018.Gucci Mane has released 12 studio albums and over 70 mixtapes, many of which feature production from his longtime collaborator Zaytoven. In 2007, he founded his own label, 1017 Records. He has worked with artists such as Drake, Lil Wayne, Chris Brown, Shawty Lo, Selena Gomez, Mariah Carey and Marilyn Manson. His prolific mixtape releases and long-standing presence as a trap music innovator in the Atlanta music scene has established him as a major influence on younger Atlanta artists like Young Thug, Migos, Rich Homie Quan, 21 Savage and Lil Yachty, and he has been called an "avatar of East Atlanta," and "the most influential underground rapper of the past decade"

Hamidou Diallo

Not to be confused with Amadou Diallo.

Hamidou Diallo (born July 31, 1998) is an American professional basketball player for the Oklahoma City Thunder of the National Basketball Association (NBA). He played college basketball for the Kentucky Wildcats. He was a consensus 5-star prospect, and one of the top rated basketball players in the class of 2017. Diallo is of Guinean descent. His parents, Abdoulaye and Marima, emigrated to New York from Guinea. He won the 2019 Slam Dunk Contest.

Kingdom Hearts

Kingdom Hearts (Japanese: キングダム ハーツ, Hepburn: Kingudamu Hātsu) is a series of action role-playing games developed and published by Square Enix (originally by Square). It is a collaboration between Disney Interactive and Square Enix, and is under the direction of Tetsuya Nomura, a longtime Square Enix character designer.

Kingdom Hearts is a crossover of various Disney properties based in a fictional universe. The series centers on the main character, Sora, and his journey and experiences with various Disney, Final Fantasy, The World Ends with You and Pixar characters. The heroes of the series clash against the multiple incarnations of the primary antagonist, Xehanort, throughout the series. The Walt Disney Company owns almost all characters and worlds of the Kingdom Hearts franchise.

The series consists of thirteen games available for multiple platforms, and future titles are planned. Most of the games in the series have been positively received and commercially successful. As of February 2019, the Kingdom Hearts series has shipped more than 30 million copies worldwide. A wide variety of related merchandise has been released along with the games, including soundtracks, figurines, companion books, light novels, cards, and comic series.

Lindsay Lohan

Lindsay Dee Lohan (; born July 2, 1986) is an American actress, businesswoman, fashion designer, and singer. Born and raised in New York, Lohan was signed to Ford Models as a child. Having appeared as a regular on the television soap opera Another World at age 10, her breakthrough came in the Walt Disney Pictures film The Parent Trap (1998). The film's success led to appearances in a string of televised films for Disney Channel and the movie Freaky Friday (2003).

Lohan's work won her childhood stardom, and the sleeper hit Mean Girls (2004) affirmed her status as a teen idol. After starring in Herbie: Fully Loaded (2005), she quickly became the subject of intense media coverage following a series of personal struggles and legal trouble, as well as stints in rehabilitation facilities, which led to the loss of several roles and significantly impacted her career and public image. Thereafter, she focused on smaller, more mature roles in A Prairie Home Companion (2006), Bobby (2006), and Chapter 27 (2007). In the 2010s, she appeared in films Machete (2010), Liz & Dick (2012) and The Canyons (2013), among others. Following a highly publicized interview with Oprah Winfrey, Lohan was subject of the OWN documentary series Lindsay (2014). Between 2014 and 2015, she made her stage debut in the London West End production of Speed-the-Plow, in 2018, had a recurring role on the British series Sick Note, and in 2019, began appearing in the MTV reality series Lindsay Lohan's Beach Club.

Lohan came to prominence in music after signing with Casablanca Records and releasing two studio albums, Speak (2004) and A Little More Personal (Raw) (2005), which were certified platinum and gold respectively in the United States and saw the commercial success of the singles "Rumors" and "Over". She has also contributed vocals to the soundtracks of her acting projects. Lohan dabbled in fashion, beginning a line of her own titled 6126 and briefly serving as artistic advisor for Emmanuel Ungaro in 2009. In 2016, she opened the Lohan Nightclub in Athens, Greece, and in 2018, two Lohan Beach Houses in the Cyclades islands.

Miley Cyrus

Miley Ray Hemsworth (née Cyrus; born Destiny Hope Cyrus on November 23, 1992) is an American singer, songwriter, and actress. After playing minor roles in the television series Doc and the film Big Fish in her childhood, she became a teen idol starring as the character Miley Stewart on the Disney Channel television series Hannah Montana in 2006. Her father, Billy Ray Cyrus, also starred on the series, which aired for four seasons until 2011.

Cyrus has earned three number-one albums on the US Billboard 200 with Meet Miley Cyrus (2007), Breakout (2008), and Bangerz (2013). Her releases The Time of Our Lives (2009), Can't Be Tamed (2010), and Younger Now (2017) debuted in the top-five in the United States, while her album Miley Cyrus & Her Dead Petz (2015) was released for free online streaming on SoundCloud. Further, Cyrus has attained an additional two number-one and three top-ten soundtracks credited as Hannah Montana. She has also earned nine top-ten entries on the US Billboard Hot 100: "See You Again", "7 Things", "The Climb", "He Could Be the One" (as Hannah Montana), "Party in the U.S.A.", "Can't Be Tamed", "We Can't Stop", "Malibu" and the chart-topping "Wrecking Ball".

Cyrus launched her film career as a voice actress in the animated film Bolt (2008), and later starred in the feature films Hannah Montana: The Movie (2009) and the coming-of-age film The Last Song (2010). On television, she was the host of the 2015 MTV Video Music Awards and has hosted Saturday Night Live three times since her first appearance in 2011. Cyrus has also been featured as a coach on the singing competition television series The Voice; she has appeared in two seasons of the show since her debut in 2016.

Cyrus has earned numerous awards and nominations, was recognized as "Artist of the Year" by MTV in 2013, and was included on the annual Time 100 list of the most influential people in 2008 and 2014, respectively. Her image has been the subject of significant media commentary and public controversy, including the transition from her wholesome image to a highly-sexual persona in the early 2010s. Cyrus is an outspoken animal rights advocate, and adopted a vegan lifestyle in 2014. That year, she founded the non-profit Happy Hippie Foundation that focuses on youth homelessness and the LGBT community.

Missouri

Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union. The largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City, Springfield, and Columbia; the capital is Jefferson City. The state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber, minerals, and recreation. The Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border.

Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years. The Mississippian culture built cities and mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations. The French established Louisiana, a part of New France, and founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory. Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland.

Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch. The Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, and California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into 114 counties and the independent city of St. Louis.

Missouri's culture blends elements from the Midwestern and Southern United States. The musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, and St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri. The well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, and lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. St. Louis is also a major center of beer brewing; Anheuser-Busch is the largest producer in the world. Missouri wine is produced in the nearby Missouri Rhineland and Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, and Branson.

Well-known Missourians include U.S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, and Nelly. Some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Monsanto, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, and O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; however, Missouri's most famous nickname is the "Show Me State."

Paul Allen

Paul Gardner Allen (January 21, 1953 – October 15, 2018) was an American business magnate, investor, software engineer, humanitarian, and philanthropist. Alongside Bill Gates, Allen co-founded Microsoft in 1975, which helped spark the microcomputer revolution and later became the world's largest PC software company. In March 2018, he was estimated to be the 44th-wealthiest person in the world, with an estimated net worth of $21.7 billion, revised at the time of his death to $20.3 billion.Allen was the founder, with his sister Jody Allen, and Chairman of Vulcan Inc., the privately held company that managed his various business and philanthropic efforts. He had a multibillion-dollar investment portfolio including technology and media companies, scientific research, real estate holdings, private spaceflight ventures, and stakes in other sectors. He owned two professional sports teams: the Seattle Seahawks of the National Football League and the Portland Trail Blazers of the National Basketball Association, and was part-owner of the Seattle Sounders FC, which joined Major League Soccer in 2009.Allen was the founder of the Allen Institute for Brain Science, Institute for Artificial Intelligence, Institute for Cell Science, Stratolaunch Systems, and Apex Learning. He gave more than $2 billion to causes such as education, wildlife and environmental conservation, the arts, healthcare, community services, and more. He received numerous awards and honors in several different professions, and was listed among the Time 100 Most Influential People in the World in both 2007 and 2008.

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania ( (listen) PEN-sil-VAY-nee-ə), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle. The Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey to the east.

Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, and the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U.S. Census count in 2010. It is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia (1,580,863), and Pittsburgh (302,407). The state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles (225 km) of waterfront along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary.The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States; it came into being in 1681 as a result of a royal land grant to William Penn, the son of the state's namesake. Part of Pennsylvania (along the Delaware River), together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden. It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78.

Roddy Piper

Roderick George Toombs (April 17, 1954 – July 31, 2015), better known by his ring name "Rowdy" Roddy Piper, was a Canadian professional wrestler and actor.

In professional wrestling, Piper was best known to international audiences for his work with the World Wrestling Federation (WWF, now WWE) and World Championship Wrestling (WCW) between 1984 and 2000. Although he was Canadian, because of his Scottish heritage he was billed as coming from Glasgow and was known for his signature kilt and bagpipe entrance music. Piper earned the nicknames "Rowdy" and "Hot Rod" by displaying his trademark "Scottish" rage, spontaneity, and quick wit. According to The Telegraph, he is "considered by many to be the greatest "heel" (or villain) wrestler ever".One of pro wrestling's most recognizable stars, Piper headlined numerous pay-per-view cards, including the WWF and WCW's respective premier annual events, WrestleMania and Starrcade. He accumulated 34 championships, and hosted the popular WWF/E interview segment "Piper's Pit", which facilitated numerous feuds. Piper's biggest rival was Hulk Hogan: their mid-1980s feud – also involving "Captain" Lou Albano and singer Cyndi Lauper – is considered the beginning of "Rock 'n' Wrestling". In 2005, Piper was inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame by Ric Flair, who dubbed him "the most gifted entertainer in the history of professional wrestling".Outside of wrestling, Piper acted in dozens of films and TV shows, including the lead role of John Nada in the 1988 cult classic They Live and a recurring role as deranged professional wrestler, Da' Maniac, on the FX comedy series It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia.

Solar eclipse of July 31, 1962

An annular solar eclipse occurred on Tuesday, July 31, 1962. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. An annular solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is smaller than the Sun's, blocking most of the Sun's light and causing the Sun to look like an annulus (ring). An annular eclipse appears as a partial eclipse over a region of the Earth thousands of kilometres wide.

Places inside the annular eclipse included Venezuela, northern Roraima in Brazil, Guyana, Dutch Guiana (today's Suriname) including the capital city Paramaribo, Senegal, Gambia Colony and Protectorate (today's Gambia) including the southern part of the capital city Banjul, Mali including the capital city Bamako, Upper Volta (today's Burkina Faso), Ghana, Togo, Dahomey (today's Benin), Nigeria, Cameroon including the capital city Yaoundé, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Léopoldville (today's DR Congo), Tanganyika (now belonging to Tanzania), northeastern tip of Portuguese Mozambique (today's Mozambique), French Comoros (today's Comoros), Mayotte, and the Malagasy Republic (today's Madagascar). The greatest eclipse was in the area of Kouoro, Mali at 12 N, 5.7 W at 12:25 (UTC) and lasted for 3 minutes.

Solar eclipse of July 31, 1981

A total solar eclipse occurred on July 31, 1981. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is larger than the Sun's, blocking all direct sunlight, turning day into darkness. Totality occurs in a narrow path across Earth's surface, with the partial solar eclipse visible over a surrounding region thousands of kilometres wide. The continental path of totality fell entirely within the Soviet Union, belonging to Georgia, Kazakhstan and Russia today. The southern part of Mount Elbrus, the highest mountain in Europe, also lies in the path of totality.

Solar eclipse of July 31, 2000

A partial solar eclipse occurred on July 31, 2000. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A partial solar eclipse occurs in the polar regions of the Earth when the center of the Moon's shadow misses the Earth.

It was visible from northern Russia, northeastern Scandinavia, northern Greenland, western Canada, northwestern United States.

University of Central Arkansas

The University of Central Arkansas (often referred to as Central Arkansas or UCA) is a public research university in Conway, Arkansas. Founded in 1907 as the Arkansas State Normal School, the university is one of the oldest in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As the state's only normal school at the time, UCA has historically been the primary source of teachers in Arkansas. Today with a more academically diverse mission, UCA is noted for its nationally recognized programs in nursing, education, physical therapy, business, performing arts, and psychology.

UCA is home to the Norbert O. Schedler Honors College, which is known for being one of the first honors colleges in the United States. The honors program derives its pedagogical underpinnings from the traditional small liberal arts college. It prides itself on small class sizes, intimate teacher/student relationships, and intense study of a variety of interdisciplinary subjects.The university comprises six colleges: the College of Fine Arts and Communication, the College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, the College of Business, the College of Health and Behavioral Sciences, the College of Liberal Arts, and the College of Education. In addition to this UCA is home to five residential colleges and one commuter college, those being the HPaW Residential College, EDGE Residential College, The Stars Residential College, STEM Residential College, EPIC Residential College, and the Minton Commuter College.UCA has about 12,000 graduate and undergraduate students, making it one of the largest universities in the state. The university maintains a student-to-faculty ratio of approximately 17 to 1. Over 150 undergraduate, graduate, and professional programs are offered at the university. UCA occupies over 120 buildings within its 356 acres (1.44 km2).

Vermont

Vermont ( (listen)) is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders the U.S. states of Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. Vermont is the second-smallest by population and the sixth-smallest by area of the 50 U.S. states. The state capital is Montpelier, the least populous state capital in the United States. The most populous city, Burlington, is the least populous city to be the most populous city in a state. As of 2015, Vermont was the leading producer of maple syrup in the United States. It was ranked as the safest state in the country in 2016.For thousands of years indigenous peoples, including the Mohawk and the Algonquian-speaking Abenaki, occupied much of the territory that is now Vermont and was later claimed by France's colony of New France. France ceded the territory to Great Britain after being defeated in 1763 in the Seven Years' War. Thereafter, the nearby colonies, especially the provinces of New Hampshire and New York, disputed the extent of the area called the New Hampshire Grants to the west of the Connecticut River, encompassing present-day Vermont. The provincial government of New York sold land grants to settlers in the region, which conflicted with earlier grants from the government of New Hampshire. The Green Mountain Boys militia protected the interests of the established New Hampshire land grant settlers against the newly arrived settlers with land titles granted by New York.

Ultimately, a group of settlers with New Hampshire land grant titles established the Vermont Republic in 1777 as an independent state during the American Revolutionary War. The Vermont Republic partially abolished slavery before any of the other states. Vermont then became the fourteenth state to be admitted to the newly established United States in 1791. Vermont is one of only four U.S. states that were previously sovereign states (along with California, Hawaii, Texas, and many Native American nations), given that the original 13 states were former colonies. During the mid 19th century, Vermont was a strong source of abolitionist sentiment and sent a significant contingent of soldiers to participate in the American Civil War. Protestants (30%) and Catholics (22%) make up the majority of those reporting a religious preference with 37% reporting no religion. Other religions individually contribute no more than 2% to the total.

The geography of the state is marked by the Green Mountains, which run north–south up the middle of the state, separating Lake Champlain and other valley terrain on the west from the Connecticut River valley that defines much of its eastern border. A majority of its terrain is forested with hardwoods and conifers. A majority of its open land is in agriculture. The state's climate is characterized by warm, humid summers and cold, snowy winters.

Vermont's economic activity of $26 billion in 2010 caused it to rank 34th in gross state product. It has been ranked 42nd as a state in which to do business. In 1960, Vermonters' politics started to shift from being reliably Republican towards favoring more liberal and progressive candidates. Starting in 1963, voters have alternated between choosing Republican and Democratic governors; they have sent only Democrats (or independents) to Congress since 2007. Voters have consistently chosen Democrats for president since 1992. In 2000, the state legislature was the first to recognize civil unions for same-sex couples.

West Virginia

West Virginia ( (listen)) is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States and is also considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, and Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, and is ranked 38th in population. The capital and largest city is Charleston.

West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, and was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, and was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War (the other being Nevada). While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, and the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution.

The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States. However the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles (110 km) from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia. The unique position of West Virginia means that it is often included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, and the Southeastern United States. It is the only state that is entirely within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission; the area is commonly defined as "Appalachia".The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its historically significant logging and coal mining industries, and its political and labor history. It is also known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, fishing, hiking, backpacking, mountain biking, rock climbing, and hunting.

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